What is a non banking finance company or NBFC?

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What is a non banking finance company or NBFC?
Non Banking Finance Companies are essentially companies and unlike banks cannot accept demand deposits and do not form part of the payment and settlement system. They also cannot issue cheques drawn on themselves, like banks do.

According to the Reserve Bank of India, a Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is a company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of shares/stocks/bonds/debentures/securities issued by Government or local authority or other marketable securities of a like nature, leasing, hire-purchase, insurance business, chit business but does not include any institution whose principal business is that of agriculture activity, industrial activity, purchase or sale of any goods (other than securities) or providing any services and sale/purchase/construction of immovable property.

Norms for doing business

A non banking finance company is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India. According to the RBI, "In terms of Section 45-IA of the RBI Act, 1934, no Non-banking Financial company can commence or carry on business of a non-banking financial institution without a) obtaining a certificate of registration from the Bank and without having a Net Owned Funds of Rs. 25 lakhs (Rs two crore since April 1999). However, in terms of the powers given to the Bank. to obviate dual regulation, certain categories of NBFCs which are regulated by other regulators are exempted from the requirement of registration with RBI viz. Venture Capital Fund/Merchant Banking companies/Stock broking companies registered with SEBI, Insurance Company holding a valid Certificate of Registration issued by IRDA, Nidhi companies as notified under Section 620A of the Companies Act, 1956, Chit companies as defined in clause (b) of Section 2 of the Chit Funds Act, 1982, Housing Finance Companies regulated by National Housing Bank , Stock Exchange or a mutual benefit company."

Read the difference between bank and NBFCs.

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