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Accounting Policies of ACC Ltd. Company

Dec 31, 2015

1. COMPANY OVERVIEW

ACC Limited (the Company) is a public limited company incorporated in India under the provision of Companies Act, 1913. Its shares are listed on two stock exchanges in India. The Company is engaged in the manufacturing and selling of Cement and Ready mix concrete. The Company caters mainly to the domestic market.

(i) Basis of preparation

a) The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The Company has prepared these financial statements to com ply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the Act"), read together with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules 2014. The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention.

b) The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of financial statements are consistent with those of previous year.

(ii) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the year. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes different from the estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognized prospectively in the current and future periods.

(iii) Tangible fixed assets

a) Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation/amortization and impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises of the purchase price (net of Convert and VAT credit wherever applicable) and any attributable cost of bringing the assets to its working condition for its intended use. Subsequent expenditures related to an item of tangible asset are added to its gross book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

b) Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with a particular item of Fixed Assets and the use of which is irregular, are capitalized at cost.

c) Fixed assets retired from active use and held for disposal are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realizable value and are disclosed separately under "other current assets".

d) Losses arising from the retirement of, and gains and losses arising from disposal of fixed assets which are carried at cost are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

e) Tangible assets not ready for the intended use on the date of Balance Sheet are disclosed as "Capital work-in-progress". Advances given towards acquisition/construction of fixed assets outstanding at each Balance Sheet date are disclosed as Capital Advances under "Long-term loans and advances".

(iv) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

a) Depreciation on fixed assets, other than Captive Power Plant related assets (CPP assets), is provided using the straight-line method and on CPP assets using the written-down value method based on their respective estimated useful lives. Estimated useful lives of assets are determined based on technical parameters / assessment

The aforesaid estimated useful lives for computing depreciation is different in following case from the useful life specified in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013;

Depreciation is calculated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed off.

b) Machinery spares which are capitalized, are depreciated over the useful life of the related fixed asset. The written down value of such spares is charged in the Statement of Profit and Loss, on issue for consumption.

c) Leasehold land is amortized on a straight-line basis over the period of lease which is 10 to 99 years.

d) Freehold land used for mining is depreciated on the basis of quantity of minerals actually extracted during the year with respect to the estimated total quantity of extractable mineral reserves.

(v) Intangible assets and amortization

Intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated amortization and impairment losses if any. Intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful economic life. Computer Software cost is amortized over a period of three years using straight-line method.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of intangible assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognized.

(vi) Impairment of assets

The carrying amount of assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

After impairment, depreciation / amortization is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life. A previously recognized impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation / amortization if there was no impairment.

(vii) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition and construction of an asset which takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use, are capitalized as a part of the cost of such assets, until such time the asset is substantially ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs incurred in connection with borrowing of funds.

(viii) Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. However, that part of long term investments which are expected to be realized within twelve months from Balance Sheet date is also presented under "Current Investments" under "Current portion of long term investments" in consonance with the current / non-current classification of Schedule III of the Companies Act, 2013.

Long term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments. Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual basis.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between the carrying amount and the net disposal proceeds is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(ix) Inventories

Inventories are valued after providing for obsolescence, as follows:

a) Raw Materials, Stores & Spare parts, Packing Material and Fuels

Lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

b) Work-in-progress, Finished goods and Stock-in-Trade

Lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost of Stock-in-Trade includes cost of purchase and other cost incurred in bringing the inventories to the present location and condition. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(x) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash in hand, cash at bank, demand deposits with banks and other short-term highly liquid investments / deposits with an original maturity of three months or less.

(xi) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of goods

Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer. Sales are disclosed net of sales tax / value added tax (VAT), trade discounts and returns, as applicable. Sales exclude self-consumption of cement. Excise duties deducted from turnover (gross) are the amounts that are included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability that arose during the year.

Income from services

Revenue from services is recognized (net of service tax, as applicable) pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered.

Interest and Dividend Income

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable. Dividend income is recognized when the Company's right to receive dividend is established by the Balance Sheet date.

(xii) Government Grants and Subsidies

a) Government grants and subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them will be complied, and grant/subsidy will be received.

b) Where the Government grants / subsidies relates to revenue, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis in the statement of profit and loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate. Government grants and subsidies receivable against an expense are deducted from such expense.

c) Grants and subsidies receivable against a specific fixed asset is deducted from cost of the relevant fixed asset.

d) Government grants of the nature of promoters' contribution are credited to Capital Reserve and treated as a part of shareholders' funds.

(xiii) Leases

Where the Company is the lessee

Leases where the less or effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the less or

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(xiv) Foreign currency transactions

Foreign currency transactions are initially recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the date of transactions. Foreign currency monetary items are subsequently reported using the closing rate. Non- monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company's monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

(xv) Retirement and other employee benefits

a) Short term employee benefits

Short term employee benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the related service is rendered.

b) Defined contribution plans

The Company's Officer's Superannuation Fund scheme, state governed provident fund scheme, employee state insurance scheme and Labour Welfare Fund scheme are considered as defined contribution plans. The contribution under the schemes is recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, when an employee renders the related service. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective funds.

c) Defined benefit plans

The Company's Gratuity fund scheme, additional gratuity scheme and post employment benefit scheme are considered as defined benefit plans. The Company's liability is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains /losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they arise.

In respect of certain employees, provident fund contributions are made to a trust administered by the Company. Periodic contributions to the Fund are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investment of the trust and interest rate notified by the Government of India.

d) Other long term benefits

Silver jubilee and long service awards and accumulated compensated absences which are expected to be availed or encased beyond 12 months from the end of the year, are treated as other long term employee benefits for measurement purposes. The Company's liability is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains /losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they arise.

e) Accumulated compensated absences, which are expected to be availed or encased within 12 months from the end of the year are treated as short term employee benefits. The company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

f) For the purpose of presentation of Defined benefit plans and other long term benefits, the allocation between short term and long term provisions has been made as determined by an actuary. The Company presents the entire compensated absences as a short term provisions, since employee has an unconditional right to avail the leave at any time during the year.

g) Expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when accrue.

(xvi) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax and includes any adjustments related to past periods in current and / or deferred tax adjustments that may become necessary due to certain developments or reviews during the relevant period. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle the asset and the liability on a net basis.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of current year's timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date. The Company write- down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

(xvii) Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events, if it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(xviii) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(xix) Mines Restoration Expenditure

The Company provides for the estimated expenditure required to restore quarries and mines. The total estimate of restoration expenses is apportioned over the estimate of mineral reserves and a provision is made based on minerals extracted during the year. Mines restoration expenses is incurred on an ongoing basis and until the closure of the quarries and mines. The actual expenses may vary based on the nature of restoration and the estimate of restoration expenditure. The total estimate of restoration expenses is reviewed periodically, on the basis of technical estimates.

(xx) Classification of Current / Non Current Assets and Liabilities

All assets and liabilities are presented as Current or Non-current as per the Company's normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in Schedule III of the Companies Act, 2013. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of Current / Noncurrent classification of assets and liabilities.

(xxi) Segment Reporting

Identification of segments

The Company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.


Dec 31, 2014

(i) Basis of preparation

a) The financial statements of the Company have been prepared and presented in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP) under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis. The Company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 read with General Circular 8/2014 dated April 04, 2014, issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.

b) The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of financial statements are consistent with those of previous year.

(ii) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the year. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes different from the estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

(iii) Tangible Fixed assets

a) Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation / amortisation and impairment losses.

b) Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with a particular item of Fixed Assets and the use of which is irregular, are capitalized at cost.

c) Fixed assets retired from active use and held for disposal are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realisable value and are disclosed separately.

d) Losses arising from the retirement of, and gains and losses arising from disposal of fixed assets which are carried at cost are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

e) Tangible assets not ready for the intended use on the date of Balance Sheet are disclosed as "Capital work-in-progress".

(iv) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

a) Depreciation on fixed assets, other than Captive Power Plant related assets consisting of Buildings, Plant and Equipment (CPP assets), is provided using the straight-line method and on CPP assets using the written-down value method at the rates prescribed in schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or based on the useful lives of the assets as estimated by management, whichever is higher. The depreciation on the following assets is provided at higher rates as compared to schedule XIV rates:

Assets Useful Life

Transit Mixers 8 Years

Concrete Pumps 6 Years

Depreciation is calculated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed off.

b) Machinery spares which are capitalised, are depreciated over the useful life of the related fixed asset. The written down value of such spares is charged in the Statement of Profit and Loss, on issue for consumption.

c) Leasehold land is amortized on a straight-line basis over the period of lease.

d) Freehold land used for mining is depreciated on the basis of quantity of minerals actually extracted during the year with respect to the estimated total quantity of extractable mineral reserves.

(v) Intangible Assets and Amortisation

Intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses if any. Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful economic life. Computer Software cost is amortised over a period of three years using straight-line method.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised.

(vi) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset. Previously recognized impairment loss is further provided or reversed depending on changes in circumstances.

(vii) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition and construction of an asset which takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use, are capitalised as a part of the cost of such assets, until such time the asset is substantially ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period they occur.

Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs incurred in connection with borrowing of funds.

(viii) Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

Long term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments. Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual basis.

(ix) Inventories

Inventories are valued after providing for obsolescence, as follows:

a) Raw Materials, Stores & Spare parts, Packing Material and Fuels

Lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

b) Work-in-progress, Finished goods and Stock-in-Trade

Lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(x) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash in hand, cash at bank, demand deposits with banks and other short-term highly liquid investments / deposits with an original maturity of three months or less.

(xi) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of goods

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer. Sales are disclosed net of sales tax / VAT, trade discounts and returns, as applicable. Excise duties deducted from turnover (gross) are the amounts that are included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability that arose during the year.

Income from services

Revenue from services is recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered.

Interest and Dividend Income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable. Dividend income is recognised when the Company''s right to receive dividend is established by the Balance Sheet date.

(xii) Government Grants and Subsidies

a) Government Grants and subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them will be complied, and grant/subsidy will be received.

b) Government grants and subsidies receivable against an expense are deducted from such expense and subsidy/grant receivable against a specific fixed asset is deducted from cost of the relevant fixed asset.

c) Government grants of the nature of promoters'' contribution are credited to Capital Reserve and treated as a part of shareholders'' funds.

(xiii) Leases

Where the Company is the lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(xiv) Foreign currency transactions

Foreign currency transactions are initially recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the date of transactions. Foreign currency monetary items are subsequently reported using the closing rate. Non- monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

(xv) Employee benefits

a) Short term employee benefits

Short term employee benefits are recognised as an expense on accrual basis.

b) Defined contribution plans

The Company''s Officer''s Superannuation Fund scheme, state governed provident fund scheme, employee state insurance scheme and Labour Welfare Fund scheme are considered as defined contribution plans. The contribution under the schemes is recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, when an employee renders the related service. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective funds.

c) Defined benefit plans

The Company''s Gratuity fund scheme, additional gratuity scheme, provident fund scheme managed by trust and post employment benefit scheme are considered as defined benefit plans. The Company''s liability is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains / losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they arise.

d) Other long term benefits

Silver jubilee and long service awards and accumulated compensated absences which are expected to be availed or encashed beyond 12 months from the end of the year, are treated as other long term employee benefits for measurement purposes. The Company''s liability is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains / losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they arise.

e) Accumulated compensated absences, which are expected to be availed or encashed within 12 months from the end of the year are treated as short term employee benefits. The company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

f) For the purpose of presentation of Defined benefit plans and other long term benefits, the allocation between short term and long term provisions has been made as determined by an actuary. The Company presents the entire compensated absences as a short term provisions, since employee has an unconditional right to avail the leave at any time during the year.

g) Expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when incurred.

(xvi) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax and includes any adjustments related to past periods in current and / or deferred tax adjustments that may become necessary due to certain developments or reviews during the relevant period. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle the asset and the liability on a net basis.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of current year''s timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date. The Company writes- down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

(xvii) Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events, if it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date.

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(xviii) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(xix) Mines Restoration Expenditure

The Company provides for the estimated expenditure required to restore quarries and mines. The total estimate of restoration expenses is apportioned over the estimate of mineral reserves and a provision is made based on minerals extracted during the year.

Mines restoration expenses is incurred on an on going basis and until the closure of the quarries and mines. The actual expenses may vary based on the nature of restoration and the estimate of restoration expenditure.

The total estimate of restoration expenses is reviewed periodically, on the basis of technical estimates.

(xx) Classification of Current / Non Current Assets and Liabilities

All assets and liabilities are presented as Current or Non-current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in Revised Schedule VI of the Companies Act, 1956. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of Current / Non current classification of assets and liabilities.

(xxi) Segment Reporting

Identification of segments

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment Policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.


Dec 31, 2013

(i) Basis of preparation

a) The financial statements of the Company have been prepared and presented in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP) under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis. The Company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 read with General Circular 15/2013 dated 13 September 2013, issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, in respect of Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013.

b) The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of financial statements are consistent with those of previous year.

(ii) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the year. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes different from the estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

(iii) Tangible Fixed assets

a) Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation / amortisation and impairment losses.

b) Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with a particular item of Fixed Assets and the use of which is irregular, are capitalized at cost.

c) Fixed assets retired from active use and held for disposal are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realisable value and are disclosed separately.

d) Losses arising from the retirement of, and gains and losses arising from disposal of fixed assets which are carried at cost are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

e) Tangible assets not ready for the intended use on the date of Balance Sheet are disclosed as "Capital work-in-progress".

(iv) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

a) Depreciation on fixed assets other than Captive Power Plant related assets consisting of Buildings, Plant and Equipment (CPP assets), is provided using the straight-line method and on CPP assets using the written-down value method at the rates prescribed in schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or based on the useful lives of the assets as estimated by management, whichever is higher. The depreciation on the following assets is provided at higher rates as compared to schedule XIV rates:

Depreciation is calculated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed off.

b) Machinery spares which are capitalised, are depreciated over the useful life of the related fixed asset. The written down value of such spares is charged in the Statement of Profit and Loss, on issue for consumption.

c) Leasehold land is amortized on a straight-line basis over the period of lease.

d) Freehold land used for mining is depreciated on the basis of quantity of minerals actually extracted during the year with respect to the estimated total quantity of extractable mineral reserves.

(v) Intangible Assets and Amortisation

Intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses if any. Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful economic life. Computer Software cost is amortised over a period of three years using straight-line method.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised.

(vi) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset. Previously recognized impairment loss is further provided or reversed depending on changes in circumstances.

(vii) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition and construction of an asset which takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use, are capitalised as a part of the cost of such assets, until such time the asset is substantially ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period they occur.

Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs incurred in connection with borrowing of funds.

(viii) Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments. Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value.

(ix) Inventories

Inventories are valued after providing for obsolescence, as follows:

a) Raw Materials, Stores & Spare parts, Packing Material and Fuels

Lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

b) Work-in-progress, Finished goods and Stock-in-Trade

Lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(x) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash in hand, demand deposits with banks and other short-term highly liquid investments / deposits with an original maturity of three months or less.

(xi) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of goods

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer. Sales are disclosed net of sales tax / VAT, trade discounts and returns, as applicable. Excise duties deducted from turnover (gross) are the amounts that are included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability that arose during the year.

Income from services

Revenue from services is recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered.

Interest and Dividend Income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable. Dividend income is recognised when the Company''s right to receive dividend is established by the Balance Sheet date.

(xii) Accounting of Claims

a) Claims receivable are accounted at the time when such income has been earned by the Company depending on the certainty of receipts. Claims payable are accounted at the time of acceptance.

b) Claims raised by Government Authorities regarding taxes and duties, which are disputed by the Company, are accounted based on the merits of each claim.

(xiii) Government Grants and Subsidies

a) Government Grants and subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them will be complied, and grant/subsidy will be received.

b) Government grants and subsidies receivable against an expense are deducted from such expense and subsidy/grant receivable against a specific fixed asset is deducted from cost of the relevant fixed asset.

c) Government grants of the nature of promoters'' contribution are credited to Capital Reserve and treated as a part of shareholders'' funds.

(xiv) Leases

Where the Company is the lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(xv) Research and development

Expenditure on Research phase is recognised as an expense when it is incurred. Expenditure on development phase which results in creation of assets is included in Fixed Assets.

(xvi) Foreign currency transactions

Foreign currency transactions are initially recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the date of transactions. Foreign currency monetary items are subsequently reported using the closing rate. Non- monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

(xvii) Employee benefits

a) Short term employee benefits

Short term employee benefits are recognised as an expense on accrual basis.

b) Defined contribution plans

The Company''s Officer''s Superannuation Fund scheme, state governed provident fund scheme, employee state insurance scheme and Labor Welfare Fund scheme are considered as defined contribution plans. The contribution under the schemes is recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, as they are incurred. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective funds.

c) Defined benefit plans

The Company''s Gratuity fund scheme, additional gratuity scheme, provident fund scheme managed by trust and post employment benefit scheme are considered as defined benefit plans. The Company''s liability is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains / losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they arise.

d) Other long term benefits

Silver jubilee and long service awards and accumulated compensated absences which are expected to be availed or encased beyond 12 months from the end of the year, are treated as other long term employee benefits. The Company''s liability is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains / losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they arise.

e) Accumulated compensated absences, which are expected to be availed or encased within 12 months from the end of the year are treated as short term employee benefits. These are provided based on past experience of leave availed.

f) For the purpose of presentation of Defined benefit plans and other long term benefits, the allocation between short term and long term provisions has been made as determined by an actuary. The Company presents the entire compensated absences as a short term provisions, since employee has an unconditional right to avail the leave at any time during the year.

g) Expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when incurred.

(xviii) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax and includes any adjustments related to past periods in current and / or deferred tax adjustments that may become necessary due to certain developments or reviews during the relevant period. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of current year''s timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date. The Company writes- down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

(xix) Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events, if it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date.

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(xx) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(xxi) Mines Restoration Expenditure

The Company provides for the estimated expenditure required to restore quarries and mines. The total estimate of restoration expenses is apportioned over the estimate of mineral reserves and a provision is made based on minerals extracted during the year.

Mines restoration expenses is incurred on an on going basis and until the closure of the quarries and mines. The actual expenses may vary based on the nature of restoration and the estimate of restoration expenditure.

The total estimate of restoration expenses is reviewed periodically, on the basis of technical estimates.

(xxii) Classification of Current / Non Current Assets and Liabilities

All assets and liabilities are presented as Current or Non-current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in Revised Schedule VI of the Companies Act, 1956. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of Current / Noncurrent classification of assets and liabilities.

(xxiii) Segment Reporting Identification of segments

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment. Segment Policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.


Dec 31, 2012

(i) Basis of preparation

a) The financial statements of the Company have been prepared and presented in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP) under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis. The Company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

b) During the year ended December 31, 2012, the revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act, 1956, has become applicable to the company, for preparation and presentation of its financial statements. The adoption of revised Schedule VI does not impact recognition and measurement principles followed for preparation of financial statements. However, it has significant impact on presentation and disclosures made in the financial statements. The company has also reclassified the previous year figures in accordance with the requirements applicable in the current year.

c) The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of financial statements are consistent with those of previous year, except for the change in accounting policy explained below.

(ii) Change in accounting policy

Effective January 01, 2012, the Company has with retrospective effect changed its method of providing depreciation on fixed assets related to Captive Power Plants from the ''Straight Line'' method to the ''Written Down Value'' method, at the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. Management believes that this change will result in more appropriate presentation and will give a systematic basis of depreciation charge, representative of the time pattern in which the economic benefits will be derived from the use of these assets. Accordingly, the Company has recognized an additional depreciation charge of Rs. 364.08 Crore out of which the amount relating to the period upto December 31, 2011 of Rs. 335.38 Crore has been disclosed as an exceptional item.

Had the Company continued to use the earlier method of depreciation, the profit after tax for the current year would have been higher by Rs. 245.95 Crore.

(iii) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the year. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes different from the estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

(iv) Tangible Fixed assets

a) Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation / amortisation and impairment losses if any.

b) Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with a particular item of Fixed Assets and the use of which is irregular, are capitalized at cost.

c) Fixed assets retired from active use and held for disposal are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realisable value and are disclosed separately.

d) Losses arising from the retirement of, and gains and losses arising from disposal of fixed assets which are carried at cost are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

e) Tangible assets not ready for the intended use on the date of Balance Sheet are disclosed as "Capital work-in-progress".

(v) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

a) Depreciation on fixed assets other than Captive Power Plant related assets consisting of Buildings, Plant and Equipment (CPP assets), is provided using the straight-line method and on CPP assets using the written-down value method at the rates prescribed in schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or based on the useful lives of the assets as estimated by management, whichever is higher. The depreciation on the following assets is provided at higher rates as compared to schedule XIV rates:

Depreciation is calculated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed off.

b) Machinery spares which are capitalised, are depreciated over the useful life of the related fixed asset. The written down value of such spares is charged in the Statement of Profit and Loss, on issue for consumption.

c) Leasehold land is amortized on a straight-line basis over the period of lease.

d) Freehold land used for mining is depreciated on the basis of quantity of minerals actually extracted during the year with respect to the estimated total quantity of extractable mineral reserves.

(vi) Intangible Assets and Amortisation

Intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses if any. Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful economic life as follows:

a) Computer Software cost is amortised over a period of three years using straight-line method.

b) Costs incurred to gain access to mineral reserves are capitalised and amortised over the life of the freehold land used for mining, which is based on the estimated quantity of minerals to be extracted.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised.

(vii) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset. Previously recognized impairment loss is further provided or reversed depending on changes in circumstances.

(viii) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition and construction of an asset which takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use, are capitalised as a part of the cost of such assets, until such time the asset is substantially ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period they occur.

Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs incurred in connection with borrowing of funds.

(ix) Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments. Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value.

(x) Inventories

Inventories are valued after providing for obsolescence, as follows:

a) Raw Materials, Stores & Spare parts, Packing Material and Fuels

Lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

b) Work-in-progress, Finished goods and Stock-in-Trade

Lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(xi) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash in hand, demand deposits with banks and other short-term highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(xii) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of goods

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer. Sales are disclosed net of sales tax / VAT, trade discounts and returns, as applicable. Excise duties deducted from turnover (gross) are the amounts that are included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability that arose during the year.

Income from services

Revenue from services is recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered.

Interest and Dividend Income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable. Dividend income is recognised when the Company''s right to receive dividend is established by the Balance Sheet date.

(xiii) Accounting of Claims

a) Claims receivable are accounted at the time when such income has been earned by the Company depending on the certainty of receipts. Claims payable are accounted at the time of acceptance.

b) Claims raised by Government Authorities regarding taxes and duties, which are disputed by the Company, are accounted based on the merits of each claim.

(xiv) Government Grants and Subsidies

a) Government Grants and subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them will be complied, and grant/subsidy will be received.

b) Government grants and subsidies receivable against an expense are deducted from such expense and subsidy/grant receivable against a specific fixed asset is deducted from cost of the relevant fixed asset.

c) Government grants of the nature of promoters'' contribution are credited to Capital Reserve and treated as a part of shareholders'' funds.

(xv) Operating Lease

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

(xvi) Research and development

Expenditure on Research phase is recognised as an expense when it is incurred. Expenditure on development phase which results in creation of assets is included in Fixed Assets.

(xvii) Foreign currency transactions

Foreign currency transactions are initially recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the date of transactions. Foreign currency monetary items are subsequently reported using the closing rate. Non- monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise. The financial statements of an integral foreign operation are translated as if the transactions of the foreign operation have been those of the Company itself.

Derivative Instruments

The premium or the discount on forward exchange contracts not intended for trading or speculation purpose is amortized as expense or income over the life of the contract. Any profit and loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such a forward exchange contract are recognised as income or as expense for the period.

As per the announcement of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, accounting for derivative contracts, other than those covered under AS - 11, are marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss after considering the offsetting effect on the underlying hedge item is charged in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Net gains are ignored.

(xviii) Employee benefits

a) Defined contribution plans

The Company''s Officer''s Superannuation Fund scheme, state governed provident fund scheme, employee state insurance scheme and Labour Welfare Fund scheme are considered as defined contribution plans. The contribution under the schemes is recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, as they are incurred. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective funds.

b) Defined benefit plans

The Company''s Gratuity fund scheme, additional gratuity scheme, provident fund scheme managed by trust and post employment benefit scheme are considered as defined benefit plans. The Company''s liability is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains / losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they arise.

c) Other long term benefits

Silver jubilee and long service awards and accumulated compensated absences which are expected to be availed or encashed beyond 12 months from the end of the year, are treated as other long term employee benefits. The Company''s liability is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains / losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they arise.

d) Accumulated compensated absences, which are expected to be availed or encashed within 12 months from the end of the year are treated as short term employee benefits. These are provided based on past experience of leave availed.

e) For the purpose of presentation of Defined benefit plans and other long term benefits, the allocation between short term and long term provisions has been made as determined by an actuary.

f) Expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when incurred.

(xix) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax and includes any adjustments related to past periods in current and / or deferred tax adjustments that may become necessary due to certain developments or reviews during the relevant period. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of current year''s timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date. The Company writes- down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

(xx) Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date.

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(xxi) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(xxii) Mines Restoration Expenditure

The Company provides for the estimated expenditure required to restore quarries and mines. The initial recognition of the provision for mines restoration cost comprises of the estimated costs for restoration caused by operations necessary before the raw materials can be exploited. Actual payments for restoration are charged directly against the provision. The present obligation is revised annually based on technical estimates by internal or external specialists.

(xxiii)Current / Non-Current

All assets and liabilities are presented as Current or Non-current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in Revised Schedule VI of the Companies Act, 1956. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of Current / Non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

(xxiv) Segment Reporting Identification of segments

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment. Segment Policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.


Dec 31, 2010

(i) Fixed Assets

a) Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation / amortisation and impairment losses if any.

b) Advances paid towards the acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each Balance Sheet date and the cost of fixed assets not ready for their intended use before such date are disclosed under Capital Work-in-Progress.

c) Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with a particular item of Fixed Assets and the use of which is irregular, are capitalized at cost net of Cenvat and are depreciated over the remaining useful life of the related asset. The written down value of such spares is charged to the Profit and Loss Account, on issue for consumption.

d) Fixed assets held for disposal are stated at the lower of net book value and net realisable value.

(ii) Depreciation and Amortisation

a) Depreciation on fixed assets is provided using the straight-line method at the rates prescribed in schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or based on the useful lives of the assets as estimated by Management, whichever is higher. Depreciation is calculated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed off.

b) Cost of leasehold land is amortised over the period of the lease.

c) In respect of quarry freehold land, amortisation reserve is created by amortising the cost over the number of years of the mining rights of the quarries.

d) Capital assets whose ownership does not vest in the Company have been depreciated over the period of five years.

(iii) Impairment

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to the present value at the weighted average cost of capital. Previously recognized impairment loss is further provided or reversed depending on changes in circumstances.

(iv) Intangible Assets

a) Computer Software cost is amortised over a period of three years using straight-line method.

b) Costs incurred to gain access to mineral reserves are capitalised and depreciated over the life of the quarry, which is based on the estimated tonnes of raw materials to be extracted from the reserves.

(v) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other cost that an entity incurs in connection with borrowing of funds.

(vi) Expenditure during construction period

In case of new projects and substantial expansion of existing factories, expenditure incurred including trial production expenses net of revenue earned, prior to commencement of commercial production are capitalised.

(vii) Investments

Current investments are carried at the lower of cost or fair value. Long term investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

(viii) Inventories

Inventories are valued as follows:

a) Raw Materials, Stores & Spare Parts, Packing Material and Fuels

Lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

b) Work-in-progress and Finished goods

Lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Obsolete, defective and unserviceable inventories are duly provided for.

(ix) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of Cash Flow Statement comprise cash at bank, in hand (including cheques in hand) and short term investment with an original maturity of three months or less.

(x) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of Products and Services

a) Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer. Excise duties deducted from turnover (gross) are the amounts that are included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability that arose during the year. Excise duties in respect of finished goods are shown separately as an item of Manufacturing Expenses and included in the valuation of finished goods.

b) Revenue from services is recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered.

Interest and Dividend Income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable. Dividend income is recognised when the shareholders right to receive dividend is established by the Balance Sheet date.

(xi) Accounting of Claims

a) Claims receivable are accounted at the time when such income has been earned by the Company depending on the certainty of receipts. Claims payable are accounted at the time of acceptance.

b) Claims raised by Government Authorities regarding taxes and duties, which are disputed by the Company, are accounted based on the merits of each claim.

(xii) Government Grant and Subsidies

a) Subsidy receivable against an expense is deducted from such expense and subsidy / grant receivable against a specific fixed asset is deducted from cost of the relevant fixed asset.

b) Investment subsidy not specifically related to a fixed asset is credited to Capital Reserve and retained till the requisite conditions are fulfilled.

c) Sales include the amount of Sales Tax / VAT refunds received / due in accordance with incentive schemes.

(xiii) Debenture / Share issue expenses and premium payable on Debentures are adjusted in the year of incurrence against the Securities Premium Account as permitted by Section 78(2) of the Companies Act, 1956.

(xiv) Operating Lease

Where the Company is the lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

(xv) Research and development

Expenditure on research phase is recognised as an expense when it is incurred. Expenditure on development phase which results in creation of assets is included in fixed assets.

(xvi) Foreign currency transactions

Foreign currency transactions are initially recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the date of transactions. Foreign currency monetary items are subsequently reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Companys monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or expenses in the year in which they arise.

The financial statements of an integral foreign operation are translated as if the transactions of the foreign operation have been those of the Company itself.

Derivative Instruments

As per Accounting Standard (AS) 11 – ‘The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates the premium or the discount on forward exchange contracts not relating to firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions and not intended for trading or speculation purpose is amortized as expense or income over the life of the contract.

As per the ICAI Announcement, accounting for derivative contracts, other than those covered under AS – 11, are marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss after considering the offsetting effect on the underlying hedge item is charged to the income statement. Net gains are ignored.

(xvii) Employee benefits

a) Defined Contribution Plan

Contribution to Officers Superannuation Fund, ESIC and Labour Welfare Fund are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account, as they are incurred. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective trusts.

b) Defined Benefit Plan and Other Long Term Benefits

Retirement benefits in the form of gratuity, additional gratuity, provident fund, post retirement medical benefit schemes, medical benefits under voluntary retirement scheme and other long term benefits in the form of leave encashment, silver jubilee and long service awards are determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains / losses are recognized immediately in the Profit and Loss Account.

c) Short term compensated absences are provided based on past experience of leave availed.

d) Payments made under the Voluntary Retirement Scheme are charged to the Profit and Loss Account immediately.

(xviii) Employees Stock Option Scheme

The intrinsic value of option granted under Employees Stock Option Schemes is written off over the vesting period.

(xix) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India.

Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

(xx) Contingencies / Provisions

A provision is recognised when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefit will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. A contingent liability is disclosed, unless the possibility of an outflow of resources embodying the economic benefit is remote.

(xxi) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(xxii) Mines Restoration Expenditure

The Company provides for the estimated expenditure required to restore quarries and mines. The initial recognition of the provision for mines restoration cost comprises of the estimated costs for restoration caused by operations necessary before the raw materials can be exploited. Actual payments for restoration are charged directly against the provision. The present obligation is revised annually based on technical estimates by internal or external specialists.