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Accounting Policies of Apcotex Industries Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

(i) Basis of Accounting:

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention and ongoing concern basis in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in india ('Indian GAAP') to comply with the Accounting Standards specified under section 133 of The Companies Act, 2013, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and the relevant provisions of The Companies Act, 2013 ('the Act') / The Companies Act, 1956, as applicable.

The classification of assets and liabilities of the Company into current or non-current is based on the criterion specified in the Schedule iii to the Companies Act, 2013, The Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

(ii) Use of Estimates:

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in india requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosures of contingent liabilities, Difference between actual results and the estimates are recognized in the period in which the results materialize / are known.

(iii) Fixed Assets and Depreciation / Amortization

a. Fixed Assets

Tangible fixed assets are carried at the cost of acquisition or construction, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment, if any, The cost of fixed assets includes taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities), duties, freight and other directly attributable costs related to the acquisition or construction of the respective assets, Know-how related to plans, designs and drawings of buildings or plant and machinery is capitalized under relevant asset heads, intangible assets are recorded at the consideration paid for acquisition of such assets and are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment, if any, Capital work-in-progress comprises of the cost of fixed assets that are not ready for their intended use at the reporting date, Profit or Loss on disposal of tangible assets is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

b. Depreciation & Amortization

On Tangible Assets:

The Company has provided depreciation on basis of useful lives as prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 consequent to Schedule II becoming applicable w.e.f 01st April 2014,The excess depreciation on tangible assets whose useful life is already exhausted as on 01st April 2014 is transferred to General Reserves (net of deferred taxes.

On Intangible Assets:

intangible assets are amortized on SLM method over the useful life, based on the economic benefits that would be derived, as per the estimates made by the management.

i. Computer Software - Written off over a period of three years

c. Impairment

The carrying amounts of the Company's tangible and intangible assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment, if any such indication exists, the assets' recoverable amounts are estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment Ioss, if any. An impairment loss is recognized whenever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The impairment loss, if any, is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which impairment takes place.

Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, however subject to the increased carrying amount not exceeding the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior accounting periods

(iv) Borrowing Cost

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs, if any, directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

(v) Investments

Non-current investments are valued at cost less provision for diminution in value, if the diminution is other than temporary. Current Investments are stated at lower of cost and fair value.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Profit or loss on sale of investments is determined on average cost basis.

(vi) Inventory

Inventories are valued at lower of Cost and Net Realizable Value.

The cost is determined as follows:

(a) Raw and Packing Materials are valued at cost or market value, whichever is lower, computed on FIFO basis. The cost includes the cost of purchase and other expenses directly attributable to their acquisition but excludes duties and taxes, which are subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities.

(b) The finished goods inventory is valued at cost, or net realizable value whichever is lower. Cost includes material cost, conversion, appropriate factory overheads, any tax or duties and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

(c) Work-in-Process is valued at material cost and cost of conversion appropriate to their location in the manufacturing cycle.

(d) Stores, Spares and consumables are valued at cost, computed on FIFO basis. The cost includes the cost of purchase and other expenses directly attributable to their acquisition but excludes duties and taxes that are subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities, if any.

Slow-moving and damaged, unserviceable stocks are adequately provided wherever considered necessary.

(vii) Excise Duty :

Excise Duty paid on goods manufactured by the Company is accounted for at the time of dispatch of goods from the factories.

Excise Duty payable on goods manufactured is accrued for stocks held in factories at the year-end. Excise Duty paid/ payable on goods manufactured by the Company and remaining in stock, is included in the value of Finished Goods. Excise duty related to the difference between the closing stock and opening stock of Finished Goods is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(viii) Transactions in foreign exchange

(a) Initial recognition:

Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

(b) Measurement of foreign currency items at the Balance Sheet date:

Foreign currency denominated monetary assets & liabilities of the Company are restated at the closing exchange rates. Non-monetary items are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. However exchange differences relating to fixed assets have been included in the carrying amount of fixed assets.

The Exchange Rate Difference and the forward premium on the loan taken for capital assets are being capitalized along with Interest till the date of commissioning of the said capital assets.

In case of other forward exchange contracts, the difference between the transaction rate and the rate on the date of contract is recognized as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognized over the life of the contract. However forward exchange contract relating to fixed assets have been included in the carrying amount of fixed assets.

(ix) Forward Exchange Contracts - Hedging

The company uses forward exchange contracts to hedge it's foreign exchange exposures relating to the underlying transactions and firm commitments. The use of these foreign exchange forward and options contracts reduce the risk or cost to the Company and the Company does not use those for trading or speculation purposes. The premium on forward contracts taken for purchase of fixed assets are capitalized as the cost of the asset and the premium on other contracts is recognized over the life of the contract in the Statement of Profit or Loss.

(x) Employees' Benefits

(a) Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and they are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company recognizes the undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered as a liability (accrued expense) after deducting any amount already paid.

(b) Post-employment benefits:

Defined contribution plans :

Contribution towards plans like Employee State Insurance Scheme, Government administered Provident Fund and Pension Fund Scheme and Superannuation Scheme for eligible employees are made to the regulatory authorities and are classified as Defined Contribution Plans. The Company's contribution to defined contribution plans are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the financial year to which they relate.

Defined benefit plans

The cost of providing benefit i.e. gratuity is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method with actuarial valuation carried out as at the balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The fair value of the planned assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plan, to recognize the obligation on net basis.

Other long-term employee benefits

Entitlements to annual privilege leave are recognized when they accrue to employees. Privilege leave can be availed or encashed subject to a restriction on the maximum number of accumulation of leave. The Company determines the liability for such accumulated leaves using the Projected Accrued Benefit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date.

(xi) Research and Development

(a) Capital expenditure is shown separately under respective heads of fixed assets. These assets are depreciated over their useful life.

(b) Revenue expenses are included under the respective heads of expenses.

(xii) Taxes on Income

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Deferred tax is recognized, subject to the consideration of prudence, on timing differences, being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred Tax assets are not recognized on unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses unless there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets/liabilities are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The tax effect is calculated on the accumulated timing difference at the year-end, based on the tax rates and laws enacted or substantially enacted on the balance sheet date.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period in which such credit can be carried forward for set-off.

(xiii) Cash & Cash Equivalent:

Cash and cash equivalents includes cash in hand, deposits with banks and short term highly liquid investments, which are readily convertible into cash and have original maturities of three months or less.

(xiv) Leases - Assets taken on operating lease

Lease rentals on assets taken on operating lease are recognized as expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on an accrual basis over the lease term of the asset.

(xv) Revenue Recognition:

(a) Domestic sales are recognized at the point of dispatch of goods to customers, which is when risks and rewards of ownership are passed to the customers. Sales are inclusive of excise duty but net of trade discount and VAT /sales tax.

(b) Export sales are recognized based on the bill of lading except sales to Nepal which are recognized when the goods cross the Indian Territory, which is when risks and rewards of ownership are passed to the customers.

(c) Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive the same is established.

(d) Interest and other income are recognized on accrual basis.

(e) Export incentives receivable under Duty Drawback Scheme are accounted on accrual basis.

(f) Insurance claims are recognized post filing of the claim with the insurer.

(xvi) Provisions and Contingencies:

A provision is recognized when the enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present values and are determined based on management estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current management estimates.

Contingent Liabilities are disclosed in respect of possible obligations that arise from past events but their existence is confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company.

(xvii) Earnings per Share

Basic and diluted earnings per share are computed by dividing the net profit after taxes attributable to equity shareholders for the year, with the weighted number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

(xviii) Measurement of EBITDA

The Company has elected to present earnings before interest (finance cost), tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year. The Company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit / (loss) from continuing operations.


Mar 31, 2014

(i) Basis of Accounting:

The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost conventions and on the ''going concern'' basis, with revenue recognized and expenses accounted on their accrual in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India and are in compliance with the applicable Accounting Standards notified under the Companies Act, 1956 ("the Act") read with General Circular 15 / 2013 dated September 13, 2013 of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs in respect of Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 other relevant provisions of Companies Act 1956.

The classification of assets and liabilities of the Company into current or non-current is based on the criterion specified in the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956. The Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

(ii) Use of Estimates:

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosures of contingent liabilities. Difference between actual results and the estimates are recognized in the period in which the results materialize / are known.

(iii) Fixed Assets and Depreciation / Amortization

a. Fixed Assets

Tangible fixed assets are carried at the cost of acquisition or construction, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment. The cost of fixed assets includes taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities), duties, freight and other directly attributable costs related to the acquisition or construction of the respective assets. Know-how related to plans, designs and drawings of buildings or plant and machinery is capitalized under relevant asset heads.

Profit or Loss on disposal of tangible assets is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

b. Depreciation & Amortisation On Tangible Assets:

The Company has provided depreciation :

i. On all additions up to 31.03.1994 under Written Down Value Method and at rates specified under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

ii. On all additions after 31.03.1994 under Straight Line Method and at rates specified under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

On Intangible Assets:

Intangible assets are amortized on SLM method over the useful life, based on the economic benefits that would be derived, as per the estimates made by the management.

i. Computer Software - Written off over a period of three years

ii. Technical Know - how

In respect of all additions during the year depreciation is provided pro-rata on monthly basis.

c. Impairment

The carrying amounts of the Company''s tangible and intangible assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the assets'' recoverable amounts are estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment loss, if any. An impairment loss is recognized whenever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The impairment loss, if any, is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which impairment takes place.

Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, however subject to the increased carrying amount not exceeding the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior accounting periods

(iv) Borrowing Cost

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs, if any, directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

(v) Investments

Non-current investments are valued at cost less provision for diminution in value, if the diminution is other than temporary.

Current Investments are stated at lower of cost and fair value.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Profit or loss on sale of investments is determined on average cost basis.

(vi) Inventory

Inventories are valued at lower of Cost and Net Realizable Value.

Raw and Packing Materials are valued at cost or market value, whichever is lower, computed on FIFO basis. The cost includes the cost of purchase and other expenses directly attributable to their acquisition but excludes duties and taxes, which are subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities.

The finished goods inventory is valued at cost, or net realizable value whichever is lower. Cost includes material cost, conversion, appropriate factory overheads, any tax or duties and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Work-in-Process is valued at material cost and cost of conversion appropriate to their location in the manufacturing cycle.

Stores, Spares and consumables are valued at cost, computed on FIFO basis. The cost includes the cost of purchase and other expenses directly attributable to their acquisition but excludes duties and taxes that are subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities, if any.

Damaged, unserviceable and inert stocks are adequately provided wherever considered necessary.

(vii) Excise Duty :

Excise Duty paid on goods manufactured by the Company is accounted for at the time of dispatch of goods from the factories.

Excise Duty payable on goods manufactured is accrued for stocks held in factories at the year-end. Excise Duty paid/ payable on goods manufactured by the Company and remaining in stock, is included in the value of Finished Goods. Excise duty related to the difference between the closing stock and opening stock of Finished Goods is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(viii) Transactions in foreign exchange

(a) Initial recognition:

Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

(b) Measurement of foreign currency items at the Balance Sheet date:

Foreign currency monetary items of the Company are restated at the closing exchange rates. Non-monetary items are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. However exchange differences relating to fixed assets have been included in the carrying amount of fixed assets.

The Exchange Rate Difference and the forward premium on the loan taken for capital assets are being capitalized along with Interest till the date of commissioning of the said capital assets.

In case of other forward exchange contracts, the difference between the transaction rate and the rate on the date of contract is recognized as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognized over the life of the contract. However forward exchange contract relating to fixed assets have been included in the carrying amount of fixed assets.

(ix) Forward Exchange Contracts - Hedging

The company uses forward exchange contracts to hedge it''s foreign exchange exposures relating to the underlying transactions and firm commitments. The premium on forward contracts taken for purchase of fixed assets are capitalized as the cost of the asset and the premium on other contracts is recognized over the life of the contract in the Statement of Profit or Loss.

(x) Employees'' Benefits

(a) Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee Benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classifed as short term employee Benefits and they are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company recognizes the undiscounted amount of short-term employee Benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered as a liability (accrued expense) after deducting any amount already paid.

(b) Post-employment Benefits:

Defined contribution plans :

Defined contribution plans are Employee State Insurance Scheme for eligible employees and Government administered Pension Fund Scheme for all employees, Provident Fund Scheme administered by Government, and Superannuation Scheme for eligible employees. The Company''s contribution to Defined contribution plans are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the financial year to which they relate.

Defined benefit plans

The cost of providing benefit i.e. gratuity is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method with actuarial valuation carried out as at the balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The fair value of the planned assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the Defined benefit plan, to recognize the obligation on net basis.

Other long-term employee Benefits

Entitlements to annual privilege leave are recognized when they accrue to employees. Privilege leave can be availed or encased subject to a restriction on the maximum number of accumulation of leave. The Company determines the liability for such accumulated leaves using the Projected Accrued Benefit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date.

(xi) Research and Development

(a) Capital expenditure is shown separately under respective heads of fixed assets.

(b) Revenue expenses are included under the respective heads of expenses.

(xii) Taxes on Income

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax.

Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Deferred tax is recognized, subject to the consideration of prudence, on timing differences, being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred Tax assets are not recognized on unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses unless there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets/liabilities are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The tax effect is calculated on the accumulated timing difference at the year-end, based on the tax rates and laws enacted or substantially enacted on the balance sheet date.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period in which such credit can be carried forward for set-off.

(xiii) Cash & Cash Equivalent:

Cash and cash equivalents includes cash in hand, deposits with banks and short term highly liquid investments, which are readily convertible into cash and have original maturities of three months or less.

(xiv) Leases - Assets taken on operating lease

Lease rentals on assets taken on operating lease are recognized as expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on an accrual basis over the lease term of the asset.

xv) Revenue Recognition:

(a) Domestic sales are recognized at the point of dispatch of goods to customers, which is when risks and rewards of ownership are passed to the customers. Sales are inclusive of excise duty but net of trade discount and VAT /sales tax.

(b) Export sales are recognized based on the bill of lading except sales to Nepal which are recognized when the goods cross the Indian Territory, which is when risks and rewards of ownership are passed to the customers.

(c) Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive the same is established.

(d) Interest and other income are recognized on accrual basis.

(e) Export incentives receivable under Duty Drawback Scheme are accounted on accrual basis.

(f) Insurance claims are recognized post fling of the claim with the insurer.

(xvi) Provisions and Contingencies:

A provision is recognized when the enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an out fowl of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present values and are determined based on management estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to refect the current management estimates.

Contingent Liabilities are disclosed in respect of possible obligations that arise from past events but their existence is confirmed by the occurrence or non occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company.

(xvii) Earnings per Share

Basic and diluted earnings per share are computed by dividing the net profit after taxes attributable to equity shareholders for the year, with the weighted number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

(xviii) Measurement of EBITDA

The Company has elected to present earnings before interest (finance cost), tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year. The Company measures EBITDA on the basis of Profit / (loss) from continuing operations.


Mar 31, 2013

(A) Basis of preparation of financial statements

(i) Basis of Accounting:

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India and presented under the historical cost convention on accrual basis of accounting to comply with the accounting standards prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

(ii) Use of Estimates:

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent liabilities on the date of financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period.

(B) Tangible and Intangible Assets

(i) Tangible Fixed Assets

Tangible fixed assets are carried at the cost of acquisition or construction, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment. The cost of fixed assets includes taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities), duties, freight and other directly attributable costs related to the acquisition or construction of the respective assets. Expenses directly attributable to new manufacturing facility during its construction period are capitalized. Know- how related to plans, designs and drawings of buildings or plant and machinery is capitalized under relevant asset heads. Profit or Loss on disposal of tangible assets is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(ii) Intangible Assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment loss, if any. Profit or Loss on disposal of intangible assets is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(iii) Depreciation & Amortisation

1) The Company has provided depreciation

i. On all additions up to 31.03.1994 under Written Down Value Method and at rates specified under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

ii. On all additions after 31.03.1994 under Straight Line Method and at rates specified under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

2) In respect of all additions during the year depreciation is provided pro-rata on monthly basis.

3) Intangible Assets -Computer Software expenses are written off over a period of three years.

(iv) Impairment

An assessment is also done at each Balance Sheet date whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods may no longer exist or may have decreased. If any such indication exists, the asset''s recoverable amount is estimated. The carrying amount of the fixed asset is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. A reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the statement of Profit and Loss for the year. After recognition of impairment loss or reversal of impairment loss as applicable, the depreciation charge for the fixed asset is adjusted in future periods to allocate the asset''s revised carrying amount, less its residual value (if any), on straight line basis over its remaining useful life.

(C) Investments

Non-current investments are carried at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of non-current investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary in the opinion of the management.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Profit or loss on sale of investments is determined on a First In First out Method.

(D) Inventory

(i) Raw and packing materials are valued at cost or market value, whichever is lower, computed on FIFO basis. The cost includes the cost of purchase and other expenses directly attributable to their acquisition but excludes duties and taxes, which are subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities.

(ii) The finished goods inventory is valued on the principle of cost, or market value whichever is lower. It includes material cost, conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories at their present location and condition.

(iii) Work-in-process is valued at material cost and cost of conversion appropriate to their location in the manufacturing cycle.

(iv) Stores, spares and consumables are valued at cost, computed on FIFO basis. The cost includes the cost of purchase and other expenses directly attributable to their acquisition but excludes duties and taxes that are subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities, if any

(v) Damaged, unserviceable and inert stocks are suitably depreciated.

(E) Transactions in foreign exchange

(i) Initial recognition:

Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

(ii) Measurement of foreign currency items at the Balance Sheet date:

Foreign currency monetary items of the Company are restated at the closing exchange rates. Non-monetary items are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Exchange Rate Difference on the loan taken for capital assets are being capitalised along with Interest till the date of commissioning of the said capital assets.

(F) Trade receivables

Trade receivables are stated after writing off debts considered as bad. Adequate provision is made for debts considered doubtful.

(G) Employees'' Benefits

(i) Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and they are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company recognises the undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered as a liability (accrued expense) after deducting any amount already paid.

(ii) Post-employment benefits:

(a) Defined contribution plans

Defined contribution plans are Employee State Insurance Scheme for eligible employees and Government administered Pension Fund Scheme for all employees and Superannuation Scheme for eligible employees. The Company''s contribution to defined contribution plans are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the financial year to which they relate.

(b) Defined benefit plans

(i) Provident Fund scheme

The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Employee Provident Fund Scheme administered by Government. The minimum interest payable is notified by the Government every year.

(ii) Gratuity scheme

The Company operates a defined benefit gratuity plan for employees. The Company contributes to a separate entity (a fund), towards meeting the gratuity obligation.

(iii) Other long-term employee benefits

Entitlements to annual privilege leave are recognised when they accrue to employees. Privilege leave can be availed or encashed subject to a restriction on the maximum number of accumulation of leave. The Company determines the liability for such accumulated leaves using the Projected Accrued Benefit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date.

The Company presents this liability as current and non-current in the Balance Sheet as per actuarial valuations and certificate issued by an independent actuary.

(H) Research and Development

(i) Capital expenditure is shown separately under respective heads of fixed assets.

(ii) Revenue expenses are included under the respective heads of expenses.

(I) Provision for Taxation

Tax expense comprises of current tax i.e amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the Income Tax act ,1961 and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted on or before the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realized in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each Balance Sheet date to reassess realisation.

(J) Borrowing Cost

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs, if any, directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

(K) Other Accounting Policies

These are consistent with generally accepted accounting practices.

(L) Leases

Assets taken on operating lease

Lease rentals on assets taken on operating lease are recognised as expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on an accrual basis over the lease term.

(M) Cash & Cash Equivalent

Closing balances include balances aggregating with banks in Fixed Deposits and Margin accounts, which are pledged against the bank guarantees and deposits with concerned authorities, which are not available for use by the company.

(N) Revenue Recognition

a. Domestic sales are recognized at the point of dispatch of goods to customers, which is when risks and rewards of ownership are passed to the customers and stated net of trade discount and exclusive of sales tax and excise duty.

b. Export sales are recognized based on the bill of lading except sales to Nepal which are recognized when the goods cross the Indian Territory, which is when risks and rewards of ownership are passed to the customers.

c. Interest and other income are recognized on accrual basis.

(O) Measurement of EBITDA

The Company has elected to present earnings before interest (finance cost), tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year. The Company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit/(loss) from continuing operations.

 
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