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Accounting Policies of Asian Paints Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

1.1. Basis of preparation of financial statements

(a) Basis of Accounting:

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention, on the accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India (''Indian GAAP'') and comply with the Accounting standards prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 which continue to apply under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, (''the Act'') read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and other relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, to the extent applicable.

(b) Use of Estimates:

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent liabilities on the date of financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period.

(c) Current/Non Current Classification:

Any asset or liability is classified as current if it satisfies any of the following conditions:

i. it is expected to be realized or settled or is intended for sale or consumption in the Company''s normal operating cycle;

ii. it is expected to be realized or settled within twelve months from the reporting date;

iii. in the case of an asset,

- it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded; or

- it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date;

iv. in the case of a liability, the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months from the reporting date.

All other assets and liabilities are classified as non-current.

For the purpose of current/non-current classification of assets and liabilities, the Company has ascertained its normal operating cycle as twelve months. This is based on the nature of services and the time between the acquisition of assets or inventories for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents.

1.2. Tangible and Intangible Assets

(a) Tangible Fixed Assets

Tangible fixed assets are carried at the cost of acquisition or construction, less accumulated depreciation/ accumulated impairment. The cost of fixed assets comprises of its purchase price, including import duties and other non-refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Expenses directly attributable to new manufacturing facility during its construction period are capitalized. Know-how related to plans, designs and drawings of buildings or plant and machinery is capitalized under relevant tangible asset heads. Profit or Loss on disposal of tangible assets is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Tangible Fixed assets held for disposal are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realisable value and are disclosed separately under ''Other Current Assets''. Any expected loss is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(b) Intangible Assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Intangible assets arising on acquisition of business are measured at fair value as at date of acquisition. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment loss, if any. Profit or Loss on disposal of intangible assets is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(c) Capital Work in Progress & Capital Advances

Cost of Assets not ready for intended use, as on the balance sheet date, is shown as capital work in progress. Advances given towards acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each balance sheet date are disclosed as Long Term Loans & Advances.

(d) Depreciation and Amortisation

Depreciation on tangible fixed assets is provided using the Straight Line Method based on the useful life of the assets as estimated by the management and is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as per the requirement of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013. The estimate of the useful life of the assets has been assessed based on technical advice which considered the nature of the asset, the usage of the asset, expected physical wear and tear, the operating conditions of the asset, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc.

Depreciation on tinting systems leased to dealers, is provided under Straight Line Method over the estimated useful life of nine years as per technical evaluation.

Leasehold land and Leasehold improvements are amortized over the primary period of lease.

Intangible Assets are amortised on a Straight Line basis over the estimated useful economic life. Purchase cost, user license fees and consultancy fees for major software are amortized over a period of four years. Acquired Trademark is amortised over a period of five years. Acquired Goodwill is amortised over a period of ten years.

Estimated useful life of each acquired Brand is assessed separately for the purpose of amortisation. Brand acquired pursuant to acquisition of bath fittings business is amortised over a period of two years.

(e) Impairment

At Balance Sheet date, an assessment is done to determine whether there is any indication of impairment in the carrying amount of the Company''s assets. If any such indication exists, the asset''s recoverable amount is estimated. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

An assessment is also done at each Balance Sheet date whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods may no longer exist or may have decreased. If any such indication exists, the asset''s recoverable amount is estimated. The carrying amount of the fixed asset is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. A reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year.

After recognition of impairment loss or reversal of impairment loss as applicable, the depreciation charge for the fixed asset is adjusted in future periods to allocate the asset''s revised carrying amount, less its residual value (if any), on straight line basis over its remaining useful life.

1.3. Revenue Recognition

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised on transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer. The amount recognised as sale is exclusive of sales tax/ VAT and is net of returns and discounts. Sales are stated gross of excise duty as well as net of excise duty (on goods manufactured and outsourced), excise duty being the amount included in the amount of gross turnover. The excise duty related to the difference between the closing stock and opening stock is recognised separately as part of changes in inventories of finished goods, work-in-progress and stock-in-trade.

Revenue from service is recognized as per the completed service contract method.

Processing income is recognized on accrual basis as per the contractual arrangements.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

Interest income is recognised on the time proportion basis.

1.4. Lease Accounting

Assets taken on operating lease:

Lease rentals on assets taken on operating lease are recognised as expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on straight line basis.

Assets given on operating lease:

The Company has provided tinting systems to dealers on an operating lease basis. Lease rentals are accounted on accrual basis in accordance with the respective lease agreements.

1.5.Inventory

(a) Raw materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, packing materials, stores, spares, components, consumables and stock-in-trade are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The comparison of cost and net realisable value is made on an item-by- item basis. Damaged, unserviceable and inert stocks are valued at net realizable value.

(b) In determining the cost of raw materials, packing materials, stock-in-trade, stores, spares, components and consumables, weighted average cost method is used. Cost of inventory comprises all costs of purchase, duties, taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities) and all other costs incurred in bringing the inventory to their present location and condition.

(c) Cost of finished goods and work-in-progress includes the cost of raw materials, packing materials, an appropriate share of fixed and variable production overheads, excise duty as applicable and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Fixed production overheads are allocated on the basis of normal capacity of production facilities.

1.6. Investments

Investments are classified into current and long-term investments. Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year from the date of acquisition are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. However, that part of long term investments which are expected to be realized within twelve months from Balance Sheet date is also presented under "Current Investments" under "Current portion of long term investments" in consonance with the current / non-current classification of Schedule III of the Act.

Current investments are stated at the lower of cost and fair value. The comparison of cost and fair value is done separately in respect of each category of investments.

Long-term investments are stated at cost. A provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary in the opinion of the management. Reversal of such provision for diminution is made when there is a rise in the value of long- term investments, or if the reasons for the decline no longer exist.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.7. Transactions in Foreign Currency

(a) Initial recognition:

Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(b) Measurement of foreign currency items at the Balance Sheet date:

Foreign currency monetary items of the Company are restated at the closing exchange rates. Non-monetary items are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(c) Forward exchange contracts:

The Company enters into forward exchange contracts to hedge against its foreign currency exposures relating to the underlying transactions and firm commitments. The Company does not enter into any derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes.

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognized as an expense/income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any Profit or Loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or expense for the period.

1.8. Trade receivables

Trade receivables are stated after writing off debts considered as bad. Adequate provision is made for debts considered doubtful. Discounts due, yet to be quantified at the customer level are included under Other Current Liabilities.

1.9. Employee Benefits

A. Short Term Employee Benefits:

AH employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and they are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company recognizes the undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered as a liability (accrued expense) after deducting any amount already paid.

B. Post-employment benefits:

(a) Defined contribution plans

Defined contribution plans are employee state insurance scheme and Government administered pension fund scheme for all applicable employees and superannuation scheme for eligible employees. The Company''s contribution to defined contribution plans are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the financial year to which they relate.

(b) Defined benefit plans

(i) Provident fund scheme

The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Employee Provident Fund scheme to a separate trust administered by the Company. The minimum interest payable by the trust to the beneficiaries is being notified by the Government every year. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return on investments of the trust and the notified interest rate.

(ii) Gratuity scheme

The Company operates a defined benefit gratuity plan for employees. The Company contributes to a separate entity (a fund), towards meeting the Gratuity obligation.

(iii) Pension scheme

The Company operates a defined benefit pension plan for certain specified employees and is payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions, as approved by the Board of Directors.

(iv) Post Retirement Medical benefit plan

The Company operates a defined post retirement medical benefit plan for certain specified employees and payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions.

The cost of providing defined benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Past service cost is recognized immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, else is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the amended benefits become vested. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of the defined benefit plans are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they arise.

The defined benefit obligations recognized in the Balance Sheet represent the present value of the defined benefit obligations as reduced by the fair value of plan assets, if applicable. Any defined benefit asset (negative defined benefit obligations resulting from this calculation) is recognized representing the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the plan.

The Company presents the above liabilities as current and non-current in the balance sheet as per actuarial valuation by the independent actuary; however, the entire liability towards gratuity is considered as current as the Company will contribute this amount to the gratuity fund within the next twelve months.

(c) Other long term employee benefits

Entitlements to annual leave and sick leave are recognized when they accrue to employees. Sick leave can only be availed while annual leave can either be availed or encashed subject to a restriction on the maximum number of accumulation of leave. The Company determines the liability for such accumulated leaves using the Projected Accrued Benefit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date.

The Company presents this liability as current and non-current in the balance sheet as per actuarial valuation by the independent actuary.

1.10. Research and Development

Research and Development expenditure of a revenue nature is expensed out under the respective heads of account in the year in which it is incurred.

Fixed assets utilized for research and development are capitalized and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Tangible Fixed Assets and Intangible Assets.

1.11. Provision for Taxation

Tax expense comprises of current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each Balance Sheet date to reassess realisation.

1.12. Provisions and Contingencies

The Company creates a provision when there exists a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

1.13. Earnings Per Share

The Basic and Diluted Earnings Per Share ("EPS") is computed by dividing the profit after tax for the year by weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

1.14. Proposed Dividend

Dividend recommended by the Board of Directors is provided for in the accounts, pending approval at the Annual General Meeting.

1.15. Borrowing Cost

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs, if any, directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

1.16. Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of Cash Flow Statement comprise cash and cheques in hand, bank balances, demand deposits with banks and other short term highly liquid investments where the original maturity is three months or less.

1.17. Government Grants and Subsidies

The Company is entitled to subsidy from government authorities in respect of manufacturing units located in specified regions:

- Grants in the nature of subsidy which are non- refundable are credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss, on accrual basis, where there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with all the necessary conditions attached to them.

- Grants in the nature of subsidy which are refundable are shown as Liabilities in the Balance Sheet.

1.18. Measurement of EBITDA

The Company has opted to present earnings before interest (finance cost), tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year. The Company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit/(loss) from continuing operations.

1.19.Segment Reporting

Segments are identified having regard to the dominant source and nature of risks and returns and internal organization and management structure. The Company has considered business segments as the primary segments for disclosure. The business segments are ''Paints'' and ''Home Improvement''.

The Company does not have any geographical segment.


Mar 31, 2013

1.1. BASIS OF PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(a) Basis of Accounting

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India and presented under the historical cost convention on accrual basis of accounting to comply with the accounting standards prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

(b) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent liabilities on the date of financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period.

(c) Current/Non Current Classification

Any asset or liability is classified as current if it satisfies any of the following conditions:

i. it is expected to be realized or settled or is intended for sale or consumption in the company''s normal operating cycle;

ii. it is expected to be realized or settled within twelve months from the reporting date;

iii. in the case of an asset,

- it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded; or

- it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date

iv. in the case of a liability, the company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months from the reporting date.

All other assets and liabilities are classified as non-current.

For the purpose of current / non-current classification of assets and liabilities, the company has ascertained its normal operating cycle as 12 months. This is based on the nature of services and the time between the acquisition of assets or inventories for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents.

1.2. TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS

(a) Tangible Fixed Assets

Tangible fixed assets are carried at the cost of acquisition or construction, less accumulated depreciation. The cost of fixed assets includes taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities), duties, freight and other directly attributable costs related to the acquisition or construction of the respective assets. Expenses directly attributable to new manufacturing facility during its construction period are capitalized. Know-how related to plans, designs and drawings of buildings or plant and machinery is capitalized under relevant asset heads. Profit or Loss on disposal of tangible assets is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(b) Intangible Assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment loss, if any. Profit or Loss on disposal of intangible assets is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(c) Depreciation and Amortisation

Depreciation on all fixed assets is provided under Straight Line Method. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 are considered as the minimum rates. If the management''s estimate of the useful life of a fixed asset at the time of acquisition of the asset or of the remaining useful life on a subsequent review is shorter than that envisaged in the aforesaid schedule, depreciation is provided at a higher rate based on the management''s estimate of the useful life/remaining useful life. Pursuant to this policy, depreciation on following assets have been provided at rates which are higher than the corresponding rates prescribed in Schedule XIV.

For Phthalic Anhydride and Pentaerythritol plants, depreciation is provided on all eligible plant and machinery at rates applicable for continuous process plants.

Depreciation on tinting systems except computers leased to dealers, is provided under Straight Line Method over the estimated useful life of nine years as per technical evaluation. Depreciation on computers given on lease is provided under straight line method and at rates specified under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

Assets costing less than Rs. 5,000 are fully charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year of acquisition. Leasehold land and leasehold improvements are amortised over the primary period of lease.

Purchase cost, user license fees and consultancy fees for major software are amortised over a period of four years. Acquired Trade mark is amortised over a period of five years.

(d) Impairment

At Balance Sheet date, an assessment is done to determine whether there is any indication of impairment in the carrying amount of the Company''s assets. If any such indication exists, the asset''s recoverable amount is estimated. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

An assessment is also done at each Balance Sheet date whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods may no longer exist or may have decreased. If any such indication exists the asset''s recoverable amount is estimated. The carrying amount of the fixed asset is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. A reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the statement of Profit and Loss for the year.

After recognition of impairment loss or reversal of impairment loss as applicable, the depreciation charge for the fixed asset is adjusted in future periods to allocate the asset''s revised carrying amount, less its residual value (if any), on straight line basis over its remaining useful life.

1.3. REVENUE RECOGNITION

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised on transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer. The amount recognised as sale is exclusive of sales tax/VAT and are net of returns. Sales are stated gross of excise duty as well as net of excise duty; excise duty being the amount included in the amount of gross turnover. The excise duty related to the difference between the closing stock and opening stock is recognised separately as part of changes in inventories of finished goods, work in progress and stock in trade.

Revenue from service is recognised on rendering of services to customers.

Processing income is recognised on accrual basis as per contractual arrangements.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

Interest income is recognised on the time proportion basis.

1.4. LEASE ACCOUNTING

Assets taken on operating lease

Lease rentals on assets taken on operating lease are recognised as expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on an accrual basis over the lease term.

Assets given on operating lease

The Company has provided tinting systems to dealers on an operating lease basis. Lease rentals are accounted on accrual basis in accordance with the respective lease agreements.

1.5. INVENTORY

(a) Raw materials, work in progress, finished goods, packing materials, stores, spares, components, consumables and stock-in trade are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The comparison of cost and net realisable value is made on an item-by-item basis. Damaged, unserviceable and inert stocks are suitably written down/provided for.

(b) In determining cost of raw materials, packing materials, stock-in trade, stores, spares, components and consumables, weighted average cost method is used. Cost of inventory comprises all costs of purchase, duties, taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities) and all other costs incurred in bringing the inventory to their present location and condition.

(c) Cost of finished goods and work-in-progress includes the cost of raw materials, packing materials, an appropriate share of fixed and variable production overheads, excise duty as applicable and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Fixed production overheads are allocated on the basis of normal capacity of production facilities.

1.6. INVESTMENTS

Investments are classified into current and long-term investments. Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year from the date of acquisition are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

Current investments are stated at the lower of cost and fair value. The comparison of cost and fair value is done separately in respect of each category of investments.

Long-term investments are stated at cost. A provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary in the opinion of the management.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.7. TRANSACTIONS IN FOREIGN CURRENCY

(a) Initial recognition

Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(b) Measurement of foreign currency items at the Balance Sheet date

Foreign currency monetary items of the Company are restated at the closing exchange rates. Non-monetary items are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(c) Forward exchange contracts

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognized as an expense/income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any Profit or Loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or expense for the period.

1.8. TRADE RECEIVABLES

Trade receivables are stated after writing off debts considered as bad. Adequate provision is made for debts considered doubtful. Discounts due, yet to be quantified at the customer level are included under Other Current Liabilities.

1.9. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

A. Short Term Employee Benefits

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and they are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company recognizes the undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered as a liability (accrued expense) after deducting any amount already paid.

B. Post-employment benefits

(a) Defined contribution plans

Defined contribution plans are Employee State Insurance Scheme and Government administered Pension Fund Scheme for all applicable employees and Superannuation Scheme for eligible employees. The Company''s contribution to defined contribution plans are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the financial year to which they relate.

(b) Defined benefit plans

(i) Provident Fund Scheme

The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Employee

Provident Fund scheme to a separate trust administered by the Company. The minimum interest payable by the trust to the beneficiaries is being notified by the Government every year. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return on investments of the trust and the notified interest rate.

(ii) Gratuity Scheme

The Company operates a defined benefit gratuity plan for employees. The Company contributes to a separate entity (a fund), towards meeting the Gratuity obligation.

(iii) Pension Scheme

The Company operates a defined benefit pension plan for certain specified employees and is payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions, as approved by the Board of Directors.

(iv) Post Retirement Medical Benefit Plan

The Company operates a defined post retirement medical benefit plan for certain specified employees and is payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions.

The cost of providing defined benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Past service cost is recognized immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, else is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the amended benefits become vested.

The defined benefit obligations recognized in the Balance sheet represent the present value of the defined benefit obligations as adjusted for unrecognized actuarial gains and losses and unrecognized past service costs and as reduced by the fair value of plan assets, if applicable. Any defined benefit asset (negative defined benefit obligations resulting from this calculation) is recognized representing the unrecognized past service cost plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the plan.

The company presents the above liabilities as current and non-current in the balance sheet as per actuarial valuation by the independent actuary; however, the entire liability towards gratuity is considered as current as the company will contribute this amount to the gratuity fund within the next 12 months.

(c) Other long term employee benefits

Entitlements to annual leave and sick leave are recognized when they accrue to employees. Sick leave can only be availed while annual leave can either be availed or encashed subject to a restriction on the maximum number of accumulation of leave. The Company determines the liability for such accumulated leaves using the Projected Accrued Benefit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date.

The company presents this liability as current and non-current in the balance sheet as per actuarial valuation by the independent actuary.

1.10. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Research expense is recognized as an expense as and when it is incurred.

Expenditure incurred on fixed assets used for research and development is capitalized and depreciated in accordance with the depreciation policy of the Company and is disclosed separately.

1.11. PROVISION FOR TAXATION

Tax expense comprises of current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each Balance Sheet date to reassess realisation.

1.12. PROVISIONS AND CONTINGENCIES

The Company creates a provision when there exists a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

1.13. EARNINGS PER SHARE

The Basic and Diluted Earnings Per Share ("EPS") is computed by dividing the net profit after tax for the year by weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

1.14. PROPOSED DIVIDEND

Dividend recommended by the Board of directors is provided for in the accounts, pending approval at the Annual General Meeting.

1.15. BORROWING COST

Borrowing cost includes Interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs, if any, directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

1.16. CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

Cash and cash equivalents include cash & cheques in hand, bank balances, demand deposits with banks and other short-term highly liquid investments where the original maturity is three months or less.

1.17. GOVERNMENT GRANTS AND SUBSIDIES

The Company is entitled to subsidy from government authorities in respect of manufacturing units located in specified regions:

- Grants in the nature of subsidy which are non- refundable are credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss on accrual basis.

- Grants in the nature of subsidy which are refundable are shown as Liabilities in the Balance Sheet.

1.18. MEASUREMENT OF EBITDA

The Company has elected to present earnings before interest (finance costs), tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year. The Company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit/(loss) from continuing operations.


Mar 31, 2012

1.1. Basis of preparation of financial statements

(a) Basis of Accounting:

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India and presented under the historical cost convention on accrual basis of accounting to comply with the accounting standards prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

(b) Use of Estimates:

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent liabilities on the date of financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period.

(c) Presentation and disclosures in financial statements:

For the year ended 31st March, 2012, the revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act, 1956, is applicable to the Company, for presentation and disclosures in financial statements. The Company has reclassified the previous year's figures in accordance with the revised Schedule VI as applicable in the current year.

1.2. Tangible and Intangible Assets

(a) Tangible Fixed Assets

Tangible fixed assets are carried at the cost of acquisition or construction, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment. The cost of fixed assets includes taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities), duties, freight and other directly attributable costs related to the acquisition or construction of the respective assets. Expenses directly attributable to new manufacturing facility during its construction period are capitalized. Know-how related to plans, designs and drawings of buildings or plant and machinery is capitalized under relevant asset heads. Profit or Loss on disposal of tangible assets is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(b) Intangible Assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment loss, if any. Profit or Loss on disposal of intangible assets is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(c) Depreciation and Amortisation:

Depreciation on all fixed assets is provided under Straight Line Method. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 are considered as the minimum rates. If the management's estimate of the useful life of a fixed asset at the time of acquisition of the asset or of the remaining useful life on a subsequent review is shorter than that envisaged in the aforesaid schedule, depreciation is provided at a higher rate based on the management's estimate of the useful life/remaining useful life. Pursuant to this policy, depreciation on following assets have been provided at rates which are higher than the corresponding rates prescribed in Schedule XIV.

Information Technology Assets : 4 years

Scientific Research equipment : 8 years

Furniture and Fixtures : 8 years

Office equipment and Vehicles : 5 years

Godowns, Office and Roads situated within factory premises : 30 years

For Phthalic Anhydride and Pentaerythritol plants, depreciation is provided on all eligible plant and machinery at rates applicable for continuous process plants and for other plant and equipment depreciation is provided on triple shift basis.

Depreciation on tinting systems except computers leased to dealers, is provided under Straight Line Method over the estimated useful life of nine years as per technical evaluation. Depreciation on computers given on lease is provided under straight line method and at rates specified under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

Assets costing less than Rs 5,000/- are fully charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year of acquisition. Leasehold land and leasehold improvements are amortised over the primary period of lease.

Purchase cost, user license fees and consultancy fees for major software are amortised over a period of four years. Acquired Trade mark is amortised over a period of five years.

(d) Impairment

At Balance Sheet date, an assessment is done to determine whether there is any indication of impairment in the carrying amount of the Company's assets. If any such indication exists, the asset's recoverable amount is estimated. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

An assessment is also done at each Balance Sheet date whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods may no longer exist or may have decreased. If any such indication exists, the asset's recoverable amount is estimated. The carrying amount of the fixed asset is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. A reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the statement of Profit and Loss for the year. After recognition of impairment loss or reversal of impairment loss as applicable, the depreciation charge for the fixed asset is adjusted in future periods to allocate the asset's revised carrying amount, less its residual value (if any), on straight line basis over its remaining useful life.

1.3. Revenue Recognition

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised on transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer. The amount recognised as sale is exclusive of sales tax/VAT and are net of returns. Sales are stated gross of excise duty as well as net of excise duty; excise duty being the amount included in the amount of gross turnover. The excise duty related to the difference between the closing stock and opening stock is recognised separately as part of changes in inventories of finished goods, work in progress and stock-in-trade.

Revenue from service is recognised on rendering of services to customers.

Processing income is recognised on accrual basis as per contractual arrangements.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

Interest income is recognised on the time proportion basis.

1.4. Lease Accounting

Assets taken on operating lease:

Lease rentals on assets taken on operating lease are recognised as expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on an accrual basis over the lease term.

Assets given on operating lease:

The Company has provided tinting systems to dealers on an operating lease basis. Lease rentals are accounted on accrual basis in accordance with the respective lease agreements.

1.5. Inventory

(a) Raw materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, packing materials, stores, spares, components; consumables and stock-in-trade are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The comparison of cost and net realisable value is made on an item-by-item basis. Damaged, unserviceable and inert stocks are suitably written down/provided for.

(b) In determining cost of raw materials, packing materials, stock-in-trade, stores, components, spares and consumables, weighted average cost method is used. Cost of inventory comprises all costs of purchase, duties, taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities) and all other costs incurred in bringing the inventory to their present location and condition.

(c) Cost of finished goods and work-in-progress includes the cost of raw materials, packing materials, an appropriate share of fixed and variable production overheads, excise duty as applicable and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Fixed production overheads are allocated on the basis of normal capacity of production facilities.

1.6. Investments

Non-current investments are carried at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of non-current investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary in the opinion of the management.

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value. The comparison of cost and fair value is done separately in respect of each category of investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Profit or loss on sale of investments is determined on a first-in-first-out (FIFO) basis.

1.7. Transactions in Foreign Currency

(a) Initial recognition:

Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

(b) Measurement of foreign currency items at the Balance Sheet date:

Foreign currency monetary items of the Company are restated at the closing exchange rates. Non-monetary items are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(c) Forward exchange contracts:

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognised as an expense/income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any Profit or Loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognised as income or expense for the period.

1.8. Trade receivables

Trade receivables are stated after writing off debts considered as bad. Adequate provision is made for debts considered doubtful. Discounts due, yet to be quantified at the customer level are included under the head of provision for expenses in Other Current Liabilities.

1.9. Employee Benefits

A. Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and they are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company recognises the undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered as a liability (accrued expense) after deducting any amount already paid.

B. Post-employment benefits:

(a) Defined contribution plans

Defined contribution plans are Employee State Insurance scheme and Government administered Pension Fund scheme for all employees and Superannuation scheme for eligible employees. The Company's contribution to defined contribution plans are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the financial year to which they relate.

(b) Defined benefit plans

(i) Provident Fund scheme

The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Employee Provident Fund scheme to a separate trust administered by the Company. The minimum interest payable by the trust to the beneficiaries is being notified by the Government every year. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return on investments of the trust and the notified interest rate.

(ii) Gratuity scheme

The Company operates a defined benefit gratuity plan for employees. The Company contributes to a separate entity (a fund), towards meeting the Gratuity obligation.

(iii) Pension scheme

The Company operates a defined benefit pension plan for certain specified employees and is payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions, as approved by the Board of Directors.

The Company presents this liability as current and non-current in the balance sheet as per actuarial valuations and certificate issued by the independent actuary.

(iv) Post Retirement Medical benefit plan

The Company operates a defined post retirement medical benefit plan for certain specified employees and is payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions.

The cost of providing defined benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, else is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the amended benefits become vested.

The defined benefit obligations recognised in the Balance sheet represent the present value of the defined benefit obligations as adjusted for unrecognised actuarial gains and losses and unrecognised past service costs, and as reduced by the fair value of plan assets, if applicable. Any defined benefit asset (negative defined benefit obligations resulting from this calculation) is recognised representing the unrecognised past service cost plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the plan.

The Company presents the above liabilities as current and non-current in the balance sheet as per actuarial valuations and certificate issued by the independent actuary; however, the entire liability towards gratuity is considered as current as the Company will contribute this amount to the gratuity fund within the next 12 months.

C. Other long-term employee benefits

Entitlements to annual leave and sick leave are recognised when they accrue to employees. Sick leave can only be availed while annual leave can either be availed or encashed subject to a restriction on the maximum number of accumulation of leave. The Company determines the liability for such accumulated leaves using the Projected Accrued Benefit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date.

The Company presents this liability as current and non-current in the Balance Sheet as per actuarial valuations and certificate issued by the independent actuary.

1.10. Research and Development

(a) Capital expenditure is shown separately under respective heads of fixed assets.

(b) Revenue expenses including depreciation are charged to statement of Profit and Loss under the respective heads of expenses.

1.11. Provision for Taxation

Tax expense comprises of current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each Balance Sheet date to reassess realisation.

1.12. Provisions and Contingencies

The Company creates a provision when there exists a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

1.13. Earnings Per Share

The Basic and Diluted Earnings Per Share ("EPS") is computed by dividing the net profit after tax for the year by weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

1.14. Proposed Dividend

Dividend recommended by the Board of directors is provided for in the accounts, pending approval at the Annual General Meeting.

1.15. Borrowing Cost

Borrowing cost includes Interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs, if any, directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

1.16. Measurement of EBITDA

The Company has elected to present earnings before interest (finance cost), tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year. The Company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit/(loss) from continuing operations.

c) Terms/rights attached to Equity Shares

The Company has only one class of shares referred to as equity shares having a par value of Rs 10/- per share. Each holder of equity shares is entitled to one vote per share. The Company declares and pays dividends in Indian Rupees. Payment of dividend is also made in foreign currency to shareholders outside India. The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting, except in the case of interim dividend.

The Board of Directors at its meeting held on 21st October, 2011 declared an interim dividend of Rs 9.50 (Rupees nine and paise fifty only) per equity share of Rs 10/- each. A final dividend of Rs 30.50 (Rupees thirty and paise fifty only) per share has been recommended by the Board of Directors at its meeting held on 8th May, 2012, subject to the approval by the shareholders at the ensuing Annual General Meeting. If approved, the total dividend (interim and final dividend) for the financial year 2011-12 will be Rs 40.00 per equity share; Rs 32/- per equity share was paid as dividend for the previous year. The total dividend appropriation for the year ended 31st March, 2012 amounted to Rs 445.93 crores including corporate dividend tax of Rs 62.24 crores. (Previous year Rs 357.05 crores including corporate dividend tax of Rs 50.11 crores).

As per the Companies Act, 1956, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the Company, after distribution of all preferential amounts in the event of liquidation of the Company. However no such preferential amounts exist currently. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.

# Interest free Term loan from the Pradeshiya Industrial Corporation of U.P. Limited (PICUP) under Sales Tax Deferment Scheme of Government of U.P. is secured by a first charge on the Company's immovable properties pertaining to the paint plant at Kasna and by way of hypothecation of all movable properties at the above location. This interest free loan has a deferment period of 10 years and is repayable in 9 yearly installments starting from May, 2007 as per repayment schedule. Out of the total sales tax deferment loan of Rs 30.60 crores the Company has already repaid Rs 13.59 crores till 31st March, 2012 and balance amount of Rs 17.01 crores is repayable in next 4 years upto May, 2015.

## Sales tax deferment - State of Andhra Pradesh represents interest free loan availed under the Sales tax deferment Scheme of the Government of Andhra Pradesh. This interest free loan has a deferment period of 14 years and is repayables in 9 yearly installments starting from April, 2012 as per repayment schedule. The accumulated sales tax deferment loan till 31st March, 2012 is Rs 40.70 crore.

The Company is also eligible to avail interest free loan in respect of 50% of VAT paid within Haryana on the sale of goods produced at Rohtak plant for a period of 7 financial years beginning from April, 2010. For the period ended 31st March, 2011 the Company has received the eligibility certificate from the Government of Haryana sanctioning an interest free loan of Rs 3.40 crores on 2nd April, 2012, but the same is yet to be disbursed by them. For the year ended 31st March, 2012, the Company is in the process of making necessary application to the Government of Haryana for the issue of eligibility certificate.

@ Default in terms of repayment of principal and interest - NIL.


Mar 31, 2010

(a) Basis of Accounting:

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention on accrual basis of accounting to comply with the accounting standards prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

(b) Use of Estimates:

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent liabilities on the date of financial statements.

2. Fixed Assets:

(a) Fixed assets are carried at the cost of acquisition or construction, less accumulated depreciation. The cost of fixed assets includes taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities), duties, freight and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets. Interest on borrowed funds directly attributable to the qualifying assets up to the period such assets are put to use, is included in the cost.

(b) Know-how related to plans, designs and drawings of buildings or plant and machinery is capitalised under relevant asset heads.

(c) Depreciation on all fixed assets is provided under Straight Line Method. The rates of depreciation prescribed in schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 are considered as the minimum rates. If the managements estimate of the useful life of a fixed asset at the time of acquisition of the asset or of the remaining useful life on a subsequent review is shorter than that envisaged in the aforesaid schedule, depreciation is provided at a higher rate based on the managements estimate of the useful life/remaining useful life. Pursuant to this policy, depreciation on following assets has been provided at rates which are higher than the corresponding rates prescribed in Schedule XIV.

Information Technology Assets : 4 years

Scientific Research equipment : 8 years

Furniture and Fixtures : 8 years

Office equipment and Vehicles : 5 years

For Phthalic Anhydride and Pentaerythritol plants, depreciation is provided on all eligible plant and machinery at rates applicable for continuous process plants and for other eligible plant and machinery depreciation is provided on triple shift basis.

Depreciation on tinting systems except computers leased to dealers is provided under Straight

Line Method over the estimated useful life of nine years as per technical evaluation. Depreciation on computers given on lease is provided under straight line method and at rates specified under

Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

Assets costing less than Rs. 5,000 are fully charged to the profit and loss account in the year of acquisition. Leasehold land and leasehold improvements are amortised over the primary period of lease.

Purchase cost, user licence fees and consultancy fees for major software are amortised over a period of four years. Acquired Trade mark is amortised over a period of five years.

(d) At Balance Sheet date, an assessment is done to determine whether there is any indication of impairment in the carrying amount of the Companys fixed assets. If any such indication exists, the assets recoverable amount is estimated. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

An assessment is also done at each Balance Sheet date whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods may no longer exist or may have decreased. If any such indication exists the assets recoverable amount is estimated. The carrying amount of the fixed asset is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. A reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

After recognition of impairment loss or reversal of impairment loss as applicable, the depreciation charge for the asset is adjusted in future periods to allocate the assets revised carrying amount, less its residual value (if any), on straight line basis over its remaining useful life.

3. Revenue Recognition:

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised on transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer which is on dispatch of goods. The amount recognised as sale is exclusive of sales tax/VAT and are net of returns. Sales are stated gross of excise duty as well as net of excise duty; excise duty being the amount included in the amount of gross turnover. The excise duty related to the difference between the closing stock and opening stock is recognised separately as part of material cost.

Revenue from service is recognised on rendering of services to customers. Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established. Interest income is recognised on the time proportion basis.

4. Lease Accounting:

Assets taken on operating lease:

Lease rentals on assets taken on operating lease are recognised as expense in the Profit and Loss Account on an accrual basis over the lease term.

Assets given on operating lease:

The Company has provided tinting systems to dealers on an operating lease basis. Lease rentals are accounted on accrual basis in accordance with the respective lease agreements.

5. Inventory:

(a) Raw materials, work in progress, finished goods, packing materials, stores, spares, traded items and consumables are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The comparison of cost and net realisable value is made on an item-by-item basis. Damaged, unserviceable and inert stocks are suitably depreciated.

(b) In determining cost of raw materials, packing materials, traded items, stores, spares and consumables, weighted average cost method is used. Cost of inventory comprises all costs of purchase, duties, taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities) and all other costs incurred in bringing the inventory to their present location and condition.

(c) Cost of finished goods and work-in-process includes the cost of raw materials, packing materials, an appropriate share of fixed and variable production overheads, excise duty as applicable and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Fixed production overheads are allocated on the basis of normal capacity of production facilities.

6. Investments:

Long term investments are carried at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary in the opinion of the management. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value. The comparison of cost and fair value is done separately in respect of each category of investments. Profit and loss on sale of investments is determined on a first-in-first-out (FIFO) basis.

7. Transactions in Foreign Exchange:

Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account of the year.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies, which are outstanding as at the year end are translated at the closing exchange rate and the resultant exchange differences are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

The premium or discount on forward exchange contracts is recognized over the period of the contracts in the Profit and Loss Account.

8. Sundry Debtors:

Sundry debtors are stated after writing off debts considered as bad. Adequate provision is made for debts considered doubtful. Discounts due, yet to be quantified at the customer level are included under the head Current Liabilities and Provisions.

9. Employee Benefits:

A. Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and they are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company recognises the undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered as a liability (accrued expense) after deducting any amount already paid.

B. Post-employment benefits:

(a) Defined contribution plans

Defined contribution plans are Provident Fund scheme, employee state insurance scheme and Government administered Pension Fund scheme for all employees and superannuation scheme for eligible employees. The Companys contribution to defined contribution plans are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account in the financial year to which they relate. The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards employee provident fund to a Trust administered by the Company. The interest payable by the trust to the beneficiaries every year is being notified by the Government. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return on investments of the trust and the notified interest rate.

(b) Defined benefit plans

(i) Defined benefit gratuity plan

The Company operates a defined benefit gratuity plan for employees. The Company contributes to a separate entity (a fund), towards meeting the Gratuity obligation.

(ii) Defined benefit pension plan

The Company operates a defined benefit pension plan for certain specified employees and is payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions, as approved by the Board of Directors.

(iii) Defined Post Retirement Medical benefit plan

The Company operates a defined post retirement medical benefit plan for certain specified employees and is payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions.

The cost of providing defined benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, else is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the amended benefits become vested. The defined benefit obligations recognised in the Balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised actuarial gains and losses and unrecognised past service costs, and as reduced by the fair value of plan assets, if applicable. Any defined benefit asset (negative defined benefit obligations resulting from this calculation) is recognised representing the unrecognised past service cost plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the plan. C. Other long term employee benefits

Entitlements to-annual leave and sick leave are recognised when they accrue to employees. Sick leave can only be availed while annual leave can either be availed or encashed subject to a restriction on the maximum number of accumulation of leave. The Company determines the liability for such accumulated leaves using the Projected Accrued Benefit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date.

10. Research and Development:

(a) Capital expenditure is shown separately under respective heads of fixed assets.

(b) Revenue expenses including depreciation are charged to Profit and Loss account under the respective heads of expenses.

11. Provision for Taxation:

Tax expense comprises of current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each Balance Sheet date to reassess realisation.

12. Provisions and Contingencies:

The Company creates a provision when there exists a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

13. Earnings Per Share:

The Basic and Diluted Earnings Per Share ("EPS") is computed by dividing the net profit after tax for the year by weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

14. Proposed Dividend:

Dividend recommended by the Board of directors is provided for in the accounts, pending approval at the Annual General Meeting.



 
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