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Accounting Policies of Avon Lifesciences Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

I. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements:

a) These financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair values. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards as prescribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 ('the Act') read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014, the provisions of the Act (to the extent notified) and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly-issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.

b) The Company follows mercantile system of accounting and recognizes all significant items of income and expenditure on accrual basis.

c) All income & expenditure having material bearing on the financial statements are recognized on an accrual basis.

d) Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make assumptions and estimates which it believes are reasonable under the circumstances that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities on the date of financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the year. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognized in the year in which the results are known/materialized.

II. Statement of Significant Accounting Policies:

A. Fixed Assets

All fixed assets are stated at Historical Cost less Depreciation except in the case of Land and Site Development whereas it is stated at Cost Plus Development expenditure. The expenses incurred in setting up the project are capitalized and apportioned to the assets procured for that project in proportion to the value of each of the asset.

B. Depreciation The depreciation on fixed assets has been provided on Written Down Value method for Fixed Assets in Diketene Division and common assets at Corporate Office and on Straight Line Method for Assets in Bio-Tech Division over the useful life of assets as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 Depreciation is not provided on Land. Depreciation on Assets acquired for the project are provided on Commercialization and depreciation on other assets if put into use is provided accordingly. The management estimates the useful lives for the Fixed Asset as follows:

C. Employees' Benefits

Contribution to defined schemes such as Provident Fund , ESI are charged as incurred on accrual basis.

D. Foreign Currency Transactions:

a. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at spot rates / average rates.

b. Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the yearend are restated at year end rates.

c. Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

d. In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate on the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the yearend rates.

e. Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets as applicable in AS 11

E. Inventories:

As per AS - 2 Inventories are valued as under:

a. Raw Materials, Stores, Consumables, Packing materials and other materials: at cost on Moving average basis

b. Work in process is carried at cost of input RM and estimated cost of manufacturing up to the stage of completion.

c. Finished Goods: At realizable value or cost whichever is lower.

F. Excise Duty, Service Tax and Education Cess

Excise Duty is accounted on the basis of payments made in respect of goods cleared. Cenvat , Service Tax and Education Cess on capital goods, raw materials and services as the case may be are accounted on receipt / completion of contracts, job works etc.

G. Revenue Recognition:

As per AS- 9 Revenue in respect of sales is recognized as and when goods are supplied and in respect of insurance claims, interest etc., is recognized when it is reasonably certain that the ultimate collection will be made.

H. R & D Expenditure:

Expenditure for capital items are debited to respective Fixed Assets and depreciation at applicable rates. Revenue expenditure is charged to Profit & Loss Account.

I. Deferred tax:

Deferred tax is accounted for by computing the tax effect of timing differences, which arise during the year and reversed in subsequent periods. Deferred Tax assets on accumulated losses and unabsored depreciation are recognized only to the extent there is certainty of realization of such asset in future.

J. Earnings Per Share :

The basic and diluted Earnings Per Share is calculated by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding.

K. Impairment of Assets :

At each Balance Sheet date, the carrying values of the assets are reviewed to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where there is an indication that there is a likely impairment loss for a group of assets, the company estimates the recoverable amount of the group of assets as a whole, to determine the value of impairment.

L. Investments:

Investments are stated at cost.

M. Borrowing Cost:

Borrowing Costs attributable to acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of the cost of that asset, till the period in which the asset is ready for use. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which these are incurred.

N. Provisions and Contingent Assets :

Provisions are recognized only when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and when a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. Contingent liability is disclosed for i) possible obligations, which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the company or ii) present obligation arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made. Contingent assists are not recognized in the financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may never be realized.

O. Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash and cash on deposit with banks.

P. Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and item of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated.

Gratuity paid by the company is a defined benefit plan. The present value of obligation is determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation.


Mar 31, 2014

I Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements:

a) The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 as adopted consistently by the Company.

b) The Company follows mercantile system of accounting and recognizes all significant items of income and expenditure on accrual basis.

c) All income & expenditure having material bearing on the financial statements are recognised on an accrual basis.

d) Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in confirmity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make assumptions and estimates which it believes are reasonable under the circumstances that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities on the date of financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the year. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the year in which the results are known / materialized.

II Statement of Significant Accounting Policies: A Fixed Assets:

All fixed assets are stated at Historical Cost less Depreciation except in the case of Land and Site Development whereas it is stated at Cost Plus Development expenditure. The expenses incurred in setting up the project are capitalised and apportioned to the assets procured for that project in proportion to the value of each of the asset.

B Depreciation:

The depreciation on fixed assets has been provided on Written Down Value method for Fixed Assets in Diketene Division and common assets at Corporate Office and on Straight Line Method for Assets in Bio-Tech Division in accordance with the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. Depreciation is not provided on Land. Depreciation on Assets acquired for the project are provided on Commercialisation and depreciation on other assets if put into use is provided accordingly. Further, depreciation on additions during the year is provided on prorata basis as per schedule-VI of the CompaniesAct,1956.

C Employees'' Benefits

Contribution to defined schemes such as Provident Fund , ESI are charged as incurred on accrual basis. The premium paid to LIC Gratuity Fund as per section 4 of the Gratuity Act, 1972 has been charged to Profit & Loss account.

D Foreign Currency Transactions:

a. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at spot rates/average rates.

b. Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates.

c. Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

d. In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate on the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

e. Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

E Inventories:

Inventories are valued as under:

a. Raw Materials, Stores, Consumables, Packing materials and other materials: at cost on Moving average basis

b. Work in process is carried at cost of input RM and estimated cost of manufacturing upto the stage of completion.

c. Finished Goods; At realizable value or cost whichever is lower.

F Excise Duty, Service Tax and Education Cess

Excise Duty is accounted on the basis of payments made in respect of goods cleared. CENVAT, Service Tax and Education Cess on capital goods, raw materials and services as the case may be are accounted on receipt/completion of contracts, job works etc.

G Revenue Recognition:

Revenue in respect of sales is recognised as and when goods are supplied and in respect of insurance claims, interest etc., is recognised when it is reasonably certain that the ultimate collection will be made.

H R&D Expenditure:

Expenditure for capital items are debited to respective Fixed Assets and depreciation at applicable rates. Revenue expenditure is charged to Profit & Loss Account.

I Deferred tax

Deferred Tax is accounted for by computing the tax effect of timing differences, which arise during the the year and reversed in subsequent periods. Deferred Tax assets on accumulated losses and unabsorbed depreciation are recognised only to the extent there is certainity of realisation of such asset in future.

J Earnings Per Share:

The basic and diluted Earnings Per Share is calculated by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding.

K Impairment of Assets:

At each Balance Sheet date, the carrying values of the assets are reviewed to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where there is an indication that there is a likely impairment loss for a group of assets, the company estimates the recoverable amount of the group of assets as a whole, to determine the value of impairment.

L Investments:

Investments are stated at cost.

M Borrowing Costs:

Borrowing Costs attributable to acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of that asset, till the period in which the asset is ready for use. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which these are incurred.

N Provisions and Contingent Assets:

Provisions are recognised only when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and when a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. Contingent liability is disclosed for i) possible obligations, which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the company or ii) present obligation arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made. Contingent assests are not recognised in the financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may may never be realised.


Mar 31, 2012

A. Fixed Assets:

All fixed assets are stated at Historical Cost less Depreciation except in the case of Land and Site Development whereas it is stated at Cost Plus Development expenditure. The expenses incurred in setting up the project are capitalised and apportioned to the assets procured for that project in proportion to the value of each of the asset.

B. Depreciation:

The depreciation on fixed assets has been provided on Written Down Value method for Fixed Assets in Diketene Division and common assets at Corporate Office and on Straight Line Method for Assets in Bio-Tech Division in accordance with the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. Depreciation is not provided on Land. Depreciation on assets acquired for the project are provided on commercialisation and depreciation on other assets if put into use is provided accordingly. Further, depreciation on additions during the year is provided on prorata basis as per Schedule-VI of the Companies Act, 1956.

C. Employees' Benefits:

Contribution to defined schemes such as Provident Fund, ESI are charged as incurred on accrual basis. The premium paid to LIC Gratuity Fund as per section 4 of the Gratuity Act, 1972 has been charged to Profit & Loss account.

D. Foreign Currency Transactions:

a. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at spot rates/average rates.

b. Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates.

c. Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

d. In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate on the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

e. Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

E. Inventories:

Inventories are valued as under:

a. Raw Materials, Stores, Consumables, Packing materials and other materials: at cost on moving average basis

b. Work in process is carried at cost of input RM and estimated cost of manufacturing upto the stage of completion.

c. Finished Goods: At realizable value or cost whichever is lower.

F. Excise Duty, Service Tax and Education Cess:

Excise Duty is accounted on the basis of payments made in respect of goods cleared. CENVAT, Service Tax and Education Cess on capital goods, raw materials and services as the case may be are accounted on receipt/completion of contracts, job works etc.

G. Revenue Recognition:

Revenue in respect of sales is recognised as and when goods are supplied and in respect of insurance claims, interest etc., is recognised when it is reasonably certain that the ultimate collection will be made.

H. R&D Expenditure:

Expenditure for capital items are debited to respective Fixed Assets and depreciation at applicable rates. Revenue expenditure is charged to Profit & Loss Account.

I. Deferred tax:

Deferred Tax is accounted for by computing the tax effect of timing differences, which arise during the the year and reversed in subsequent periods. Deferred Tax assets on accumulated losses and unabsorbed depreciation are recognised only to the extent there is certainity of realisation of such asset in future.

J. Earnings Per Share:

The basic and diluted Earnings Per Share is calculated by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding.

K. Impairment of Assets:

At each Balance Sheet date, the carrying values of the assets are reviewed to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where there is an indication that there is a likely impairment loss for a group of assets, the company estimates the recoverable amount of the group of assets as a whole, to determine the value of impairment.

L. Investments:

Investments are stated at cost. The Company has acquired the shares of subsidiary company during the year and the same is stated at cost.

M. Borrowing Costs:

Borrowing Costs attributable to acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of that asset, till the period in which the asset is ready for use. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which these are incurred.

N. Provisions and Contingent Assets:

Provisions are recognised only when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and when a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. Contingent liability is disclosed for i) possible obligations, which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the company or ii) present obligation arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made. Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may may never be realised.


Mar 31, 2011

I Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements:

a) The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 as adopted consistently by the Company.

b) The Company follows mercantile system of accounting and recognizes ail significant items of income and expenditure on accrual basis.

c) All income & expenditure having material bearing on the financial statements are recognised on an accrual basis.

d) Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in confirmity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make assumptions and estimates which it believes are reasonable under the circumastances that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities on the date of financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the year. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the year in which the results are known / materialized.

II Statement of Significant Accounting Policies:

A Fixed Assets:

All fixed assets are stated at Historical Cost less Depreciation except in the case of Land and Site Development whereas it is stated at Cost Plus Development expenditure The expenses incurred in setting up the project are capitalised and apportioned to the assets procured for that project in proportion to the value of each of the asset.

B Depreciation:

The depreciation on fixed assets has been provided on Written Down Value method for Fixed Assets in Diketene Division and common assets at Corporate Office and on Straight Line Method for Assets in Bio-Tech Division in accordance with the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. Depreciation is not provided on Land. Depreciation on Assets acquired for the project are provided on Commercialisation and depreciation on other assets if put into use is provided accordingly. Further, depreciation on additions during the year is provided on prorata basis as per schedule-VI of the Companies Act, 1956.

C Employees Benefits

Contribution to defined schemes such as Provident Fund , ESI are charged as incurred on accrual basis. The premium paid to LIC Gratuity Fund as per section 4 of the Gratuity Act, 1972 has been charged to Profit & Loss account.

D Foreign Currency Transactions:

Assets and Liabilities relating to foreign currency transactions remaining unsettled at the end of the year are taken "at the contracted rates" when covered by Foreign Exchange Contracts. Monetary assets and liabilities related to Foreign Currency transactions remaining unsettled at the end of the year are translated at the year end rates. Foreign Exchange transactions (Exports/ Imports) are accounted for at contract rates when covered by foreign exchange contracts or at the prevailing rates on the date of transactions when such transactions are not covered by forward contracts and in such case exchange rate fluctuations are accounted for at the time of realisation / payment.

E Inventories:

Inventories are valued as under:

a. Raw Materials, Stores, Consumables, Packing materials and other materials: at cost on FIFO basis

b. Work in process is carried at cost of input RM and estimated cost of manufacturing upto the stage of completion.

c. Finished Goods:Atrealizablevalueorcostwhicheverislower.

F Excise Duty, Service Tax and Education Cess

Excise Duty is accounted on the basis of payments made in respect of goods cleared. CENVAT, Service Tax and Education Cess on capital goods, raw materials and services as the case may be are accounted on receipt / completion of contracts, job works etc.

G Revenue Recognition:

Revenue in respect of sales is recognised as and when goods are supplied and in respect of insurance claims, interest etc., is recognised when it is reasonably certain that the ultimate collection will be made.

H R&D Expenditure:

Expenditure for capital items are debited to respective Fixed Assets and depreciation at applicable rates. Revenue expenditure is charged to Profit & Loss Account.

I Deferred tax:

Deferred Tax is accounted for by computing the tax effect of timing differences, which arise during the the year and reversed in subsequent periods. Deferred Tax assets on accumulated losses and unabsorbed depreciation are recognised only to the extent there is certainity of realisation of such asset in future.

J Earnings Per Share:

The basic and diluted Earnings Per Share is calculated by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding.

K Impairment of Assets:

At each Balance Sheet date, the carrying values of the assets are reviewed to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where there is an indication that there is a likely impairment loss for a group of assets, the company estimates the recoverable amount of the group of assets as a whole, to determine the value of impairment.

L Investments:

Investments are stated at cost.

M Borrowing Costs:

Borrowing Costs attributable to acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of that asset, till the period in which the asset is ready for use. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which these are incurred.

N Provisions and Contingent Assets:

Provisions are recognised only when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and when a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. Contingent liability is disclosed for I) possible obligations, which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the company or ii) present obligation arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can not be made. Contingent assests are not recognised in the financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may may never be realised.








Mar 31, 2010

I Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements:

a) The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 as adopted consistently by the Company.

b) The Company follows mercantile system of accounting and recognizes all significant items of income and expenditure on accrual basis.

c) All income and expenditure having material bearing on the financial statements are recognised on an accrual basis.

d) Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in confirmity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make assumptions and estimates which it believes are reasonable under the circumstances that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities on the date of financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the year. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the year in which the results are known / materialized.

II Statement of Significant Accounting Polities:

A Fixed Assets:

All fixed assets are stated at Historical Cost less Depreciation except in the case of Land and Site Development whereas it is stated at Cost Plus Development expenditure.The expenses incurred in setting up the project are capitalised and apportioned to the assets procured for that project in proportion to the value of each of the asset.

B Depreciation:

The depreciation on fixed assets has been provided on Written Down Vaiue method for Fixed Assets in Diketene Division and common assets at Corporate Office and on Straight Line Method for Assets in Bio-Tech Division in accordance with the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. Depreciation is not provided on Land.

Depreciation on Assets acquired for the project are provided on commercialisation and depreciation on other assets, if put into use, is provided accordingly. Further, depreciation on additions during the year is provided on prorata basis as per Schedule-VI of the Companies Act, 1956.

C Employees Benefits:

Contribution to defined schemes such as Provident Fund, ESI are charged as incurred on accrual basis. The premium paid to LIC Gratuity Fund as per section 4 of the Gratuity Act, 1972 has been charged to Profit & Loss account.

D Foreign Currency Transactions:

Assets and Liabilities relating to foreign currency transactions remaining unsettled at the end of the year are taken "at the contracted rates" when covered by Foreign Exchange Contracts. Monetary assets and liabilities related to Foreign Currency transactions remaining unsettled at the end of the year are translated at the year end rates. Foreign Exchange transactions (Exports / Imports) are accounted for at contract rates when covered by foreign exchange contracts or at the prevailing rates on the date of transactions when such transactions are not covered by forward contracts and in such case exchange rate fluctuations are accounted for at the time of realisation / payment.

E Inventories:

Inventories are valued as under:

a. Raw Materials, Stores, Consumables, Packing materials and other materials: at cost on FIFO basis.

b. Work in process is carried at cost of input RM and estimated cost of manufacturing upto the stage of completion.

c. Finished Goods: At realizable value or cost whichever is lower.

F Excise Duty, ServiceTax and Education Cess:

Excise Duty is accounted on the basis of payments made in respect of goods cleared.

CENVAT, Service Tax and Education Cess on capital goods, raw materials and services as the case may be are accounted on receipt/completion of contracts, job works etc.

G Revenue Recognition:

Revenue in respect of sales is recognised as and when goods are supplied and in respect of insurance claims, interest etc., is recognised, when it is reasonably certain that the ultimate collection will be made.

H R & D Expenditure:

Expenditure for capital items are debited to respective Fixed Assets and depreciation at applicable rates. Revenue expenditure is charged to Profit & Loss Account.

I Deferred Tax:

Deferred Tax is accounted for by computing the tax effect of timing differences, which arise during the year and reversed in subsequent periods. Deferred Tax assets on accumulated losses and unabsorbed depreciation are recognised only to the extent there is certainity of realisation of such asset in future.

J Earnings Per Share:

The basic and diluted Earnings Per Share is calculated by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding.

K Impairment of Assets:

At each Balance Sheet date, the carrying values of the assets are reviewed to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where there is an indication that there is a likely impairment loss for a group of assets, the company estimates the recoverable amount of the group of assets as a whole, to determine the value of impairment.

L Investments:

Investments are stated at cost.

M Borrowing Costs:

Borrowing Costs attributable to acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, are capitalised as part of the cost of that asset, till the period in which the asset is ready for use. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which these are incurred.

N Provisions and Contingent Assets:

Provisions are recognised only when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and when a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. Contingent liability is disclosed for i) possible obligations, which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the company or ii) present obligation arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made. Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may never be realised.

 
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