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Accounting Policies of Bajaj Auto Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

1) System of accounting

i) The Company follows the mercantile system of accounting and recognises income and expenditure on an accrual basis except in case of significant uncertainties.

ii) Financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention. These costs are not adjusted to reflect the impact of changing value in the purchasing power of money.

iii) Estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the financial statements and disclosures are based upon Management''s evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the financial statements, which may differ from the actual results at a subsequent date.

2) Revenue recognition

a) Sales

i) Domestic sales are accounted for on dispatch from the point of sale i.e. when the risks are transferred to the buyer.

ii) Export sales are recognised on the date of the mate''s receipt/shipped on board and initially recorded at the relevant exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

b) Export incentives

Export incentives are accounted for on export of goods if the entitlements can be estimated with reasonable accuracy and conditions precedent to claim are fulfilled.

c) Other income

The Company recognises income (including rent etc.) on accrual basis. However, where the ultimate collection of the same lacks reasonable certainty, revenue recognition is postponed to the extent of uncertainty.

d) Investment income

(1) Interest income is accrued over the period of the investment and net of amortisation of premium/discount with respect to fixed income securities, thereby recognising the implicit yield to maturity, with reference to coupon dates, where applicable. However, income is accrued only where interest is serviced regularly and is not in arrears, as per the guidelines framed by the Management.

(2) Dividend is accrued in the year in which it is declared whereby a right to receive is established.

(3) Profit/loss on sale of investments is recognised on the contract date.

3) Fixed assets and depreciation

A. Tangible assets

i) Tangible assets except land are carried at cost of acquisition, construction or at manufacturing cost, as the case may be, less accumulated depreciation and amortisation. Land is carried at cost of acquisition. Cost represents all expenses directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for its expected use.

ii) Land and buildings acquired/constructed, not intended to be used in the operations of the Company are categorised as investment property under Investments and not as Fixed assets.

B. Depreciation and amortisation

(a) Leasehold land

Premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease.

(b) On other tangible assets

i. a. From the current year, depreciation is provided on a pro rata basis on the straight line method over the useful lives

of the assets as against the past practice of computing depreciation at rates with reference to the life of assets subject to the minimum of rates provided by Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

b. Useful life of assets are determined by the Management by internal technical assessments except in case where such assessment suggests a life significantly different from those prescribed by Schedule II- Part ''C'', where the useful life is as assessed and certified by a technical expert.

ii. Assets which are depreciated over useful life/residual value different than those indicated by Schedule II are as under:

iii. Depreciation on additions is being provided on pro rata basis from the month of such additions.

iv. Depreciation on assets sold, discarded or demolished during the year is being provided at their rates upto the month in which such assets are sold, discarded or demolished.

C. Intangible assets

a) Technical know-how acquired

Technical know-how acquired is stated at acquisition cost (including income-tax and R&D cess but net of accumulated amortisation). Technical know-how is amortised equally over a period of estimated useful life i.e. six years.

b) Technical know-how developed by the Company

i) Expenditure incurred on know-how developed by the Company, post research stage, is recognised as an intangible asset, if and only if the future economic benefits attributable are probable to flow to the Company and the costs can be measured reliably.

ii) The cost of technical know-how developed is amortised equally over its estimated life i.e. generally three years from the date of commercial production.

D. Impairment of assets

An assessment is done at each Balance Sheet date as to whether there are any indications that an asset may be impaired.

If any such indication exists, an estimate of the recoverable amount of the asset/Cash Generating Unit (CGU) is made. Where the carrying value of the asset/CGU exceeds the recoverable amount, the carrying value is written down to the recoverable amount.

4) Investments

a) Fixed income securities are carried at cost, less amortisation of premium/discount, as the case may be, and provision for diminution, if any, as considered necessary.

b) Investments other than fixed income securities intended to be held for a long-term are valued at cost of acquisition, less provision for diminution as considered necessary.

c) Investments with maturity of less than 3 months from the date of acquisition are classified as cash and cash equivalents.

d) Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution is made to recognise a decline, other than temporary, in the value of the investments. However, current investments, representing fixed income securities with a maturity less than 1 year and investment not intended to be held for a period more than 1 year, are stated at lower of cost or fair value.

e) The Management has laid out guidelines for the purpose of assessing likely impairments in investments and for making provisions based on given criteria. Appropriate provisions are accordingly made, which in the opinion of the Management are considered adequate.

f) Investment property representing immoveable property intended to be leased out and not intended to be used by the Company are carried at cost, less depreciation computed in the manner prescribed for Fixed assets.

5) Inventories

Cost of inventories have been computed to include all costs of purchases, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

a) Finished stocks of vehicles, auto spare parts and work-in-progress are valued at cost or net realisable value whichever is lower. Cost of finished stocks of vehicles lying in the factory premises, branches, depots are valued inclusive of excise duty.

b) Stores, packing material and tools are valued at cost arrived at on weighted average basis or net realisable value, whichever is lower.

c) Raw materials and components are valued at cost arrived at on weighted average basis or lower of cost and net realisable value, as circumstances demand. However, obsolete and slow moving items are valued at cost or estimated realisable value whichever is lower.

d) Inventory of machinery spares and maintenance materials not being material are expensed in the year of purchase.

However, machinery spares forming key components specific to a machinery and held as insurance spares are capitalised alongwith the cost of the asset.

e) Goods in transit are stated at actual cost incurred upto the date of Balance Sheet.

6) Foreign currency transactions

a) On initial recognition, all foreign currency transactions are recorded at foreign exchange rate on the date of transaction.

b) Monetary items of current assets and liabilities in foreign currency outstanding at the close of financial year are revalorised at the appropriate exchange rates prevailing at the close of the year.

c) The gain or loss on decrease/increase in reporting currency due to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, in case of monetary current assets and liabilities in foreign currency, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the manner detailed in note 38 to financial statements.

d) Fixed assets purchased at liaison offices in foreign exchange are recorded at their historical cost computed with reference to the average rate of foreign exchange remitted to the liaison office.

e) Foreign exchange contracts/derivatives:

i) Cash flow hedges -

Changes in the fair value of a derivative hedging instrument that qualify for hedge accounting as per the principles of hedge accounting and designated as a cash flow hedge are recognised as Hedge reserve and presented within Reserves and surplus, to the extent that the hedge is effective. To the extent that the hedge is ineffective, changes in fair value are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively.

The cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in Hedge reserve, remains there until the forecast transaction occurs.

When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in equity at that time is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in Hedge reserve is immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

ii) Profits and losses arising from either cancellation or utilisation of contracts are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as detailed in note 38 to financial statements.

7) Research and Development expenditure

Research and Development expenditure is charged to revenue under the natural heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. Payments for R&D work by contracted agency are being expensed out upto the stage of completion.

However, expenditure incurred at development phase, where it is reasonably certain that outcome of research will be commercially exploited to yield economic benefits to the Company, is considered as an Intangible asset and accounted in the manner specified in clause 3 C b) above.

8) Employee benefits

a) Privilege leave entitlements

Privilege leave entitlements are recognised as a liability, in the calendar year of rendering of service, as per the rules of the Company. As accumulated leave can be availed and/or encashed at any time during the tenure of employment the liability is recognised at the actuarially determined value by an appointed actuary.

b) Gratuity

Payment for present liability of future payment of gratuity is being made to approved gratuity fund, which fully covers the same under Cash Accumulation Policy and Debt fund of the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company Ltd. (BALIC). However, any deficit in plan assets managed by LIC and BALIC as compared to the actuarial liability is recognised as a liability.

c) Superannuation

Defined contribution to superannuation fund is being made as per the scheme of the Company.

d) Provident fund contributions are made to Company''s Provident Fund Trust. Deficits, if any, of the fund as compared to actuarial liability is to be additionally contributed by the Company and hence recognised as a liability.

e) Defined contribution to Employees Pension Scheme 1995 is made to Government Provident Fund Authority.

9) Taxation

a) Provision for tax is made for the current accounting period (reporting period) on the basis of the taxable profits computed

in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961. Excess/short provisions and interest thereon are recognised only on completion of assessment or where adjustments made by the Assessing Officer are disputed, on receiving the ''Order Giving Effect'' to the tax determined by the CIT (Appeals) and thereafter on final settlement of further disputes.

b) Deferred tax resulting from timing difference between book profits and taxable profits are accounted for to the extent deferred tax assets and liabilities are expected to crystalise with reasonable certainty. However, in case of deferred tax assets, representing unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward losses, are recognised, if and only if there is virtual certainty that there would be adequate future taxable income against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Deferred tax is recognised on adjustments to revenue reserves to the extent the adjustments are allowable as deductions in determination of taxable income and they would reverse out in future periods.

10) Provisions and contingent liabilities

The Company creates a provision when there is present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation such as product warranty costs. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

11) Operating leases As a lessee

Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the period of the lease.

As a lessor

The Company has leased certain tangible assets and such leases where the Company has substantially retained all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as operating leases. Lease income on such operating leases are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term which is representative of the time pattern in which benefit derived from the use of the leased asset is diminished. Initial direct costs are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.

12) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Earnings considered in ascertaining the Company''s earnings per share is the net profit for the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period and all periods presented is adjusted for events, such as bonus shares, other than the conversion of potential equity shares, that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of share outstanding during the period is adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

a. Of the above

i. 144,683,510 equity shares were allotted as fully paid bonus shares by capitalisation of General reserve by the Company on 13 September 2010.

ii. 101,183,510 equity shares were allotted as fully paid up pursuant to the scheme of arrangement for demerger of erstwhile Bajaj Auto Ltd. (now Bajaj Holdings & Investment Ltd.) by the Company on 3 April 2008.

iii. 1,805,071 equity shares thereof (excluding 1,805,071 equity shares allotted as bonus shares thereon) are deemed to be issued by way of Euro Equity Issue represented by Global Depository Receipts (GDR) evidencing Global Depository Shares outstanding on the record date. Outstanding GDRs at the close of the year were 60,044 (60,044)


Mar 31, 2014

1) System of accounting

i) The Company follows the mercantile system of accounting and recognises income and expenditure on an accrual basis except in case of significant uncertainties.

ii) Financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention. These costs are not adjusted to reflect the impact of changing value in the purchasing power of money.

iii) Estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the financial statements and disclosures are based upon Management''s evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the financial statements, which may differ from the actual results at a subsequent date.

2) Revenue recognition:

a) Sales:

i) Domestic sales are accounted for on dispatch from the point of sale i.e. when the risks are transferred to the buyer.

ii) Export sales are recognised on the date of the mate''s receipt/shipped on board and initially recorded at the relevant exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

b) Export incentives:

Export incentives are accounted for on export of goods if the entitlements can be estimated with reasonable accuracy and conditions precedent to claim are fulfilled.

c) Other income:

The Company recognises income (including rent etc.) on accrual basis. However, where the ultimate collection of the same lacks reasonable certainty, revenue recognition is postponed to the extent of uncertainty.

d) Investment income:

(1) Interest income is accrued over the period of the loan/investment and net of amortisation of premium/discount with respect to fixed income securities, thereby recognising the implicit yield to maturity, with reference to coupon dates, where applicable. However, income is accrued only where interest is serviced regularly and is not in arrears, as per the guidelines framed by the Management.

(2) Dividend is accrued in the year in which it is declared whereby a right to receive is established.

(3) Profit/loss on sale of investments is recognised on the contract date.

3) Fixed assets and depreciation

(A) Fixed assets

i) Fixed assets except freehold land are carried at cost of acquisition, construction or at manufacturing cost, as the case may be, less accumulated depreciation and amortisation. Freehold land is carried at cost of acquisition.

ii) Land and buildings acquired/constructed, not intended to be used in the operations of the Company are categorised as investment property under Investments and not as Fixed assets.

(B) Depreciation and amortisation:

(a) Leasehold land

Premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease.

(b) On other Fixed assets

Depreciation is provided at the rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 or at rates computed with reference to the economic life of the assets where the estimated economic life is shorter than the life inferred by the Schedule XIV rates such as aircraft which is written off over ten years i.e. depreciation rate of 9.5% vis a vis Schedule XIV rate of 5.6%.

i. Depreciation on additions is being provided on prorata basis from the month of such additions.

ii. Depreciation on assets sold, discarded or demolished during the year is being provided at their rates upto the month in which such assets are sold, discarded or demolished.

4) Intangible assets

a) Technical know-how acquired

Expenditure on technical know-how acquired (including income-tax and R&D cess) is being amortised equally over a period of six years.

b) Technical know-how developed by the Company

i. Expenditure incurred on know-how developed by the Company, post research stage, is recognised as an intangible asset, if and only if the future economic benefits attributable are probable to flow to the Company and the costs can be measured reliably.

ii. The cost of technical know-how developed is amortised equally over its estimated life i.e. generally three years from the date of commercial production.

5) Investments

a) Fixed income securities remaining with the Company on vesting of the manufacturing undertaking of erstwhile Bajaj Auto Ltd., are carried at their fair market values as at 1 April 2007 where the carrying costs of such investments were higher on that date, less amortisation of premium/ discount thereafter, as the case may be.

b) Other fixed income securities are carried at cost, less amortisation of premium/discount, as the case may be, and provision for diminution, if any, as considered necessary.

c) Investments other than fixed income securities intended to be held for a long-term are valued at cost of acquisition, less provision for diminution as considered necessary.

d) Investments with maturity of less than 3 months from the date of acquisition are classified as cash and cash equivalents.

e) Investments made by the Company are, generally, of a long-term nature, hence diminutions in value of quoted and unquoted investments are not considered to be of a permanent nature. However, current investments, representing fixed income securities with a maturity less than 1 year and investment not intended to be held for a period more than 1 year, are stated at lower of cost or fair value.

f) The Management has laid out guidelines for the purpose of assessing likely impairments in investments and for making provisions based on given criteria. Appropriate provisions are accordingly made, which in the opinion of the Management are considered adequate.

g) Investment property is carried at cost, less depreciation computed in the manner prescribed for Fixed assets.

6) Inventories

Cost of inventories have been computed to include all costs of purchases, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

a) Finished stocks of vehicles, auto spare parts and work-in-progress are valued at cost or net realisable value whichever is lower. Finished stocks of vehicles lying in the factory premises, branches, depots are valued inclusive of excise duty.

b) Stores, packing material and tools are valued at cost arrived at on weighted average basis. However, obsolete and slow moving items are valued at cost or estimated realisable value whichever is lower.

c) Raw materials and components are valued at cost arrived at on weighted average basis or lower of cost and net realisable value, as circumstances demand. However, obsolete and slow moving items are valued at cost or estimated realisable value whichever is lower.

d) Machinery spares and maintenance materials are charged out as expense in the year of purchase. However, machinery spares forming key components specific to a machinery and held as insurance spares are capitalised along with the cost of the asset.

e) Goods in transit are stated at actual cost incurred upto the date of Balance Sheet.

7) Foreign currency transactions

a) Monetary items of current assets and liabilities in foreign currency outstanding at the close of financial year are revalorised at the appropriate exchange rates prevailing at the close of the year.

b) The gain or loss on decrease/increase in reporting currency due to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, in case of monetary current assets and liabilities in foreign currency, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the manner detailed in note 37 to financial statements.

c) Fixed assets purchased at liaison offices in foreign exchange are recorded at their historical cost computed with reference to the average rate of foreign exchange remitted to the liaison office.

d) Foreign exchange contracts/derivatives:

i) Cash flow hedges -

Changes in the fair value of a derivative hedging instrument that qualify for hedge accounting as per the principles of hedge accounting and designated as a cash flow hedge are recognised as Hedge reserve and presented within Reserves and surplus, to the extent that the hedge is effective. To the extent that the hedge is ineffective, changes in fair value are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in Hedge reserve, remains there until the forecast transaction occurs.

When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in equity at that time is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in Hedge reserve is immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Refer note 25 to financial statements for disclosure.

ii) Profits and losses arising from either cancellation or utilisation of contracts are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as detailed in note 37 to financial statements.

8) Research & Development expenditure

Research & Development expenditure is charged to revenue under the natural heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. Payments for R&D work by contracted agency are being expensed out upto the stage of completion. However, expenditure incurred at development phase, where it is reasonably certain that outcome of research will be commercially exploited to yield economic benefits to the Company, is considered as an Intangible asset and accounted in the manner specified in clause 4 b) above.

9) Employee benefits

a) Privilege leave entitlements

Privilege leave entitlements are recognised as a liability, in the calendar year of rendering of service, as per the rules of the Company. As accumulated leave can be availed and/or encashed at any time during the tenure of employment the liability is recognised at the actuarially determined value by an appointed actuary.

b) Gratuity

Payment for present liability of future payment of gratuity is being made to approved gratuity fund, which fully covers the same under Cash Accumulation Policy and Debt fund of the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company Ltd. (BALIC). However, any deficit in plan assets managed by LIC and BALIC as compared to the actuarial liability is recognised as a liability.

c) Superannuation

Defined contribution to superannuation fund is being made as per the scheme of the Company.

d) Provident fund contributions are made to Company''s Provident Fund Trust. Deficits, if any, of the fund as compared to actuarial liability is to be additionally contributed by the Company and hence recognised as a liability.

e) Defined contribution to Employees Pension Scheme 1995 is made to Government Provident Fund Authority.

10) Taxation

a) Provision for tax is made for the current accounting period (reporting period) on the basis of the taxable profits computed in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961. Excess/short provisions and interest thereon are recognised only on completion of assessment or where adjustments made by the Assessing Officer are disputed, on receiving the "Order Giving Effect" to the tax determined by the CIT (Appeals) and thereafter on final settlement of further disputes.

b) Deferred tax resulting from timing difference between book profits and taxable profits are accounted for to the extent deferred tax assets and liabilities are expected to crystallise with reasonable certainty. However, in case of deferred tax assets, representing unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward losses, are recognised, if and only if there is virtual certainty that there would be adequate future taxable income against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Deferred tax is recognised on adjustments to revenue reserves to the extent the adjustments are allowable as deductions in determination of taxable income and they would reverse out in future periods.

11) Provisions and contingent liabilities

The Company creates a provision when there is present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation such as product warranty costs. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.


Mar 31, 2013

1) System of accounting

i) The Company follows the mercantile system of accounting and recognises income and expenditure on an accrual basis except in case of significant uncertainties.

ii) Financial Statements are prepared under the Historical cost convention. These costs are not adjusted to reflect the impact of changing value in the purchasing power of money.

iii) Estimates and Assumptions used in the preparation of the financial statements and disclosures are based upon management''s evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the Financial Statements, which may differ from the actual results at a subsequent date.

2) Revenue recognition:

a) Sales:

i) Domestic Sales are accounted for on dispatch from the point of sale.

ii) Export sales are recognised on the date of the Mate''s Receipt/shipped on Board and initially recorded at the relevant exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

b) Export incentives:

Export incentives are accounted for on export of goods if the entitlements can be estimated with reasonable accuracy and conditions precedent to claim are fulfilled.

c) Income:

The Company recognises income (including rent etc.) on accrual basis. However, where the ultimate collection of the same lacks reasonable certainty, revenue recognition is postponed to the extent of uncertainty.

(1) Interest income is accrued over the period of the loan/investment and net of amortisation of premium/discount with respect to fixed income securities, thereby recognizing the implicit yield to maturity, with reference to coupon dates, where applicable. However, income is accrued only where interest is serviced regularly and is not in arrears, as per the guidelines framed by the management.

(2) Dividend is accrued in the year in which it is declared whereby a right to receive is established.

(3) Profit/loss on sale of investments is recognised on the contract date.

3) Fixed assets and depreciation

(A) Fixed assets

i) Fixed assets except freehold land are carried at cost of acquisition, construction or at manufacturing cost, as the case may be, less accumulated depreciation and amortisation. Freehold land is carried at cost of acquisition.

ii) Land and buildings acquired/constructed, not intended to be used in the operations of the Company are categorised as investment property under Investments and not as Fixed assets.

(B) Depreciation and amortisation:

(a) Leasehold land

Premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease.

(b) On other Fixed assets

Depreciation is provided at the rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 or at rates computed with reference to the economic life of the assets where the estimated economic life is shorter than the life inferred by the Schedule XIV rates.

i. Depreciation on additions is being provided on prorata basis from the month of such additions.

ii. Depreciation on assets sold, discarded or demolished during the year is being provided at their rates upto the month in which such assets are sold, discarded or demolished.

4) intangible assets

a) Technical know-how acquired

Expenditure on technical know-how acquired (including Income-tax and R&D cess) is being amortised equally over a period of six years.

b) Technical know-how developed by the Company

i) Expenditure incurred on know-how developed by the Company, post research stage, is recognised as an intangible asset, if and only if the future economic benefits attributable are probable to flow to the Company and the costs can be measured reliably.

ii) The cost of technical Know-how developed is amortised equally over its estimated life i.e. generally three years.

5) Investments

a) Fixed income securities remaining with the Company on vesting of the manufacturing undertaking of erstwhile Bajaj Auto Ltd., are carried at their fair market values as at 1 April 2007 where the carrying costs of such investments were higher on that date, less amortisation of premium/discount thereafter, as the case may be.

b) Other fixed income securities are carried at cost, less amortisation of premium/discount, as the case may be, and provision for diminution, if any, as considered necessary.

c) Investments other than fixed income securities intended to be held for a long term are valued at cost of acquisition, less provision for diminution as necessary.

d) Investments with maturity of less than 3 months from the date of acquisition are classified as cash and cash equivalents.

e) Investments made by the Company are, generally, of a long-term nature, hence diminutions in value of quoted and unquoted investments are not considered to be of a permanent nature. However, current investments, representing fixed income securities with a maturity less than 1 year and investment not intended to be held for a period more than 1 year, are stated at lower of cost or fair value.

f) The management has laid out guidelines for the purpose of assessing likely impairments in investments and for making provisions based on given criteria. Appropriate provisions are accordingly made, which in the opinion of the management are considered adequate.

g) Investment property is carried at cost, less depreciation computed in the manner prescribed for Fixed assets.

6) Inventories

Cost of inventories have been computed to include all costs of purchases, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

a) Finished stocks of vehicles, auto spare parts and work-in-progress are valued at cost or net realisable value whichever is lower. Finished stocks of vehicles lying in the factory premises, branches, depots are valued inclusive of excise duty.

b) Stores, packing material and tools are valued at cost arrived at on weighted average basis. However, obsolete and slow moving items are valued at cost or estimated realisable value whichever is lower.

c) Raw materials and components are valued at cost arrived at on weighted average basis or lower of cost and net realisable value, as circumstances demand. However, obsolete and slow moving items are valued at cost or estimated realisable value whichever is lower.

d) Machinery spares and maintenance materials are charged out as expense in the year of purchase. However, machinery spares forming key components specific to a machinery and held as insurance spares are capitalised along with the cost of the asset.

e) Goods in transit are stated at actual cost incurred upto the date of Balance Sheet.

7) Foreign currency transactions

a) Monetary items of current assets and liabilities in foreign currency outstanding at the close of financial year are revalorised at the appropriate exchange rates prevailing at the close of the year.

b) The gain or loss on decrease/increase in reporting currency due to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, in case of monetary current assets and liabilities in foreign currency, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the manner detailed in note 37 to financial statements.

c) Fixed assets purchased at liaison offices in foreign exchange are recorded at their historical cost computed with reference to the average rate of foreign exchange remitted to the liaison office.

d) Foreign exchange contracts/derivatives:

i) Cash flow hedges -

Changes in the fair value of a derivative hedging instrument that qualify for hedge accounting as per the principles of hedge accounting and designated as a cash flow hedge are recognised as Hedge reserve and presented within Reserves and surplus, to the extent that the hedge is effective. To the extent that the hedge is ineffective, changes in fair value are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively.

The cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in Hedge reserve, remains there until the forecast transaction occurs.

When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in equity at that time is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in Hedge reserve is immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Refer note 25 to financial statements for disclosure.

ii) Profits and losses arising from either cancellation or utilisation of contracts are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as detailed in note 37 to financial statements.

8) Research & Development expenditure

Research and Development Expenditure is charged to revenue under the natural heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. Payments for R&D work by contracted agency are being expensed out upto the stage of completion.

However, expenditure incurred at development phase, where it is reasonably certain that outcome of research will be commercially exploited to yield economic benefits to the Company, is considered as an Intangible asset and accounted in the manner specified in clause 4 b) above.

9) Employee benefits

a) Privilege leave entitlements

Privilege leave entitlements are recognised as a liability, in the calendar year of rendering of service, as per the rules of the Company. As accumulated leave can be availed and/or encashed at any time during the tenure of employment the liability is recognised at the actuarially determined value by an appointed actuary.

b) Gratuity

Payment for present liability of future payment of gratuity is being made to approved Gratuity Fund, which fully covers the same under Cash Accumulation Policy of the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company Ltd. (BALIC). However, any deficit in plan assets managed by LIC and BALIC as compared to the actuarial liability is recognised as a liability.

c) Superannuation

Defined contribution to Superannuation fund is being made as per the scheme of the Company.

d) Provident fund contributions are made to Company''s Provident Fund Trust. Deficits, if any, of the fund as compared to actuarial liability is to be additionally contributed by the Company and hence recognised as a liability.

e) Defined contribution to Employees Pension Scheme 1995 is made to Government Provident Fund Authority.

10) Taxation

a) Provision for tax is made for the current accounting period (reporting period) on the basis of the taxable profits computed in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961.

b) Deferred tax resulting from timing difference between book profits and taxable profits are accounted for to the extent deferred tax assets and liabilities are expected to crystalise with reasonable certainty. However, in case of deferred tax assets, representing unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward losses, are recognised, if and only if there is virtual certainty that there would be adequate future taxable income against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Deferred tax is recognised on adjustments to revenue reserves to the extent the adjustments are allowable as deductions in determination of taxable income and they would reverse out in future periods.

11) Provisions and contingent liabilities

The Company creates a provision when there is present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation such as product warranty costs.

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.


Mar 31, 2012

Basis of preparation

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India under the historical cost convention on accrual basis. These financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material aspects with the accounting standards notified under Section 211(3C) [Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, as amended] and the other relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company's normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current - non current classification of assets and liabilities.

1) System of accounting

i) The Company follows the mercantile system of accounting and recognises income and expenditure on an accrual basis except in case of significant uncertainties.

ii) Financial Statements are prepared under the Historical cost convention. These costs are not adjusted to reflect the impact of changing value in the purchasing power of money.

iii) Estimates and Assumptions used in the preparation of the financial statements and disclosures are based upon management's evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the financial statements, which may differ from the actual results at a subsequent date.

2) Revenue recognition

a) Sales

i) Domestic sales are accounted for on dispatch from the point of sale.

ii) Export sales are recognised on the date of the Mate's Receipt/shipped on board and initially recorded at the relevant exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

b) Export incentives

Export incentives are accounted for on export of goods if the entitlements can be estimated with reasonable accuracy and conditions precedent to claim are fulfilled.

c) Income

The Company recognises income on accrual basis. However where the ultimate collection of the same lacks reasonable certainty, revenue recognition is postponed to the extent of uncertainty.

(1) Interest income is accrued over the period of the loan/investment and net of amortisation of premium/discount with respect to fixed income securities, thereby recognising the implicit yield to maturity, with reference to coupon dates. However, income is accrued only where interest is serviced regularly and is not in arrears, as per the guidelines framed by the management.

(2) Dividend is accrued in the year in which it is declared whereby a right to receive is established.

(3) Profit/loss on sale of investments is recognised on the contract date.

3) Fixed Assets and depreciation

(A) Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets except freehold land are carried at cost of acquisition, construction or at manufacturing cost, as the case may be, less accumulated depreciation and amortisation.

(B) Depreciation and amortisation

(a) Leasehold land

Premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease.

(b) On Pressure Die Casting (PDC) Dies

Depreciation on certain PDC Dies is provided over the estimated economic life of the dies or at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, whichever is higher, proportionate from the month they are put to use.

(c) On other Fixed Assets

Depreciation on all assets is provided on 'Straight Line basis' in accordance with the provisions of Section 205(2)(b) of the Companies Act 1956, in the manner and at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the said Act.

i) Depreciation on additions is being provided on prorata basis from the month of such additions.

ii) Depreciation on assets sold, discarded or demolished during the year is being provided at their rates upto the month in which such assets are sold, discarded or demolished.

4) Intangible assets

a) Technical know-how acquired

Expenditure on technical know-how acquired (including Income-tax and R&D cess) is being amortised equally over a period of six years.

b) Technical know-how developed by the Company

i) Expenditure incurred on technical know-how developed by the company, post research stage, is recognised as an intangible asset, if and only if the future economic benefits attributable are probable to flow to the company and the costs can be measured reliably.

ii) The cost of technical know-how developed is amortised equally over its estimated life i.e. generally three years.

5) Investments

a) Fixed income securities remaining with the company on vesting of the manufacturing undertaking of erstwhile

Bajaj Auto Limited, are carried at their fair market values as at 1 April 2007 where the carrying costs of such investments were higher on that date, less amortisation of premium/discount thereafter, as the case may be.

b) Other fixed income securities are carried at cost, less amortisation of premium/discount, as the case may be, and provision for diminution, if any, as considered necessary.

c) Investments other than fixed income securities intended to be held for a long-term are valued at cost of acquisition, less provision for diminution as necessary.

d) Investments made by the company are, generally, of a long-term nature, hence diminutions in value of quoted and unquoted investments are not considered to be of a permanent nature. However, current investments, representing fixed income securities with a maturity less than 1 year and investment not intended to be held for a period more than 1 year, are stated at lower of cost or fair value.

e) The management has laid out guidelines for the purpose of assessing likely impairments in investments and for making provisions based on given criteria. Appropriate provisions are accordingly made, which in the opinion of the management are considered adequate.

6) Inventories

Cost of inventories have been computed to include all costs of purchases, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

a) Finished stocks of vehicles, Auto spare parts and Work-in-progress are valued at cost or net realisable value whichever is lower. Finished stocks of vehicles lying in the factory premises, branches, depots are valued inclusive of excise duty.

b) Stores, Packing material and Tools are valued at cost arrived at on weighted average basis. However, obsolete and slow moving items are valued at cost or estimated realisable value whichever is lower.

c) Raw materials and components are valued at cost arrived at on weighted average basis or lower of cost and net realisable value, as circumstances demand. However, obsolete and slow moving items are valued at cost or estimated realisable value whichever is lower.

d) Machinery spares and Maintenance materials are charged out as expense in the year of purchase. However machinery spares forming key components specific to a machinery and held as insurance spares are capitalised along with the cost of the asset.

e) Goods in transit are stated at actual cost incurred upto the date of Balance Sheet.

7) Foreign currency transactions

a) Monetary items of current assets and liabilities in foreign currency outstanding at the close of financial year are revalorised at the appropriate exchange rates prevailing at the close of the year.

b) The gain or loss on decrease/increase in reporting currency due to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, in case of monetary current assets and liabilities in foreign currency, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the manner detailed in note 38 to financial statements.

c) Fixed Assets purchased at liaison offices in foreign exchange are recorded at their historical cost computed with reference to the average rate of foreign exchange remitted to the liaison office.

d) Foreign Exchange Contracts/Derivatives:

i) Cash flow hedges -

Changes in the fair value of a derivative hedging instrument that qualify for hedge accounting as per the principles of hedge accounting and designated as a cash flow hedge are recognised as Hedge Reserve and presented within Reserves and Surplus, to the extent that the hedge is effective. To the extent that the hedge is ineffective, changes in fair value are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in Hedge Reserve, remains there until the forecast transaction occurs.

When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in equity at that time is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in Hedge Reserve is immediately transferred to the statement of profit and loss.

ii) Profits and losses arising from either cancellation or utilisation of contracts are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as detailed in note 38 to financial statements.

iii) Refer note 26 to financial statements.

8) Research & Development expenditure

Research & Development Expenditure is charged to revenue under the natural heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. Payments for R&D work by contracted agency are being expensed out upto the stage of completion. However, expenditure incurred at development phase, where it is reasonably certain that outcome of research will be commercially exploited to yield economic benefits to the company, is considered as an Intangible asset and accounted in the manner specified in clause 4 b) above.

9) Employee benefits

a) Privilege Leave entitlements

Privilege leave entitlements are recognised as a liability, in the calendar year of rendering of service, as per the rules of the company. As accumulated leave can be availed and/or encashed at any time during the tenure of employment the liability is recognised at the actuarially determined value by an Appointed Actuary.

b) Gratuity

Payment for present liability of future payment of gratuity is being made to approved Gratuity Fund, which fully covers the same under Cash Accumulation Policy of the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company Limited (BALIC). However, any deficit in Plan Assets managed by LIC and BALIC as compared to the actuarial liability is recognised as a liability immediately.

c) Superannuation

Defined Contribution to Superannuation fund is being made as per the Scheme of the Company.

d) Provident Fund contributions are made to Company's Provident Fund Trust. Deficits, if any, of the fund as compared to actuarial liability is to be additionally contributed by the company and hence recognised as a liability.

e) Defined contribution to Employees Pension Scheme 1995 is made to Government Provident Fund Authority.

10) Taxation

a) Provision for tax is made for the current accounting period (reporting period) on the basis of the taxable profits computed in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961.

b) Deferred tax resulting from timing difference between book profits and taxable profits are accounted for to the extent deferred tax assets and liabilities are expected to crystalise with reasonable certainty. However, in case of deferred tax assets, representing unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward losses, are recognised, if and only if there is virtual certainty that there would be adequate future taxable income against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Deferred tax is recognised on adjustments to revenue reserves to the extent the adjustments are allowable as deductions in determination of taxable income and they would reverse out in future periods.

11) Provisions and Contingent Liabilities

The Company creates a provision when there is present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

b. Further, of the above:-

101,183,510 equity shares were allotted as fully paid up pursuant to the scheme of arrangement for demerger of erstwhile Bajaj Auto Limited (now Bajaj Holdings & Investment Limited) by the Company on 3 April 2008.

1,805,071 equity shares thereof are deemed to be issued by way of Euro Equity Issue represented by Global Depository Receipts (GDR) evidencing Global Depository Shares outstanding on the record date. Outstanding GDRs at the close of the year were 169,088 (220,134)

c. Terms/rights attached to equity shares

The company has only one class of equity shares having a par value of Rs. 10 per share. Each holder of equity shares is entitled to one vote per share. The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors and approved by the shareholders in the Annual General Meeting is paid in Indian rupees. In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the Company, after distribution of all preferential amounts. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.


Mar 31, 2010

1) System of Accounting

i) The Company follows the mercantile system of accounting and recognises income and expenditure on an accrual basis except in case of significant uncertainties.

ii) Financial Statements are prepared under the Historical cost convention. These costs are not adjusted to reflect the impact of changing value in the purchasing power of money.

iii) Estimates and Assumptions used in the preparation of the financial statements are based upon managements evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the Financial Statements, which may differ from the actual results at a subsequent date.

2) Revenue recognition:

a) Sales:

i) Domestic Sales are accounted for on despatch from the point of sale.

ii) Export sales are recognised on the date of the Mates Receipt and initially recorded at the relevant exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

b) Income:

The Company recognises income on accrual basis. However, where the ultimate collection of the same lacks reasonable certainty, revenue recognition is postponed to the extent of uncertainty.

(1) Interest income is accrued over the period of the loan/investment and net of amortisation of premium/discount with respect to fixed income securities, thereby recognising the implicit yield to maturity, with reference to coupon dates. However, income is accrued only where interest is serviced regularly and is not in arrears, as per the guidelines framed by the management.

(2) Dividend is accrued in the year in which it is declared whereby a right to receive is established.

(3) Profit/loss on sale of investments is recognised on the contract date.

(4) Benefit on account of entitlement to import goods free of duty under the "Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme" is accounted in the year of export if the same can be measured with reasonable accuracy.

(5) Fixed Assets and Depreciation

(A) Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets except freehold land are carried at cost of acquisition, construction or at manufacturing cost, as the case may be, including pre-operative expenses in the case of self manufactured assets/plants/undertakings, less accumulated depreciation and amortisation.

(B) Depreciation and Amortisation:

(a) Leasehold land: Premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease.

(b) On Plant & Machinery given on Lease: Depreciation on Plant & Machinery and Dies and Moulds given on lease is being provided at the rates worked out on Straight Line Method over the primary period of lease as stated in the Lease Agreement or at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 whichever is higher, on pro-rata basis with reference to the month of commencement of lease period. These dies have been fully written off.

(C) On Pressure Die Casting (PDC) Dies:

Depreciation on certain PDC Dies is provided over the estimated economic life of the dies or at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, whichever is higher, proportionate from the month they are put to use.

(D) On other Fixed Assets

Depreciation on all assets is provided on Straight Line basis in accordance with the provisions of Section 205 (2) (b) of the Companies Act 1956, in the manner and at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the said Act. i. Depreciation on additions is being provided on prorata basis from the month of such additions. ii. Depreciation on assets sold, discarded or demolished during the year is being provided at their rates upto the month in which such assets are sold, discarded or demolished.

(6) Intangible Assets

a) Technical know-how acquired

Expenditure on technical know-how acquired (including Income-tax and R& D cess) is being amortised equally over a period of six years.

b) Technical know-how developed by the company

i) Expenditure incurred on know-how developed by the company, post research stage, is recognised as an intangible asset, if and only if the future economic benefits attributable are probable to flow to the company and the costs can be measured reliably.

ii) The cost of Technical Know-how developed is amortised equally over its estimated life i.e. generally three years.

7) Investments

a) Fixed income securities remaining with the company on vesting of the manufacturing undertaking of erstwhile Bajaj Auto Limited, are carried at their fair market values as at 1 st April 2007 where the carrying costs of such investments.were higher on that date, less amortisation of premium/ discount thereafter, as the case may be.

b) Other Fixed income securities are carried at cost, less amortisation of premium/discount, as the case may be, and provision for diminution, if any, as considered necessary.

c) Investments other than fixed income securities are valued at cost of acquisition, less provision for diminution as necessary.

d) Investments made by the Company are, generally, of a long-term nature, hence diminutions in value of quoted and unquoted Investments are not considered to be of a permanent nature. However, current investments, representing fixed income securities with a maturity less than 1 year and investment not intended to be held for a period more than 1 year, are stated at lower of cost or fair value.

e) The management has laid out guidelines for the purpose of assessing likely impairments in investments and for making provisions based on given criteria. Appropriate provisions are accordingly made, which in the opinion of the management are considered adequate.

8) Inventories

Cost of inventories have been computed to include all costs of purchases, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

a) Finished stocks, Auto spare parts and Work-in-progress are valued at cost or net realisable value whichever is lower. Finished stocks lying in the factory premises, Branches, Depots are valued inclusive of excise duty.

b) Stores and Tools are valued at cost arrived at on weighted average basis. However, obsolete and slow moving items are valued at cost or estimated realisable value whichever is lower.

c) Raw materials and components are valued at cost arrived at on weighted average basis or lower of cost and net realisable value, as circumstances demand. However, obsolete and slow moving items are valued at cost or estimated realisable value whichever is lower.

d) Machinery spares and Maintenance materials are charged out as expense in the year of purchase. However, Machinery spares forming key components specific to a machinery and held as insurance spares are capitalised along with the cost of the Asset.

e) Goods in transit are stated at actual cost incurred upto the date of Balance Sheet.

9) Foreign Currency Transactions

a) Current Assets and Liabilities in foreign currency outstanding at the close of financial year are revalorised at the appropriate exchange rates prevailing at the close of the year.

b) The gain or loss on decrease/increase in reporting currency due to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, in case of current assets and liabilities in foreign currency, are recognised in the profit and loss account in the manner detailed in note 5 (d) in Schedule 14 to the accounts.

c) Fixed Assets purchased at Overseas Branches in foreign exchange are recorded at their historical cost computed with reference to the average rate of foreign exchange remitted to the Branch.

d) Foreign Exchange Contracts/Derivatives (as Hedging instruments): i) Premium/Discounts are recognised over the life of the contract.

ii) Profits and losses arising from either cancellation or utilisation of contracts and on revalorising contracts to cover foreign exchange receivables and liabilities at the close of the year are recognised in the profit and loss account as detailed in note 5 (d) in Schedule 14 to the accounts.

iii) Losses & gains of outstanding foreign exchange contracts/ derivatives to hedge highly probable forecast transactions are from this year, if determined effective, as per the principles of hedge accounting, recognised in the"Hedge Reserve"and to ultimately flow into the profit and loss account when the underlying transactions occur. Losses and gains on ineffective hedging instruments are recognised in the profit and loss account. Refer note 9(b) Schedule 14 to the accounts.

10) Research & Development Expenditure

Research & Development Expenditure is charged to revenue under the natural heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. Payments for R&D work by contracted agency are being expensed out upto the stage of completion. However, expenditure incurred at development phase, where it is reasonably certain that outcome of research will be commercially exploited to yield economic benefits to the company, is considered as an Intangible asset and accounted in the manner specified in clause 4 b) above.

11) Employee Benefits

a) Privilege Leave entitlements

Privilege leave entitlements are recognised as a liability, in the calendar year of rendering of service, as per the rules of the company. As accumulated leave can be availed and/or encashed at any time during the tenure of employment the liability is recognised at the actuarially determined value by an Appointed Actuary.

b) Gratuity

Payment for present liability of future payment of gratuity is being made to approved Gratuity Fund, which fully covers the same under Cash Accumulation Policy of the Life Insurance Corporation of India. However, any deficit in Plan Assets managed by LICas compared to the actuarial liability, determined by an appointed actuary, is recognised as a liability immediately.

c) Superannuation

Defined Contribution to Superannuation fund is being made as per the Scheme of the Company.

d) Provident Fund Contributions are made to Companys Provident Fund Trust. Deficits, if any, of the fund as compared to aggregate liability is additionally contributed by the company and recognised as an expense.

e) Defined Contribution to Employees Pension Scheme 1995 is made to Government Provident Fund Authority.

12) Taxation

a) Provision for Taxation is made for the current accounting period (reporting period) on the basis of the taxable profits computed in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961.

b) Deferred Tax resulting from timing difference between book profits and taxable profits are accounted for to the extent deferred tax assets and liabilities are expected to crystalise with reasonable certainty. However, in case of deferred tax assets, representing unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward losses, are recognised, if and only if there is virtual certainty that there would be adequate future taxable income against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Deferred tax is recognised on adjustments to revenue reserves to the extent the adjustments are allowable as deductions in determination of taxable income and they would reverse out in future periods.

13) Provisions

Necessary provisions are made for present obligations that arise out of events prior to the balance sheet date entailing future outflow of economic resources. Such provisions reflect best estimates based on available information.

 
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