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Accounting Policies of BGR Energy Systems Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

I. Accounting conventions

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention and following the accrual basis of accounting, in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India ('I-GAAP') and mandatory accounting standards as notified under the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.

ii. Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with I-GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognized prospectively in the year in which the results are known / materialized.

iii. Fixed assets and intangible assets Fixed assets are assets held with the intention of being used for the purpose of producing goods or rendering of services and are not held for sale in the ordinary course of business. The cost of fixed assets comprise the purchase price including import duties and other non refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost to bring the asset to working condition for intended use. Further, any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the cost. Intangible assets are identifiable non- monetary assets, without physical substance, held for use in producing goods or rendering of services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes. The intangible assets are separately acquired and the costs of such intangible assets are capable of being measured reliably. The cost of intangible assets comprise the purchase price including import duties and other non refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost for making the asset ready for intended use.

iv. Depreciation and amortization

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided based on useful life of the assets, on straight line method in accordance with the rates prescribed under Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013. Intangible assets are amortized over a period of 5 years on straight line basis.

v. Investments

Investments are classified into long-term and current investments based on the intention of the management at the time of acquisition.

Long-term investments are stated at cost less provision for diminution in value other than temporary, if any. Current investments are carried at cost or fair value whichever is lower.

vi. Earnings per share ('EPS')

Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss after tax for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted EPS is calculated on the same basis as Basic EPS, after adjusting for the effects of potential dilutive equity shares unless the effect of the potential dilutive equity shares is anti-dilutive.

vii. Revenue recognition

a) Sales are accounted on the basis of despatches in accordance with the terms of sale when significant risks and rewards are transferred to the customer.

b) Sales include equipment billed but despatch of which is withheld at the request of the customer.

c) Revenue from services is recognized in accordance with the specific terms of contract on performance.

d) Revenue from construction contracts is recognized by reference to the stage of completion of the contract activity at the reporting date of the financial statements on the basis of percentage of completion method. The stage of completion of contracts is measured by reference to the proportion that contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs for each contract.

e) Expected loss, if any, on the construction / project related activity is recognized as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract. While determining the amount of foreseeable loss, all elements of costs and related incidental income not included is taken into consideration.

f) In respect of construction contracts revenues include taxes and duties.

g) Other Income

i) Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable

ii) Dividend income is recognized when the company's right to receive dividend is established.

viii. Inventories

Raw materials and stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, these items are considered to be realizable at cost if the finished products, in which they will be used are expected to be sold at or above cost. Work- in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Finished goods and work-in-progress include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.Cost of inventories is determined on a weighted average basis. Saleable scrap, whose cost is not identified, is valued at net realizable value.

ix. Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of transaction. Monetary items are translated at the rates prevailing on the reporting date. The exchange difference between the rate prevailing on the date of transaction and on the date of settlement and also on translation of monetary items at the reporting date is recognized as income or expense, except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non- monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

For forward contracts which are entered into to hedge the foreign currency risk of the underlying outstanding on the date of entering into that forward contract, the premium or discount on such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Any profit or loss arising on the cancellation or renewal of forward contracts is recognized as an income or expense for the period. The exchange difference on such a forward exchange contract is calculated as the difference between :

a) the foreign currency amount of the contract translated at the exchange rate at the reporting date, or the settlement date where the transaction is settled during the reporting period, and

b) the same foreign currency amount translated at the later of the date of inception of the forward exchange contract and the last reporting date. Such exchange differences are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the reporting period in which the exchange rates change.

x Cash flows

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and cash on deposit with scheduled banks, other than margin money deposits.

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the company are segregated.

xi. Income-taxes

Tax expense comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to timing differences between taxable income and accounting income which are capable of reversal in subsequent periods and are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.

Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits. Minimum alternate tax ('MAT') credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income- tax during the period in which the company is allowed to carry forward the MAT credit as per the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 ('specified period'). The company reviews the same at each reporting date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT credit asset to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the company will pay normal income-tax during the specified period.

xii. Impairment of assets

At every reporting date, the company determines whether the provisions should be made for the impairment loss on assets by considering the indications that the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the recoverable amount as per recognition and measurement principles laid down in AS-28 "Impairment of Assets". All impairment losses are recognized in statement of profit and loss. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount and is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

xiii. Employee benefits

a) Short-term employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the statement of profit and loss for the year in which related services are rendered.

b) Post employment benefits:"

i) Defined contribution plan: Company's contributions paid/ payable during the year towards provident fund, pension scheme and employees' state insurance ('ESI') scheme are recognized in the statement of profit and loss."

ii) Defined benefit plan: Company's liability towards gratuity in accordance with the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 is determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method as at the reporting date. The company contributes all the ascertained liabilities to SBI Life Insurance which administers the contributions and makes the payment at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment."

c) Other Long-term employee benefits: The company provides for compensated absences subject to certain rules. The employees are entitled to accumulate such absences for availment as well as encashment. As per the regular past practice followed by the employees, it is not expected that the entire accumulated absence shall be encashed or availed by the employees during the next twelve months and accordingly the benefit is treated as other long-term employee benefits. The liability is recognized on the basis of the present value of the future benefit obligations as determined by actuarial valuation.

d) All actuarial gains/losses in respect of post employment benefits and other long term employee benefits are charged to the statement of profit and loss.

xiv. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost of such asset till such time the asset is ready for its intended use. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

xv. Leases

Finance leases, which transfer to the company substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit interest rate or incremental borrowing rate as applicable. Finance charges are charged directly against income. The costs identified as directly attributable to activities performed for a finance lease are included as part of the amount recognized as leased assets.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalized leased assets are fully depreciated over the lease term or their useful life, whichever is shorter.

Leases where the lessor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the leased assets, are classified as operating leases.

Lease payments under operating lease are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the lease term.

xvi.Segment reporting

a) Segment policies:

The company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.

b) Identification of segments:

The risks and returns of the company are affected predominantly by differences in the products and services it produces / renders and hence the primary format for reporting segment information is its business segment.

c) Segment Revenue and Segment Result:

Segment revenue includes revenue from operations and other income directly identifiable with / allocable to the segment. Expenses that are directly identifiable with / allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. Revenue and expenses which relate to the company as a whole and are not allocable to a segment on a reasonable basis have been disclosed as unallocable.

d) Segment Assets and Liabilities:

Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with respective segments. Unallocable corporate assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

xvii . Provisions

a) The company recognizes provision when there is a present obligation of the enterprise arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the enterprise of resources embodying economic benefits which can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation.

b) Provision for contractual obligation has been provided for in accounts based on management's assessment of the probable outcome with reference to the available information supplemented by experience of similar transactions.

c) The company makes provision towards warranty obligation arising under the contract, while progressively recognising the revenue, based on management estimate and past experience of similar contracts. Such provision is maintained until the warranty period is completed.

xviii. Contingent liabilities

The company recognizes contingent liability for disclosure in notes to accounts, if any of the following conditions is fulfilled:

a) a possible obligation that arises from past events and the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the enterprise; or

b) a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognized because:

* it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or

* a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made."




Mar 31, 2014

I. Accounting conventions

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention and following the accrual basis of accounting, in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (''I-GAAP'') and mandatory accounting standards as notified by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by the Securities Exchange Board of India (''SEBI'').

ii. Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with I-GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognized prospectively in the year in which the results are known / materialized.

iii. Fixed assets and intangible assets

Fixed assets are assets held with the intention of being used for the purpose of producing goods or rendering of services and are not held for sale in the ordinary course of business. The cost of fixed assets comprise the purchase price including import duties and other non refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost to bring the asset to working condition for intended use. Further, any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the cost.

Intangible assets are identifiable non- monetary assets, without physical substance, held for use in producing goods or rendering of services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes. The intangible assets are separately acquired and the costs of such intangible assets are capable of being measured reliably. The cost of intangible assets comprise the purchase price including import duties and other non refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost for making the asset ready for intended use.

iv. Depreciation and amortization

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on straight line method in accordance with the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. Intangible assets are amortized over a period of 5 years on straight line basis.

v. Investments

Investments are classified into long-term and current investments based on the intention of the management at the time of acquisition. Long-term investments are stated at cost less provision for diminution in value other than temporary, if any. Current investments are carried at cost or fair value whichever is lower.

vi. Earnings per share (''EPS'')

Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss after tax for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted EPS is calculated on the same basis as Basic EPS, after adjusting for the effects of potential dilutive equity shares unless the effect of the potential dilutive equity shares is anti-dilutive.

vii. Revenue recognition

a) Sales are accounted on the basis of despatches in accordance with the terms of sale when significant risks and rewards are transferred to the customer.

b) Sales include equipment billed but despatch of which is withheld at the request of the customer.

c) Revenue from services is recognized in accordance with the specific terms of contract on performance.

d) Revenue from construction

contracts is recognized by reference to the stage of completion of the contract activity at the reporting date of the financial statements on the basis of percentage of completion method. The stage of completion of contracts is measured by reference to the proportion that contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs for each contract.

e) Expected loss, if any, on the construction / project related activity is recognized as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract. While determining the amount of foreseeable loss, all elements of costs and related incidental income not included is taken into consideration.

f) In respect of construction contracts revenues include taxes and duties.

g) Other Income – i) Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable, ii) Dividend income is recognized when the company''s right to receive dividend is established.

viii. Inventories

Raw materials and stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, these items are considered to be realizable at cost if the finished products, in which they will be used are expected to be sold at or above cost. Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Finished goods and work-in-progress include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost of inventories is determined on a weighted average basis. Saleable scrap, whose cost is not identified, is valued at net realizable value.

ix. Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of transaction. Monetary items are translated at the rates prevailing on the reporting date. The exchange difference between the rate prevailing on the date of transaction and on the date of settlement and also on translation of monetary items at the reporting date is recognized as income or expense, except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non- monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

For forward contracts which are entered into to hedge the foreign currency risk of the underlying outstanding on the date of entering into that forward contract, the premium or discount on such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Any profit or loss arising on the cancellation or renewal of forward contracts is recognized as an income or expense for the period. The exchange difference on such a forward exchange contract is calculated as the difference between :

a) the foreign currency amount of the contract translated at the exchange rate at the reporting date, or the settlement date where the transaction is settled during the reporting period, and

b) the same foreign currency amount translated at the later of the date of inception of the forward exchange contract and the last reporting date. Such exchange differences are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the reporting period in which the exchange rates change.

x. Cash flows

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and cash on deposit with scheduled banks, other than margin money deposits.

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the company are segregated.

xi. Income-taxes

Tax expense comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to timing differences between taxable income and accounting income which are capable of reversal in subsequent periods and are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.

Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

Minimum alternate tax (''MAT'') credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income-tax during the period in which the company is allowed to carry forward the MAT credit as per the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 (''specified period''). The company reviews the same at each reporting date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT credit asset to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the company will pay normal income-tax during the specified period.

xii. Impairment of assets

At every reporting date, the company determines whether the provisions should be made for the impairment loss on assets by considering the indications that the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the recoverable amount as per recognition and measurement principles laid down in AS-28 "Impairment of Assets". All impairment losses are recognized in statement of profit and loss. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount and is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

xiii. Employee benefits

a) Short-term employee benefits :

Short-term employee benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the statement of profit and loss for the year in which related services are rendered.

b) Post employment benefits:

i) Defined contribution plan:

Company''s contributions paid/ payable during the year towards provident fund, pension scheme and employees'' state insurance (''ESI'') scheme are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

ii) Defined benefit plan:

Company''s liability towards gratuity in accordance with the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 is determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method as at the reporting date. The company contributes all the ascertained liabilities to SBI Life Insurance which administers the contributions and makes the payment at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment.

c) Other Long-term employee benefits:

The company provides for compensated absences subject to certain rules. The employees are entitled to accumulate such absences for availment as well as encashment. As per the regular past practice followed by the employees, it is not expected that the entire accumulated absence shall be encashed or availed by the employees during the next twelve months and accordingly the benefit is treated as other long- term employee benefits. The liability is recognized on the basis of the present value of the future benefit obligations as determined by actuarial valuation.

d) All actuarial gains/losses in respect of post employment benefits and other long term employee benefits are charged to the statement of profit and loss.

xiv. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost of such asset till such time the asset is ready for its intended use. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

xv. Leases

Finance leases, which transfer to the company substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit interest rate or incremental borrowing rate as applicable. Finance charges are charged directly against income. The costs identified as directly attributable to activities performed for a finance lease are included as part of the amount recognized as leased assets.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalized leased assets are fully depreciated over the lease term or their useful life, whichever is shorter.

Leases where the lessor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the leased assets, are classified as operating leases.

Lease payments under operating lease are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the lease term.

xvi. Segment reporting

a) Segment policies:

The company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.

b) Identification of segments:

The risks and returns of the company are affected predominantly by differences in the products and services it produces / renders and hence the primary format for reporting segment information is its business segment.

c) Segment Revenue and Segment Result:

Segment revenue includes revenue from operations and other income directly identifiable with / allocable to the segment. Expenses that are directly identifiable with / allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. Revenue and expenses which relate to the company as a whole and are not allocable to a segment on a reasonable basis have been disclosed as unallocable.

d) Segment Assets and Liabilities:

Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with respective segments. Unallocable corporate assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

xvii. Provisions

a) The company recognizes provision when there is a present obligation of the enterprise arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the enterprise of resources embodying economic benefits which can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation.

b) Provision for contractual obligation has been provided for in accounts based on management''s assessment of the probable outcome with reference to the available information supplemented by experience of similar transactions.

c) The company makes provision towards warranty obligation arising under the contract, while progressively recognising the revenue, based on management estimate and past experience of similar contracts. Such provision is maintained until the warranty period is completed.


Mar 31, 2013

I. Accounting Conventions

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention and following the accrual basis of accounting, in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India ("I-GAAP") and mandatory accounting standards as notified by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by the Securities Exchange Board of India ("SEBI").

ii. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with I-GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognized prospectively in the year in which the results are known / materialized.

iii. Fixed Assets & Intangible Assets

Fixed assets are assets held with the intention of being used for the purpose of producing goods or rendering of services and are not held for sale in the ordinary course of business. The cost of fixed assets comprise the purchase price including import duties and other non refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost to bring the asset to working condition for intended use. Further, any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the cost.

Intangible assets are identifiable non-monetary assets, without physical substance, held for use in producing / supplying goods or rendering of services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes. The intangible assets are separately acquired and the costs of such intangible assets are capable of being measured reliably. The cost of intangible assets comprises the purchase price including import duties and other non refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost on making the asset ready for intended use.

iv. Depreciation & Amortization

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on straight line method in accordance with the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. Intangible assets are amortized over a period of 5 years on straight line basis.

v. Investments

Investments are classified into long-term and current investments based on the intention of the management at the time of acquisition.

Long-term investments are stated at cost less provision for diminution in value other than temporary, if any. Current investments are carried at cost or fair value whichever is lower.

vi. Earnings per share (EPS)

Basic and diluted EPS are computed in accordance with Accounting standard (AS) 20 - "Earnings per share"

Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss after tax for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

Diluted EPS is calculated on the same basis as Basic EPS, after adjusting for the effects of potential dilutive equity shares unless the effect of the potential dilutive equity shares is anti-dilutive.

vii. Revenue Recognition

a) Sales are accounted on the basis of despatches.

b) Sales include equipment billed but despatch of which is withheld at the request of the customer.

c) Revenue from services is recognized in accordance with the specific terms of contract on performance.

d) Revenue from construction contracts is recognized by reference to the stage of completion of the contract activity at the reporting date of the financial statements on the basis of percentage of completion method. The stage of completion of contracts is measured by reference to the proportion that contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs for each contract.

e) Expected Loss, if any, on the construction / project related activity is recognized as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract. While determining the amount of foreseeable loss, all elements of costs and related incidental income not included is taken into consideration.

f) In respect of construction contracts revenues include taxes and duties.

g) Other Income - i) Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable, ii) Dividend income is recognized when the Company''s right to receive dividend is established.

viii. Inventories

Raw materials and stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, these items are considered to be realizable at cost if the finished products, in which they will be used are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Finished goods and work-in-progress include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Cost of inventories is determined on a weighted average basis

Saleable scrap, whose cost is not identified, is valued at net realizable value

ix. Foreign Currency Transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of transaction. Monetary items are translated at the rates prevailing on the reporting date. The exchange difference between the rate prevailing on the date of transaction and on the date of settlement and also on translation of monetary items at the reporting sheet date is recognized as income or expense. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

For forward contracts which are entered into to hedge the foreign currency risk of the underlying outstanding on the date of entering into that forward contract, the premium or discount on such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Any profit or loss arising on the cancellation or renewal of forward contracts is recognized as an income or expense for the period. The exchange difference on such a forward exchange contract is calculated as the difference between:-

a) the foreign currency amount of the contract translated at the exchange rate at the reporting date, or the settlement date where the transaction is settled during the reporting period, and

b) the same foreign currency amount translated at the later of the date of inception of the forward exchange contract and the last reporting date. Such exchange differences are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the reporting period in which the exchange rates change.

x. Cash Flows

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and cash on deposit with scheduled banks.

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from regular revenue generating, financing and investing activities of the Company are segregated.

xi. Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to timing differences between taxable income and accounting income which are capable of reversal in subsequent periods and are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the period in which the Company is allowed to carry forward the MAT credit as per the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 ("specified period"). The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT credit asset to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period.

xii. Impairment of Assets

At every balance sheet date, the Company determines whether the provisions should be made for the impairment loss on assets by considering the indications that the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the recoverable amount as per recognition and measurement principles laid down in AS-28 "Impairment of Assets". All impairment losses are recognized in statement of Profit and Loss. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount and is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

xiii. Employee Benefits

a) Short-Term Employee Benefits :

Short-term employee benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year in which related services are rendered.

b) Post Employment Benefits:

i) Defined Contribution plan:

Company''s contributions paid/payable during the year towards provident fund, pension scheme and employees'' state insurance (ESI) scheme are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

ii) Defined Benefit Plan:

Company''s liability towards gratuity in accordance with The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 is determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method as at the balance sheet date. The Company contributes all the ascertained liabilities to SBI Life Insurance which administers the contributions and makes the payment at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment.

c) Other Long-term Employee Benefits:

The Company provides for compensated absences subject to certain rules. The employees are entitled to accumulate such absences for availment as well as encashment. As per the regular past practice followed by the employees, it is not expected that the entire accumulated absence shall be encashed or availed by the employees during the next twelve months and accordingly the benefit is treated as other long-term employee benefits. The liability is recognized on the basis of the present value of the future benefit obligations as determined by actuarial valuation.

d) All actuarial gains/losses in respect of post employment benefits and other long term employee benefits are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

xiv. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost of such asset till such time the asset is ready for its intended use. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

xv. Leases

Finance leases, which transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit interest rate or incremental borrowing rate as applicable. Finance charges are charged directly against income. The costs identified as directly attributable to activities performed for a finance lease are included as part of the amount recognized as leased assets.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalized leased assets are fully depreciated over the lease term or their useful life, whichever is shorter.

Leases where the lessor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the leased assets, are classified as operating leases.

Lease payments under operating lease are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term.

xvi. Segment Reporting

a) Segment policies:

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.

b) Identification of segments:

The risks and returns of the company are affected predominantly by differences in the products and services it produces / renders and hence the primary format for reporting segment information is its business segment.

c) Segment Revenue and Segment Result:

Segment revenue includes revenue from operations and other income directly identifiable with / allocable to the segment. Expenses that are directly identifiable with / allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. Revenue and expenses which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to a segment on a reasonable basis have been disclosed as unallocable.

d) Segment Assets and Liabilities:

Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with respective segments. Unallocable corporate assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

xvii. Provisions

i) The Company recognizes provision when there is a present obligation of the enterprise arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the enterprise of resources embodying economic benefits which can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation.

ii) Provision for contractual obligation has been provided for in accounts based on management''s assessment of the probable outcome with reference to the available information supplemented by experience of similar transactions.

iii) The Company makes provision towards warranty obligation arising under the contract, while progressively recognising the revenue, based on management estimate and past experience of similar contracts. Such provision is maintained until the warranty period is completed.

xviii. Contingent Liabilities

The Company recognizes contingent liability for disclosure in notes to accounts, if any of the following conditions is fulfilled:

i) a possible obligation that arises from past events and the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the enterprise; or

ii) a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognized because:

- it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or

- a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made.


Mar 31, 2012

I. Accounting Conventions

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention and following the accrual basis of accounting, in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India ("I-GAAP") and mandatory accounting standards as notified by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by the Securities Exchange Board of India ("SEBI").

ii. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with I-GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognized prospectively in the year in which the results are known / materialized.

iii. Fixed Assets & Intangible Assets

Fixed assets are assets held with the intention of being used for purpose of producing or providing goods and services and is not held for sale in the ordinary course of business. The Cost of Fixed assets comprise the purchase price including import duties and other non refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost to bring the asset to the working condition for intended use. Further any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the cost.

Intangible assets are identifiable non-monetary assets, without physical substance, held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes. The intangible assets are separately acquired and the costs of such intangible assets are capable of being measured reliably. The cost of intangible asset comprises the purchase price including import duties and other non refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost on making the asset ready for intended use.

iv. Depreciation & Amortization

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on straight line method in accordance with the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. Intangible assets are amortized over a period of 5 years on straight line basis.

v. Investments

Investments are classified into long-term and current investments based on the intent of management at the time of acquisition.

Long-term investments are stated at cost less provision for diminution in value other than temporary, if any. Current investments are valued at cost or fair value whichever is lower.

vi. Earnings per share (EPS)

Basic and diluted EPS are computed in accordance with Accounting standard (AS) 20 - "Earnings per share"

Basic Earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss after tax for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

The Diluted EPS is calculated on the same basis as Basic EPS, after adjusting for the effects of potential dilutive equity shares unless the effect of the potential dilutive equity shares is anti-dilutive.

vii. Revenue Recognition

a) Sales are accounted on the basis of despatches.

b) Sales include equipment billed but despatch of which is withheld at the request of the customer.

c) Revenue from services is recognized in accordance with the specific terms of contract on performance.

d) Revenue from construction contracts is recognized by reference to the stage of completion of the contract activity at the reporting date of the financial statements on the basis of percentage of completion method. The stage of completion of contracts is measured by reference to the proportion that contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs for each contract.

e) Expected Loss, if any, on the construction / project related activity is recognized as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract. While determining the amount of foreseeable loss, all elements of costs and related incidental income not included is taken into consideration.

f) Other Income - i) Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable, ii) Dividend income is recognized when the company's right to receive dividend is established.

viii. Inventories

Raw materials and stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, these items are considered to be realizable at cost if the finished products, in which they will be used are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Finished goods and work-in-progress include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Saleable scrap, whose cost is not identified, is valued at net realizable value

ix. Foreign Currency Transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of transaction. Monetary items are translated at the rates prevailing on the balance sheet date. The exchange difference between the rate prevailing on the date of transaction and on the date of settlement and also on translation of monetary items at the balance sheet date is recognized as income or expense.

For forward contracts which are entered into to hedge the foreign currency risk of the underlying outstanding on the date of entering into that forward contract, the premium or discount on such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Any profit or loss arising on the cancellation or renewal of forward contracts is recognized as an income or expense for the period. The exchange difference on such a forward exchange contract is calculated as the difference between : -

a) the foreign currency amount of the contract translated at the exchange rate at the balance sheet date, or the settlement date where the transaction is settled during the reporting period, and

b) the same foreign currency amount translated at the later of the date of inception of the forward exchange contract and the last reporting date. Such exchange differences are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the reporting period in which the exchange rates change.

x. Cash Flows

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and cash on deposit with scheduled banks.

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non- cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from regular revenue generating, financing and investing activities of the company are segregated.

xi. Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to timing differences between taxable income and accounting income which are capable of reversal in subsequent periods and are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the period in which the Company is allowed to carry forward the MAT credit as per the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 ("specified period"). The company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT credit asset to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period.

xii. Impairment of Assets

At every balance sheet date, the company determines whether the provisions should be made for the impairment loss on assets by considering the indications that the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the recoverable amount as per recognition and measurement principles laid down in AS-28 "Impairment of Assets". All impairment losses are recognized in statement of Profit & Loss. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount and is recognized in the Statement of Profit & Loss.

xiii. Employee Benefits

a) Short-Term Employee Benefits :

Short-term employee benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of profit and loss for the year in which related services are rendered.

b) Post Employment Benefits:

i) Defined Contribution plan:

Company's contributions paid/payable during the year towards provident fund, pension scheme and employees' state insurance (ESI) scheme are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

ii) Defined Benefit Plan:

Company's liability towards gratuity in accordance with The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 is determined by actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date. The Company contributes all the ascertained liabilities to SBI Life Insurance which administers the contributions and makes the payment at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment.

c) Other Long-term Employee Benefits:

The company provides for compensated absences subject to certain rules. The employees are entitled to accumulate such absences for availment as well as encashment. As per the regular past practice followed by the employees, it is not expected that the entire accumulated absence shall be encashed or availed by the employees during the next twelve months and accordingly the benefit is treated as other long-term employee benefits. The liability is recognized on the basis of the present value of the future benefit obligations as determined by actuarial valuation.

xiv. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost of such asset till such time the asset is ready for its intended use. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

xv. Leases

Finance leases, which transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit interest rate or incremental borrowing rate as applicable. Finance charges are charged directly against income. The costs identified as directly attributable to activities performed for a finance lease are included as part of the amount recognized as leased assets.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalized leased assets are fully depreciated over the lease term or their useful life, whichever is shorter.

Leases where the lessor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the leased assets, are classified as operating leases.

Lease payments under operating lease are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the lease term.

xvi. Segment Reporting

a) Segment policies:

The company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.

b) Identification of segments:

The risks and returns of the company are affected predominantly by differences in the products and services it produces / renders and hence the primary format for reporting segment information is its business segments.

c) Allocation of common costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment on a reasonable basis.

d) Unallocated items:

Unallocable items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segments.

xvii. Provisions

i) The company recognizes provision when there is a present obligation of the enterprise arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the enterprise of resources embodying economic benefits which can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation.

ii) Provision for contractual obligation has been provided for in accounts based on management's assessment of the probable outcome with reference to the available information supplemented by experience of similar transactions.

iii) The company provides warranty based on the management assessment and estimation, as and when it recognizes the revenue and maintains the same through the warranty period.

xviii. Contingent Liabilities

The company recognizes contingent liability for disclosure in notes to accounts, if any of the following conditions fulfilled:

i) a possible obligation that arises from past events and the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the enterprise; or

ii) a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognized because:

- it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or

- a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made.


Mar 31, 2010

A. Accounting Conventions

The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention and following the accrual method of accounting in accordance with the applicable mandatory accounting Standards notified by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and the relevant provisions of Companies Act, 1956.

b. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with the generally accepted accounting principles, requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities on the date of financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting year. Differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the year in which the results are known / materialized.

c. Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are assets held with the intention of being used for purpose of producing or providing goods and services and is not held for sale in the ordinary course of business. The Cost of Fixed assets comprise the purchase price including import duties and other non refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost to bring the asset to the working condition for intended use. Further any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the cost.

Intangible assets are identifiable non-monetary assets, without physical substance, held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes. The intangible assets are separately acquired and are capable of being measured reliably. The cost of intangible asset comprises the purchase price including import duties and other non refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost on making the asset ready for intended use.

d. Depreciation & Amortization

Fixed assets are depreciated as per straight line method on all assets in accordance with the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of Companies Act, 1956. Intangible assets are amortized over a period of 5 years through Straight Line Method.

e. Investments

Long term investments are stated at cost less provision for diminution in value other than temporary, if any. Short term investments are valued at Cost or Fair Value whichever is lower.

f. Earnings Per Share (EPS)

The earnings considered in ascertaining the companys Basic EPS is the attributable net profit or loss to the equity shareholders as per AS-20 "Earnings per Share". The number of shares used in computing Basic EPS is the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. The Diluted EPS is calculated on the same basis as Basic EPS, after adjusting for the effects of potential dilutive equity shares unless the effect of the potential dilutive equity shares is anti-dilutive.

g. Revenue Recognition

i) Sales are accounted on basis of despatches.

ii) Sales include equipment billed but despatch of which is withheld at the request of the customer.

iii) In respect of Construction contracts, executed over a period of more than one financial year, the company recognizes revenue on the basis of percentage of completion method as per AS-7 (Revised) "Construction Contracts".

iv) Construction contracts revenue is based on the ratio of cost incurred to date to total estimated cost and physical work done as estimated by the technical staff.

v) Other Income - a) Interest income is accounted at applicable coupon rates on respective investments, on time basis, b) Dividend income is accounted as and when received.

h. Inventories

Raw materials, work in progress, consumables, stores and spares have been valued at cost, ascertained on weighted average basis. Work in progress value includes all direct costs and applicable production overheads to bring the goods to the present location and condition. Loose tools acquired during the year have been fully written off.

i. Foreign Currency Transactions

i) Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of acquisition. Monetary items are translated at the rates prevailing on reporting dates. The exchange difference between rate prevailing on the date of transaction and on the date of settlement and also on translation of monetary items at the reporting date is recognized as income or expense.

ii) The company uses foreign exchange forward contracts to hedge its exposure to movements in foreign exchange rates. Forward contracts are not used for speculation purposes. The gain or loss on the forward contract is charged to the profit and loss account, proportionately over the duration of the hedge, in accordance with Accounting Standard 11 (Revised).

j. Cash Flows

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from regular revenue generating, financing and investing activities of the company are segregated.

k. Income Taxes

Tax expense comprises of current tax, deferred tax and fringe benefit tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to timing differences between taxable income and accounting income which are capable of reversal in subsequent periods and are measured using relevant enacted tax rates.

Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and reverse the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

Tax on distributable profits payable by the company in accordance with the provisions of Income-tax Act, 1961 is disclosed in accordance with the guidance note on Accounting for Corporate Dividend Tax issued by ICAI.

I. Impairment of Assets

At every balance sheet date, the company determines whether the provisions should be made for the impairment loss on fixed assets by considering the indications that the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the recoverable amount as per recognition and measurement principles laid down in AS-28 "Impairment of Assets". For the purpose of impairment, assets are grouped as cash generating and non cash generating units for which there are separately identifiable cash flows.

m. Employee Benefits

i) Short term employee benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the profit & loss account for the year in which related services are rendered.

ii) Defined Contribution plan:

Companys contributions paid/payable during the year towards Provident Fund, ESI and Medical coverage are recognized in the profit & loss account

iii) Defined Benefit Plan:

Companys liability towards gratuity in accordance with The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 is determined by actuarial valuation as on the balance sheet date. The company contributes all the ascertained liabilities to SBI Life Insurance which administers the contributions and makes the payment at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment.

n. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are included as part of the cost of such assets.

o. Leases

Finance Leases, which effectively transfer to the company substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are charged directly against income. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalized.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalized leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases.

Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Profit and loss account on a straight line basis over the lease term.

p. Provisions

i) The company recognizes provision when there is a present obligation of the enterprise arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the enterprise of resources embodying economic benefits which can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation.

ii) Provision for contractual obligation has been provided for in accounts based on managements assessment of the probable outcome with reference to the available information supplemented by experience of similar transactions.

q. Contingent Liabilities

The company recognizes contingent liability for disclosure in notes to accounts, if any of the following conditions fulfilled:

i) a possible obligation that arises from past events and the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the enterprise; or

ii) a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognized because:

- it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or

- a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made.

 
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