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Accounting Policies of Bharat Forge Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2017

a. Current versus non-current classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:

- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle

- Held primarily for the purpose of trading

- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- Cash or cash equivalents unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is current when:

- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle

- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading

- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period

The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.

b. Foreign currencies

The Company’s financial statements are presented in INR, which is also its functional currency.

Transactions and balance

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company in its functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date. Exchange difference that arise on settlement of monetary items or on reporting at each balance sheet date of the Company’s monetary items at the closing rate are recognized as income or expenses in the period in which they arise except for differences pertaining to Long Term Foreign Currency Monetary Items as mentioned subsequently.

Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is determined. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e., translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognised in OCI or statement of profit and loss are also recognised in OCI or statement of profit and loss, respectively).

Exchange differences

The Company has availed the option available under Ind AS 101 para D13 AA and is continuing the policy adopted for accounting for exchange difference arising from translation of long term foreign currency monetary items recognised in the financial statements for the period ending March 31, 2016, pertaining to long term foreign currency translation difference account (FCMITDA). Hence, such exchange differences are accounted as below:

a. Exchange differences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items related to acquisition of a property, plant and equipment are capitalized and depreciated over the remaining useful life of the asset.

Exchange differences (Contd.):

b. Exchange differences arising on other long-term foreign currency monetary items are accumulated in the FCMITDA through Other Comprehensive Income (OCI). The amortization of the balance of FCMITDA is transferred to the statement of profit and loss over the remaining life of the respective monetary item.

c. All other exchange differences are recognized as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise.

For the purpose of (a) and (b) above, the Company treats a foreign monetary item as “long-term foreign currency monetary item”, if it has a term of 12 months or more at the date of its origination.

Further the Company does not differentiate between exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost and other exchange difference.

c. Investment in subsidiaries and joint ventures

The Company has accounted for its investment in subsidiaries and joint ventures at cost less accumulated impairment.

d. Fair value measurement

The Company measures financial instruments at fair value on initial recognition.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or

- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.

The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.

The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:

- Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities

- Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable

- Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable

For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.

External valuers are involved for valuation of significant assets, such as properties and unquoted financial assets. Involvement of external valuers is decided upon annually by the management. Selection criteria include market knowledge, reputation, independence and whether professional standards are maintained. The management decides, after discussions with the Company’s external valuers, which valuation techniques and inputs to use for each case.

For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.

This note summarises accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.

- Disclosures for valuation methods, significant estimates and assumptions (note 49)

- Quantitative disclosures of fair value measurement hierarchy (note 47)

- Investment in unquoted equity shares

- Investment properties (note 4)

- Financial instruments (including those carried at amortised cost) (note 48)

e. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. The Company has concluded that it is the principle in all of its revenue arrangements since it is the primary obligor in all the revenue arrangements as it has pricing latitude and is also exposed to inventory and credit risks.

Based on the Educational Material on Ind AS 18 issued by the ICAI, the Company has assumed that recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account. This is for the reason that it is a liability of the manufacturer which forms part of the cost of production, irrespective of whether the goods are sold or not. Since the recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account, revenue includes excise duty.

However, sales tax/ value added tax (VAT) is not received by the Company on its own account. Rather, it is tax collected on value added to the commodity by the seller on behalf of the government. Accordingly, it is excluded from revenue.

The specific recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognised.

Sale of goods

a. Revenue from the domestic sales is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates.

b. Revenue from export sales are recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on the basis of dates of bill of lading. Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates.

Export incentives

Revenue from export incentives are accounted for on export of goods if the entitlements can be estimated with reasonable assurance and conditions precedent to claim are fulfilled.

Die design and preparation charges

Revenues from die design and preparation charges are recognized as per the terms of the contract as and when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of dies are transferred to the buyers.

Sale of services

Revenue from sale of services is recognised by reference to the stage of completion, and is measured net of service tax. Stage of completion is measured by reference to proportion of cost incurred till date to the total estimated contract cost.

Sale of electricity - Windmill

Revenue from sales of electricity is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been passed to the buyer, usually on transmission of electricity based on the data provided by the electricity department.

Interest income

For all debt instruments measured either at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortised cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses. Interest income is included in other income in the statement of profit and loss.

Dividends

Dividend income is recognised when the Company’s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.

f. Government grants

Government grants are recognised where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis in the statement of profit and loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate. Where the grant relates to an asset, it is recognized as deferred income and is allocated to statement of profit and loss over the periods and in the proportions in which depreciation on those assets is charged.

When loans or similar assistance are provided by governments or related institutions, with an interest rate below the current applicable market rate, the effect of this favourable interest is regarded as a government grant. The loan or assistance is initially recognised and measured at fair value and the government grant is measured as the difference between the initial carrying value of the loan and the proceeds received. The loan is subsequently measured as per the accounting policy applicable to financial liabilities.

g. Taxes

Current income tax

Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date in the countries where the Company operates and generates taxable income.

Current income tax relating to items recognised outside the statement of profit and loss is recognised outside the statement of profit and loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Current tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences, except:

- When the deferred tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss

- In respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, associates and interests in joint ventures, when the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future

Deferred tax (Contd.):

Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised, except:

- When the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss

- In respect of deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, associates and interests in joint ventures, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that the temporary differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilized

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside the statement of profit and loss is recognised outside the statement of profit and loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

In the situations where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India or tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where it operates, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognized in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company’s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the Company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the timing differences which originate first are considered to reverse first.

h. Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations

The Company classifies non-current assets and disposal group as held for sale if their carrying amounts will be recovered principally through a sale rather than through continuing use. Actions required to complete the sale should indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the sale will be made or that the decision to sell will be withdrawn. Management must be committed to the sale expected within one year from the date of classification.

For these purposes, sale transactions include exchanges of non-current assets for other non-current assets when the exchange has commercial substance. The criteria for held for sale classification is regarded as met only when the assets or disposal Company is available for immediate sale in its present condition, subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets (or disposal group), its sale is highly probable; and it will genuinely be sold, not abandoned. The Company treats sale of the asset or disposal group to be highly probable when:

- The appropriate level of management is committed to a plan to sell the asset (or disposal group)

- An active programme to locate a buyer and complete the plan has been initiated (if applicable)

- The asset (or disposal group) is being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value

- The sale is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification, and

- Actions required to complete the plan indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn

Non-current assets held for sale/for distribution to owners and disposal group are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and the fair value less costs to sell/distribute. Assets and liabilities classified as held for sale/ distribution are presented separately in the balance sheet.

Property, plant and equipment and intangible assets once classified as held for sale/ distribution to owners are not depreciated or amortised.

i. Property, plant and equipment

Since there is no change in the functional currency, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value for all of its property, plant and equipment as recognised in its Indian GAAP financial statements as deemed cost at the transition date, viz., April 1, 2015.

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost of acquisition or construction net of accumulated depreciation and impairment loss (if any). Internally manufactured property, plant and equipment are capitalised at cost, including non-cenvatable excise duty, wherever applicable. All significant costs relating to the acquisition and installation of property, plant and equipment are capitalised. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the property, plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognised in statement of profit and loss as incurred. The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of an asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for a provision are met. Refer to note 49 regarding significant accounting judgements, estimates and assumptions and provisions for further information.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognised.

The identified components are depreciated over their useful lives, the remaining asset is depreciated over the life of the principal asset.

Depreciation for identified components is computed on straight line method based on useful lives, determined based on internal technical evaluation as follows:

Expenditure on power line is amortised on a straight-line basis over a period of six years.

The Company, based on technical assessment made by a technical expert and management estimate, depreciates certain items of building, plant and equipment over estimated useful lives which are different from the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.

Freehold land is carried at cost. The Company has taken certain land on lease for a period of 99 years. Leasehold land is amortised on the straight line method over period of the lease.

An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognised is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the income statement when the asset is derecognised.

The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

j. Investment properties

Since there is no change in the functional currency, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value for all of its investment property as recognised in its Indian GAAP financial statements as deemed cost at the transition date, viz., April 1, 2015.

Investment properties are measured initially at cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment loss, if any.

Though the Company measures investment property using cost based measurements, the fair value measurement of investment property is disclosed in note 4. Fair values are determined based on a periodic evaluation performed by an accredited external independent valuer applying valuation model recommended by recognised valuation standards.

Investment properties are derecognised either when they have been disposed of or when they are permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from their disposal. The difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset is recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period of derecognition.

k. Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalised development costs, are not capitalised and the related expenditure is reflected in statement of profit and loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.

Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset, as provided by another Ind AS.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the net carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

The summary of amortization policy applied to the Company’s intangible assets is as below:

Research and development costs

Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development expenditures on an individual project are recognised as an intangible asset when the Company can demonstrate:

- The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that the asset will be available for use or sale

- Its intention to complete and its ability and intention to use or sell the asset

- How the asset will generate future economic benefits

- The availability of resources to complete the asset

- The ability to measure reliably the expenditure during development

Following initial recognition of the development expenditure as an asset, the asset is carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation of the asset begins when development is complete and the asset is available for use. It is amortised over the period of expected future benefit. Amortisation expense is recognised in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.

During the period of development, the asset is tested for impairment annually. l. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs w.r.t. borrowings taken on or after April 1, 2016.

m. Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

For arrangements entered into prior to April 1, 2015, the Company has determined whether the arrangements contain a lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing on the date of transition.

Company as a lessee

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.

Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company’s general policy on the borrowing costs.

A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the same is in line with inflation.

Company as a lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease unless the same is in line with inflation. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognised as revenue in the period in which they are earned.

n. Inventories

Cost of inventories have been computed to include all cost of purchases, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Raw materials and components, stores and spares and loose tools are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Costs are determined on weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost of work-in-progress and finished goods are determined on a weighted average basis.

Scrap is valued at net realizable value.

Dies are valued at cost or net realisable value. Cost includes direct material and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

o. Impairment of non-financial assets

The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or group of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pretax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded companies or other available fair value indicators.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations, which are prepared separately for each of the Company’s CGUs to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations generally cover a period of five years. For longer periods, a long-term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year. To estimate cash flow projections beyond periods covered by the most recent budgets/forecasts, the Company extrapolates cashflow projections in the budget using a steady or declining growth rate for subsequent years, unless an increasing rate can be justified. In any case, this growth rate does not exceed the long-term average growth rate for the products, industries, or country or countries in which the entity operates, or for the market in which the asset is used.

Intangible assets under development are tested for impairment annually.

Impairment losses including impairment on inventories, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

For the assets, an assessment is made at each reporting date to determine whether there is an indication that previously recognised impairment losses no longer exist or have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset’s or CGU’s recoverable amount. A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceeds the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

p. Provisions and contingent liabilities

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or nonoccurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made where there is a possible obligation arising out of past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation arising out of a past event where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

q. Post employment and other employee benefits Provident fund

The Company operates two plans for its employees to provide employee benefits in the nature of provident fund.

Eligible employees receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined benefit plan. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee’s salary. The Company contributes a part of the contributions to the “Bharat Forge Company Limited Staff Provident Fund Trust”. The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the trust is being administered by the government. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investments of the trust and the notified interest rate.

The cost of providing benefits under above mentioned defined benefit plan is determined using the projected unit credit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation.

Remeasurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognised immediately in the balance sheet as an asset/liability with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the period in which they occur. Remeasurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.

The employees which are not covered under the above scheme, their portion of provident fund is contributed to the government administered pension fund which is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre-payment will lead to, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

Gratuity

The Company operates two defined benefits plan for its employees viz. gratuity and special gratuity scheme. Payment for present liability of future payment of gratuity is being made to approved gratuity funds. The special gratuity scheme is unfunded. The cost of providing benefits under these plans is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation at each year end. Separate actuarial valuation is carried out for each plan using the project unit credit method.

Remeasurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognised immediately in the balance sheet as asset/liability with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the period in which they occur.

Remeasurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.

Past service costs are recognised in statement of profit and loss on the earlier of:

- The date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and

- The date that the Company recognises related restructuring costs

Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Company recognises the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the statement of profit and loss:

- Service costs comprising of current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non routine settlements; and

- Net interest expense or income Superannuation

Retirement benefit in the form of superannuation plan is a defined contribution plan. Defined contributions to insurance Company for employees covered under Superannuation scheme are accounted at the rate of 15% of such employees’ basic salary. The Company recognizes expense toward the contribution paid/ payable to the defined contribution plan as and when an employee renders the relevant service. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for service before the balance sheet date, the Company recognise that excess as an asset (prepaid expense) to the extent that the prepayment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payments or cash refund. If the contribution already paid is lower than the contribution due for service before the balance sheet date, the Company recognises that difference as a liability. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the superannuation fund.

Privilege leave benefits

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end.

Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred. The Company presents the leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date. Where the Company has the unconditional legal and contractual right to defer the settlement for a period beyond 12 months, the same is presented as non-current liability.

Termination benefits

Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated by the Company before the normal retirement date, or when an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Company recognizes termination benefits at the earlier of the following dates: (a) when the Company can no longer withdraw the offer of these benefits; and (b) when the entity recognizes cost for a restructuring that is within the scope of Ind AS 37 and involves payment of termination benefits. In the case of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy, the termination benefits are measured based on the number of employees expected to accept the offer. Benefits falling due more than 12 months after the end of the reporting period are discounted to present value.

r. Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

Financial assets Initial recognition and measurement

All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.

Subsequent measurement

For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in three categories:

- Debt instruments at amortised cost

- Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

Debt instruments at amortised cost

A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:

a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

This category is the most relevant to the Company. After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in other income in the statement of profit and loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables.

Debt instrument at FVTOCI

A ‘debt instrument’ is classified as at the FVTOCI if both of the following criteria are met:

a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

b) The asset’s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.

Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the group recognizes interest income, impairment losses, reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss in the statement of profit and loss. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to statement of profit and loss. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.

Debt instrument at FVTPL

FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.

In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ‘accounting mismatch’). The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.

Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Equity investments

All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. For all equity instruments not held for trading, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to statement of profit and loss, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Derecognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a Company of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:

- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.

Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:

a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance

b) Financial assets that are measured at FVTOCI

c) Lease receivables under Ind AS 17

d) Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18

The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on trade receivables or contract revenue receivables.

The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognising impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.

Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.

ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR. When estimating the cash flows, an entity is required to consider:

- All contractual terms of the financial instrument (including prepayment, extension, call and similar options) over the expected life of the financial instrument. However, in rare cases when the expected life of the financial instrument cannot be estimated reliably, then the entity is required to use the remaining contractual term of the financial instrument

- Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms

As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analysed.

ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit and loss. This amount is reflected under the head ‘other expenses’ in the statement of profit and loss.

The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:

- Financial assets measured as at amortised cost, contractual revenue receivables and lease receivables:

ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.

- Debt instruments measured at FVTOCI:

Since financial assets are already reflected at fair value, impairment allowance is not further reduced from its value. Rather, ECL amount is presented as ‘accumulated impairment amount’ in the OCI.

For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.

The Company does not have any purchased or originated credit-impaired (POCI) financial assets, i.e., financial assets which are credit impaired on purchase/ origination.

Financial liabilities

Initial recognition and measurement

Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.

All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts and derivative financial instruments.

Subsequent measurement

The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments. Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Loans and borrowings

This is the category most relevant to the Company. After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in statement of profit and loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.

Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.

This category generally applies to borrowings. For more information refer Note 18.

Financial guarantee contracts

Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified debtor fails to make a payment when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognised initially as a liability at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 and the amount recognised less cumulative amortisation.

Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

s. Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting Initial recognition and subsequent measurement

The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts, to hedge its foreign currency risks. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to statement of profit and loss, except for the effective portion of cash flow hedges, which is recognised in OCI and later reclassified to statement of profit and loss when the hedge item affects statement of profit and loss or treated as basis adjustment if a hedged forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability.

For the purpose of hedge accounting, hedges are classified as:

- Fair value hedges when hedging the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognised asset or liability or an unrecognised firm commitment

- Cash flow hedges when hedging the exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction or the foreign currency risk in an unrecognised firm commitment

At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Company formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Company wishes to apply hedge accounting and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The documentation includes the Company’s risk management objective and strategy for undertaking hedge, the hedging/ economic relationship, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged, hedge ratio and how the entity will assess the effectiveness of changes in the hedging instrument’s fair value in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item’s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. Such hedges are expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows and are assessed on an ongoing basis to determine that they actually have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which they were designated.

Hedges that meet the strict criteria for hedge accounting are accounted for, as described below:

Fair value hedges

The change in the fair value of a hedging instrument is recognised in the statement of profit and loss as finance costs. The change in the fair value of the hedged item attributable to the risk hedged is recorded as part of the carrying value of the hedged item and is also recognised in the statement of profit and loss as finance costs.

For fair value hedges relating to items carried at amortised cost, any adjustment to carrying value is amortised through statement of profit and loss over the remaining term of the hedge using the EIR method. EIR amortisation may begin as soon as an adjustment exists and no later than when the hedged item ceases to be adjusted for changes in its fair value attributable to the risk being hedged.

If the hedged item is derecognised, the unamortised fair value is recognised immediately in statement of profit and loss. When an unrecognised firm commitment is designated as a hedged item, the subsequent cumulative change in the fair value of the firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk is recognised as an asset or liability with a corresponding gain or loss recognised in statement of profit and loss.

Cash flow hedges

Cash flow hedges when hedging the exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction or the foreign currency risk in an unrecognised firm commitment.

The effective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging


Mar 31, 2014

A) Use of estimates :

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that afect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

b) Tangible fixed assets :

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria is met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure (for new projects and in case of substantial modernisation or expansion at the existing units) related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.Trial run expenditure is also capitalized.

The Company adjusts exchange diferences arising on translation / settlement of long-term foreign currency monetary items pertaining to the acquisition of a depreciable asset to the cost of the asset and depreciates the same over the remaining life of the asset. In accordance with MCA circular dated August 9, 2012, exchange diferences adjusted to the cost of fixed assets are total diferences, arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items pertaining to the acquisition of a depreciable asset, for the period. In other words, the Company does not diferentiate between exchange diferences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost and other exchange diference.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of fixed assets are measured as the diference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

c) depreciation and amortization on tangible assets :

i. Lease hold land:

Premium on leasehold land is amortized on a straight line basis over the period of lease i.e. 95 years.

ii. Power line:

Expenditure on power line is amortized on a straight line basis over a period of six years.

iii. Other fixed assets:

Depreciation on buildings, plant and machinery, railway sidings, electrical installations and aircrafts is calculated on a "Straight Line Method" basis in accordance with the provisions of Section 205(2)(b) of the Companies Act, 1956, in the manner and at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the said Act or using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management, whichever is higher.

Depreciation in respect of other assets viz. factory equipments, furniture and fixtures, ofce equipments and vehicles is calculated on "Written Down Value" basis in accordance with the provisions of Section 205(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 1956 in the manner and at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the said Act or using the rates arrived at based on the

d) intangible assets :

acquired intangible assets :

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life.The Company uses a rebuttable presumption that the useful life of an intangible asset will not exceed ten years from the date when the asset is available for use. If the persuasive evidence exists to the afect that useful life of an intangible asset exceeds ten years, the Company amortizes the intangible asset over the best estimate of its useful life. Such intangible assets and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. All other intangible assets are assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired.

The amortization period and the amortization method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly diferent from previous estimates, the amortization period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the amortization method is changed to refect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted for in accordance with AS 5 Net profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

Gains or losses arising from disposal of an intangible asset are measured as the diference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is disposed.

Research and development expenditure :

Research expenditure is charged to revenue under the natural heads of account in the year in which it is incurred.

Development expenditure incurred on an individual project is recognized as an intangible asset when the Company can demonstrate all the following:

The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale

d) intangible assets (Contd.):

Research and development expenditure (Contd.):

Its intention to complete the asset

Its ability to use or sell the asset

How the asset will generate future economic benefits

The availability of adequate resources to complete the development and to use or sell the asset

The ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during development.

Following the initial recognition of the development expenditure as an asset, the cost model is applied requiring the asset to be carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization of the asset begins when development is complete and the asset is available for use. It is amortized on a straight line basis over the period of expected future benefit from the related project, i.e. the estimated useful life often years. Amortization is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. During the period of development, the asset is tested for impairment annually.

Fixed assets purchased for research and development are accounted for in the manner stated in note 2.1 (b) above.

e) inventories :

Cost of inventories have been computed to include all cost of purchases, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Raw materials and components, stores and spares and loose tools are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the fnished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Costs are determined on weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and fnished goods are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of fnished goods includes excise duty. Cost of work-in-progress and fnished goods are determined on a weighted average basis.

Scrap is valued at net realizable value.

Dies are amortized over their productive life. Expenditure incurred to repair the dies from time to time is charged to statement of profit and loss.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

f) foreign currency translation :

Foreign currency transactions and balances:

i. initial recognition :

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion :

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

iii. exchange diferences :

The Company accounts for exchange diferences arising on translation / settlement of foreign currency monetary items as below:

a. Exchange diferences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items related to acquisition of a fixed asset are capitalized and depreciated over the remaining useful life of the asset.

b. Exchange diferences arising on other long-term foreign currency monetary items are accumulated in the "Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Diference Account" and amortized over the remaining life of the concerned monetary item.

c. All other exchange diferences are recognized as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise.

For the purpose of (a) and (b) above, the Company treats a foreign monetary item as "long-term foreign currency monetary item", if it has a term of 12 months or more at the date of its origination. In accordance with MCA circular dated August 9, 2012, exchange diferences for this purpose, are total diferences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items for the period. In other words, the Company does not diferentiate between exchange diferences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost and other exchange diference.

f) foreign currency translation (Contd.):

iv. options and forward exchange contracts not intended for trading or speculation purposes, classifed as derivative instruments

Pursuant to the announcement made by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) regarding "Accounting for Derivatives", options and forward exchange contracts are classifed as derivatives and are marked to market on a portfolio basis at the balance sheet date. The resultant net losses after considering the ofsetting efect on the underlying hedge items are recognised in the statement of profit and loss on the principle of prudence. The resultant net gains, if any, on such derivatives are not recognised in financial statements. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is recognised as income or expense for the year.

g) investments :

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classifed as current investments. All other investments are classifed as long-term investments.

On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

Current investments are carried in the financial statement at lower of cost of acquisition and fair value determined on an individual investment basis.

Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value of investments is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of investment.

On disposal of an investment, the diference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

h) revenue recognition :

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will fow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specifc recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:

i. Sale of goods:

a. Revenue from domestic sales are recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on dispatch from the point of sale, consequent to property in goods being transferred. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits fowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

b. Revenue from export sales are recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed on to the buyer, usually on the basis of dates of bill of lading.

ii. Export incentives:

Revenue from export incentives are accounted for on export of goods if the entitlements can be estimated with reasonable assurance and conditions precedent to claim is fulfilled.

iii. Sale of services:

Revenues from sales of services are recognized pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered. The Company collects service tax on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit fowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.

iv. Die design and preparation charges:

Revenues from die design and preparation charges are recognized as per the terms of the contract as and when services are rendered. The Company collects service tax and value added tax (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit fowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

v. Sale of electricity – Windmill:

Revenue from sales of electricity is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been passed to the buyer, usually on transmission of electricity, based on the data provided by the electricity department.

vi. Interest income:

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate.

vii. Dividend income:

Dividend income is recognized when the Company''s right to receive is established by the reporting date.

viii. profit/ loss on sale of investment:

profit/ loss on sale of investment is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership in investment is transferred.

ix. certified emission reduction units / renewal energy certifcates:

Revenue from certified emission reduction units / renewal energy certifcates is recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the entity will comply with the conditions attached to it and the grants will be received. At a minimum, these conditions will only be met when the actual emission reductions have been realized and the entity has reasonable assurance that these reductions will be confirmed during the verifcation and certification process by the respective independent authority.

i) retirement and other employee benefits :

i Provident fund:

The Company operates two plans for its employees to provide employee benefit in the nature of provident fund.

Eligible employees receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a Defined benefit plan. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equaltoa specified percentage of the covered employee''s salary. The Company contributes a part of the contributions to the "Bharat Forge Company Limited Staf Provident Fund Trust". The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the benefciaries by the trust is being administered by the government. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investments of the trust and the notifed interest rate. The guidance note on implementing AS-15 (revised 2005) "Employee benefits", states that, benefits involving employer established provident funds, which requires interest shortfalls to be provided, are to be considered as Defined benefit plans.

Actuarial valuation of this provident fund interest shortfall has been done as per the guidance note issued in this respect by the Institute of Actuaries of India.

The employee which are not covered under the above scheme, their portion of provident fund is contributed to the government administered pension fund which is a Defined contribution scheme.The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the defcit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

ii Gratuity:

The Company operates two Defined benefits plan for its employees viz. gratuity and special gratuity scheme. Payment for present liability of future payment of gratuity is being made to approved gratuity funds, which fully cover the same under cash accumulation policy of the Life Insurance Corporation of India. The special gratuity scheme is unfunded. The cost of providing benefits underthese plans is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation at each yearend. Separate actuarial valuation is carried out for each plan using the project unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses for both Defined benefit plans are recognized in full in the period in which they occur in the statement of profit and loss.

iii Superannuation:

Retirement benefit in the form of superannuation plan is a Defined contribution plan. Defined contributions to Life Insurance Corporation of India for employees covered under Superannuation scheme are accounted at the rate of 15% of such employees'' basic salary. The Company recognizes expense toward the contribution paid/ payable to the Defined contribution plan as and when an employee renders the relevant service. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for service before the balance sheet date, the Company should recognise that excess as an asset (prepaid expense) to the extent that the prepayment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payments or cash refund. If the contribution already paid is lower than the contribution due for service before the balance sheet date, the Company recognises that diference excess as a liability.The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the superannuation fund.

i) retirement and other employee benefits (Contd.):

iv Privilege leave benefits:

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred. The Company presents the leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date. Where the Company has the unconditional legal and contractual right to defer the settlement for a period beyond 12 months, the same is presented as non-current liability.

v Termination benefits:

The Company recognizes termination benefit as a liability and an expense when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

j) borrowing costs :

Borrowing costs includes interest and amortization ofancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

k) income taxes :

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India and tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where the Company operates. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes refect the impact of timing diferences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing diferences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing diferences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible timing diferences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufcient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufcient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufcient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufcient future taxable income will be available.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are ofset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-of current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax.The Company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e. the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the

Company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the guidance note on "Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax" under the Income-Tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement. " The Company reviews the "MAT Credit Entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

l) Provisions :

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to refect the current best estimates.

Where the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to any provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.

m) impairment of tangible asset :

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating unit''s (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that refects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specifc to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the Company''s CGU to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the ffth year.

Impairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss, except for previously revalued tangible fixed assets, where the revaluation was taken to revaluation reserve. In this case, the impairment is also recognized in the revaluation reserve upto the amount of any previous revaluation.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset''s or cash- generating unit''s recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase.

n) Leases :

Where the Company is the lessee

Leases, where the lessor efectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classifed as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

o) government grants and subsidies :

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that (i) the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them, and (ii) the grant/ subsidy will be received.

When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis in the statement of profit and loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate. Where the grant relates to an asset, it is recognized as deferred income and is allocated to statement of profit and loss over the periods and in the proportions in which depreciation on those assets is charged.

Where the Company receives non-monetary grants, the asset is accounted for on the basis of itsacquisition cost. In case a non- monetary asset is given free of cost, it is recognized at a nominal value.

Government grants of the nature of promoters'' contribution are credited to capital reserve and treated as a part of the shareholders'' funds.

p) earnings per share :

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they are entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the efects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

q) Contingent liabilities :

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

r) Cash and cash equivalents :

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash fow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

s) derivative instruments and hedge accounting :

The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as, foreign currency forward contracts to hedge foreign currency risk arising from future transactions in respect of which firm commitments are made or which are highly probable forecast transactions. The Company designates these forward contracts in a hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles of AS 30 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

For the purpose of hedge accounting, hedges are classifed as:

i. Fair value hedges when hedging the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognized asset or liability or an unrecognized firm commitment;

ii. Cash fow hedges when hedging the exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction or the foreign currency risk in an unrecognized firm commitment.

At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Company formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Company wishes to apply hedge accounting and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The documentation includes identifcation of the hedging instrument, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged and how the Company will assess the efectiveness of changes in the hedging instrument''s fair value in ofsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item''s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. Such hedges are expected to be highly efective in achieving ofsetting changes in fair value or cash flows and are assessed on an ongoing basis to determine that they actually have been highly efective throughout the financial reporting periods for which they were designated.

Hedges that meet the strict criteria for hedge accounting are accounted for as described below:

Fair value hedges

The change in the fair value of a hedging derivative is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. The change in the fair value of the hedged item attributable to the risk hedged is recorded as part of the carrying value of the hedged item and is also recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

When an unrecognized firm commitment is designated as a hedged item, the subsequent cumulative change in the fair value of the firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk is recognized as an asset or liability with a corresponding gain or loss recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Cash fow hedges

The efective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recognized directly under shareholders fund in the hedging reserve, while any inefective portion is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts as hedges of its exposure to foreign currency risk in forecasted transactions and firm commitments. The inefective portion relating to foreign currency contracts is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Amounts recognized in the hedging reserve are transferred to the statement of profit and loss when the hedged transaction afects profit or loss, such as when the hedged income or expense is recognized or when a forecast sale occurs.

If the forecast transaction or firm commitment is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the hedging reserve is transferred to the statement of profit and loss. If the hedging instrument expires oris sold, terminated or exercised without replacement or rollover or if its designation as a hedge is revoked, any cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the hedging reserve remains in the hedging reserve until the forecast transaction or firm commitment afects profit or loss.

(b) Terms / rights attached to equity shares

The Company has only one class of issued equity shares having a par value ofRs. 2/- per share. Each holder of equity shares is entitled to one vote per share.The Company declares and pays dividend in Indian rupees.The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting.

During the year ended March 31, 2014, the amount of per share interim dividend recognised as distributions to equity shareholders was Rs. 2.00/- (March 31,2013:Rs. 1.00/-).

During the year ended March 31,2014, the amount of per share proposed final dividend recognised as distributions to equity shareholders was Rs. 2.50/- (March 31, 2013:Rs. 2.40/-).

In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the Company, after distribution of all preferential amounts. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.

(c) shares held by holding / ultimate holding company and / or their subsidiaries / associates

The Company being ultimate holding company there are no shares held by any other holding, ultimate holding company and their subsidiaries / associates.

(d) aggregate number of bonus shares issued, shares issued for consideration other than cash and shares bought back during the period of five years immediately preceding the reporting date

There are no bonus shares issued, shares issued for consideration other than cash and shares bought back during the period of five years immediately preceding reporting date.

(g) Terms of securities convertible into equity shares

i) The Company had issued and allotted to Qualifed Institutional Buyers, 10,000,000 equity shares ofRs. 2/- each at a price ofRs. 272/- per share aggregating to Rs. 2,720 million on April 28, 2010, simultaneous with the issue of 1,760 10.75% Non Convertible Debentures (NCD) of a face value of Rs. 1,000,000/- at par, together with 6,500,000 warrants at a price of Rs. 2/- each entitling the holder of each warrant to subscribe for 1 equity share ofRs. 2/- each at a price ofRs. 272/- at any time within 3 years from the date of allotment. The subscription money received on issue of warrants had been credited to capital reserve as the same is not refundable/adjustable.

The Warrant holders were entitled to exercise their right to exchange the warrants in to corresponding number of equity shares, up to April 28, 2013. As no warrants have been exercised on or before the said warrant exercise period, the warrants have lapsed and ceased to be valid. ii) Refer note 5(c) regarding Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds.

(h) global depository receipts

The Company had issued 3,636,500 equity shares ofRs. 10/- each (later sub-divided into 18,182,500 equity shares ofRs. 2/- each) in April and May 2005 represented by 3,636,500 Global Depository Receipts (GDR) (on sub division 18,182,500 GDRs) evidencing "Master GDR Certifcates" at a price of USD 27.50 per GDR (including premium). GDRs outstanding at the close of the year are 9,200 (March 31, 2013: 9,200). The funds raised had been utilised towards the object of the issue.

(a) sales tax deferral incentive

The Company, between the period April 2002 to March 2006, had prematurely retired its obligations of the sales tax deferral incentive availed under the Package Scheme of Incentives 1993, thereby generating a cumulative surplus ofRs. 108.63 million. Since the incentive was fundamentally provided to encourage capital investments in designated underdeveloped zones and thereby defray, to some extent, defciencies, the same had been apportioned to revenue reserves over the future / balance life of the underlying investments, at the end of each financial year. However, in the financial year ended March 31, 2013 the Company has transferred the entire balance to general reserve.

(b) subsidy for setting up new industrial unit

The Company''s manufacturing facility at Baramati has been granted "Mega Project Status" by Government of Maharashtra and therefore, is eligible for Industrial Promotion Subsidy (IPS) under Package Scheme of Incentive (PSI) 2007. The Company has been granted eligibility certifcate issued by the Directorate of Industries, Government of Maharashtra in this regard. IPS consists of the following:

a. Electricity duty exemption for the period of 7 years from the date of commencement of the project i.e. April 1, 2009;

b. 100% exemption from payment of Stamp duty for the Leasehold land acquired for the Baramati Plant; and

c. VATand CST payable to the State Government (before adjustment of Set-of) on sales made from Baramati plant, within a period of 7 years starting from April 1, 2009 to March 31,2016.

IPS will however, be restricted to 75% of the eligible fixed capital investments made from May 11, 2005 to May 10, 2010. The eligibility certifcate issued allows maximum subsidy of Rs. 3,198.20 million.

In terms of the Accounting Standard (AS12) "Accounting for Government Grants" eligible incentive is considered to be in the nature of grants related to revenue and is accounted under other income in note 20.

(c) debenture redemption reserve

Debenture redemption reserve has been created in accordance with circular No. 9/2002 dated April 18, 2002 issued by the Department of Company Afairs, Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Afairs, Government of India and Section 117(C) of the Companies Act, 1956 at 25% of the maturity amount equally over the terms of the debentures privately placed.

(d) The equity shares allotted on exercise of option to convert FCCB by the bondholders, and 10,000,000 equity shares of Rs. 2/-each allotted as detailed in note 3(g) before the record date/ book closure for dividend, would rank pari passu with the existing share capital refected in note 3 in all respect including dividend declared for the year. Dividend for the year has been provided for on 232,794,316 (March 31, 2013: 232,794,316) equity shares ofRs. 2/- each at the rate recommended by Board of Directors on the basis of equity shares issued and allotted up to May 27, 2014 (March 31, 2013: May 25, 2013).

(a) debentures

The Company has issued the following secured redeemable non-convertible debentures:

(i) 2,500 (March 31, 2013: 2,500) - 11.95% Redeemable secured non-convertible debentures (Sixteenth series) of Rs. 1,000,000/- each redeemable at par in three equal annual installments on January 5, 2015; on January 5, 2016; and on January 5, 2017, respectively

Above debentures are secured by: (i) First pari-passu mortgage in favour of the Trustees, of all rights and interest on the Company''s immovable properties situated at Mundhwa, Satara and Chakan with negative lien on properties situated at Jejuri and Baramati; and (ii) First pari-passu charge in favour of the Trustees by way of hypothecation of movable properties, present and future both such as all plant and machinery, equipments, tools, furniture and fixtures etc., as described in Debenture Trust-cum-Mortgage Deed dated April 30, 2009 and a revised Mortgage Deed dated April 30, 2014, when the immovable property situated at Jalgaon was removed as a security.

(ii) 1,760 (March 31, 2013: 1,760) - 10.75 % Redeemable secured non-convertible debentures (Eighteenth series) of Rs. 1,000,000/-each redeemable at par in three annual installments @ 35.00% on April 28,2014; @ 35.00% on April 28,2015, @ 30.00% on April 28, 2016.

Above debentures are secured by: (i) First pari-passu mortgage in favour of Trustees, of all rights and interest on the Company''s immovable properties, present and future situated at Mundhwa and Chakan, Satara with negative lien on properties situated at Jejuri and Baramati as per Debenture Trust-cum-Mortgage Deed dated June 28, 2010; and (ii) First pari-passu charge in favour of theTrustees on moveable properties, present and future as described in Schedule-II as per Debenture Trust-cum-Mortgage Deed dated June 28,2010 and a revised Mortgage Deed dated April 30,2014, when the immovable property situated at Jalgaon was removed as a security.

(iii) 2,625 (March 31, 2013: 3,500) - 10.75 % Redeemable secured non-convertible debentures (Seventeenth series) of Rs. 1,000,000/- each redeemable at par in three installment @ 25.00% on March 22,2014; @ 50.00% on September 22,2014; @ 25.00% on March 22, 2015.

Above debentures are secured by: (i) First pari-passu mortgage in favour of theTrustees, of all rights and interest on the Company''s immovable properties situated as at Mundhwa, Satara and Chakan with negative lien on properties situated at Jejuri and Baramati; and (ii) First pari passu charge in favour of the Trustees by way of hypothecation of movable properties, present and future both such as all plant and machinery, equipments, tools, furniture and fixtures etc., as described in Debenture Trust-cum-Mortgage Deed dated December 14, 2009 and a revised Mortgage Deed dated April 30,2014, when the immovable property situated at Jalgaon was removed as a security.

(b) foreign currency term loans

(i) from Credit agricole Corporate & investment bank, singapore (secured) balance outstanding usd 20 million (March 31, 2013: usd 35 million)

Secured by first pari passu charge over present and future movable fixed assets viz. plant and machinery, computers, furniture''s and fixtures, whether installed or not and whether now lying loose or in cases or otherwise or being on or upon or at any time, hereafter being on or upon about the premises and godowns at Mundhwa, Pune; Village Kuruli, Chakan;Taluka Khed, District Pune; Village Vaduth,Taluka and District Satara and at Baramati, Pune or anywhere else. Repayable in 3 yearly installments from date of its origination, i.e. October 14, 2012, along with interest.

(ii) foreign currency term loans on syndicated basis (unsecured) balance outstanding usd 80 million (March 31, 2013: usd 80 million) Repayable in 3 half yearly installments from date of its origination i.e. October 31, 2016, along with interest.

(iii) foreign currency term loans on syndicated basis (unsecured) balance outstanding usd 40 million (March 31, 2013: usd 40 million) Repayable in 3 half yearly installments from date of its origination i.e. October 31, 2016, along with interest.

(iv) foreign currency term loans on syndicated basis (unsecured) balance outstanding usd 60 million (March 31, 2013: nil)

Repayable in 3 half yearly installments from date of its origination i.e. October 31, 2017, along with interest.

The interest for the above secured and unsecured loans including refinance ranges from 6M Libor 200 bps to 400 bps p.a.

(c) foreign currency convertible bonds (fCCb)

The Company had issued FCCB (Tranche B) of USD 39.90 million, to finance capital expenditure, global acquisitions and loan to subsidiaries. The said bonds were optionally convertible into GDR/ Equity shares to be exercised at any time during the exercise period at a pre determined initial price subject to adjustments upon occurrence of certain events. In case there was non conversion of FCCB, the amount was to be repaid in full.

TheTrancheBof FCCB amounting to USD 39.90 million outstanding as at April 26,2013 were redeemed on April 26,2013 along with the redemption premium amounting to USD 22.54 million.The premium on redemption aggregating to 1,322.82 million, (including withholding Tax amounting to Rs. 98.67 million) since crystalised has been adjusted to securities premium account, net of deferred tax asset amounting to Rs. 429.19 million, in terms of Section 78(2) (d) of the Companies Act, 1956.

9. short-term borrowings

(a) Cash credit from banks is secured against hypothecation of stocks of semi fnished and fnished goods, raw materials, fnished dies and die blocks, work-in-progress, consumable stores and spares, book debts etc.

Cash credit is repayable on demand and carries interest @ 10.50% to 13.25% per annum.

(b) Preshipment packing credit from banks is secured against hypothecation of stocks of semi fnished and fnished goods, raw materials, fnished dies and die blocks, work-in-progress, consumable stores and spares, book debts etc.

Preshipment packing credit (secured & unsecured) is repayable within 180 days and carries interest @ LIBOR 75 bps to 100 bps perannum.

(c) Buyers'' line of credit is repayable within 180 days to 360 days and carries interest @ EURIBOR 90 bps to 110 bps perannum.

(a) CdP bharat forge gmbh

Contributions to the capital reserves of CDP Bharat Forge GmbH as per the German Commercial Code, forms a part of the equity share capital and accordingly has been considered as an investment and is redeemable subject to provisions of the code.

(b) bharat forge america inc. (bfa)

Bharat Forge America Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary had registered losses which has substantially eroded its net worth.

Given the uncertainties in the American economy and its further impact on the auto industries slow revival, the Company had, as a matter of prudence, tested the investment in BFA for impairment / diminution with reference to the value of assets.Accordingly, the Company had provided for additional impairment Rs. Nil (March 31, 2013: Rs. 260.00 million) which was recognised as an exceptional item in the statement of profit and loss in the previous year.

During the last financial year, the Company had announced to close down the operations on account of prolonged recessionary conditions in the US auto market and had decided to sell of the assets. As on May 5,2013, the Company sold all its fixed assets in BFA to a third party.

(c) BF infrastructure Limited (bfiL)

BF Infrastructure Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary has registered losses which has afected its net worth. Given the lossess in the business activities carried out by the Company, the Company has, as a matter of prudence, tested the investment in BFIL for impairment / diminution with reference to the value of assets. Accordingly, the Company has provided for impairment ofRs. 308.14 million (March 31, 2013: Rs. Nil) which has been recognised as an exceptional item in the statement of profit and loss.

(d) gupta energy Private Limited

Shares of Gupta Energy Private Limited pledged against the facility obtained by Gupta Global Resources Private Limited.

13. Loans and advances

(a) Loan to a company

In earlieryears interest free loan ofRs. 309.09 million was given to a Private Limited Company which had given an undertaking to purchase and hold the Company''s shares solely for the purpose and obligations ofthe "BFL Executives Welfare and Share Option Trust" in terms of clause (b) of the proviso to Section 77(2) of the Companies Act, 1956. In thecurrentyear, the Private Company has sold all the shares held by them on behalf of the Trust and refunded the loan amount to the Company. Consequently the said "BFL Executives Welfare and Share Option Trust" has been renamed to "BFL Staf Welfare Trust".

(a) Provision for diminution in value of investment in bf infrastructure Limited (bfiL)

Considering the losses in the business activities carried out by BFIL, the Management, has provided an amount ofRs. 308.14 million towards diminution in the carrying cost of its investments in current financial year.

(b) Provision for diminution in value of investment in bharat forge america inc. (bfa)

Considering substantial erosion of net worth of BFA due to continuous losses, the Management, has provided additional amount of Rs. 260.00 million towards diminution in the carrying cost of its investments in last financial year.

(c) reversal of interest diferential as per accounting standard (as) 16 on "borrowing Costs".

The Company had earlier exercised the option ofered in the Accounting Standard (AS) 11 relating to " The efects of changes in foreign exchange rates" to capitalise foreign exchange diference on translation of long term monetary liabilities to cost of depreciable assets where used to acquire such assets and in other cases to FCMITDA (Foreign Currency Monetary Items Translation Diference Account) after providing for interest diferential as per Accounting Standard (AS) 16. In view of the clarifcation provided vide Ministry of Corporate Afairs circular 25/ 2012 dated August 9, 2012, the Company had exercised the option retrospectively from April 1,2011 and the exchange loss amounting toRs. 205.02 million representing the interest diferential up to March 31, 2012 previously expensed was reversed and corresponding adjustment was made to the cost of fixed assets and FCMITDA as appropriate in previous year.

(d) Package scheme of incentive (Psi)

During the previous year the Company had accrued MVAT, CST and other duty benefits of earlier periods amounting to Rs. 160.67 million as per Industrial Promotion Subsidy (IPS) under Package Scheme of Incentive (PSI) 2007, of the Government of Maharashtra, for its plant set up in Baramati.

(e) profit on sale of land

During the current year, the Company has sold its land situated at Jalgaon resulting in a gain of Rs. 431.64 million.


Mar 31, 2013

A) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

b) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria is met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure (for new projects and in case of substantial modernisation or expansion at the existing units) related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to- day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred. Trial run expenditure is also capitalised.

The Company adjusts exchange differences arising on translation/settlement of long-term foreign currency monetary items pertaining to the acquisition of a depreciable asset to the cost of the asset and depreciates the same over the remaining life of the asset. In accordance with MCA circular dated August 9, 2012, exchange differences adjusted to the cost of fixed assets are total differences, arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items pertaining to the acquisition of a depreciable asset, for the period. In other words, the Company does not differentiate between exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost and other exchange difference.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

c) Depreciation and amortization

i. Lease hold land

Premium on leasehold land is amortized on a straight line basis over the period of lease i.e. 95 years.

ii. Power Line

Expenditure on power line is amortized on a straight line basis over a period of six years.

c) Depreciation and amortization (Contd.):

iii. Other fixed assets

Depreciation on buildings, plant and machinery, railway sidings, electrical installations and aircrafts is calculated on a "Straight Line Method" basis in accordance with the provisions of Section 205(2)(b) of the Companies Act, 1956, in the manner and at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the said Act or using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management, whichever is higher.

Depreciation in respect of other assets viz. factory equipments, furniture and fixtures, office equipments and vehicles is calculated on "Written down value" basis in accordance with the provisions of Section 205(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 1956 in the manner and at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the said Act or using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management, whichever is higher.

Depreciation on additions to assets during the year is being provided on pro-rata basis from the date of acquisition/ installation.

Depreciation on assets sold, discarded or demolished during the year, is being provided at their respective rates on pro-rata basis upto the date on which such assets are sold, discarded or demolished.

Depreciation on account of increase or decrease due to revaluation of foreign currency loans is being provided at rates of depreciation over the future life of said asset.

d) Intangible assets

Acquired intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Gains or losses arising from disposal of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is disposed.

Research and development expenditure

Research expenditure is charged to revenue under the natural heads of account in the year in which it is incurred.

However, development expenditure incurred is recognized as an intangible asset when the Company can demonstrate all the following:

- The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale

- Its intention to complete the asset

- Its ability to use or sell the asset

- How the asset will generate future economic benefits

- The availability of adequate resources to complete the development and to use or sell the asset

- The ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during development.

Following the initial recognition of the development expenditure as an asset, the cost model is applied requiring the asset to be carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization of the asset begins when development is complete and the asset is available for use. It is amortized on a straight line basis over the period of expected future benefit from the related project, i.e. the estimated useful life of ten years. Amortization is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. During the period of development, the asset is tested for impairment annually.

Fixed assets purchased for research and development are accounted for in the manner stated in note 2.1 (b) above.

e) Inventories

Cost of inventories have been computed to include all cost of purchases, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Raw materials and components, stores and spares and loose tools are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. The costs are determined using the weighted average method.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty and is determined on a weighted average basis.

Scrap is valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined using the weighted average method.

Dies are amortised over their productive life. Expenditure incurred to repair the dies from time to time is charged to statement of profit and loss.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

f) Foreign currency translation

Foreign currency transactions and balances

i. Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non- monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

iii. Exchange differences

The Company accounts for exchange differences arising on translation/settlement of foreign currency monetary items as below:

a. Exchange differences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items related to acquisition of a fixed asset are capitalized and depreciated over the remaining useful life of the asset.

b. Exchange differences arising on other long-term foreign currency monetary items are accumulated in the "Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account" and amortized over the remaining life of the concerned monetary item.

c. All other exchange differences are recognized as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise.

For the purpose of (a) and (b) above, the Company treats a foreign monetary item as "long-term foreign currency monetary item", if it has a term of 12 months or more at the date of its origination. In accordance with MCA circular dated August 9, 2012, exchange differences for this purpose, are total differences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items for the period. In other words, the Company does not differentiate between exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost and other exchange difference.

iv. Options and forward exchange contracts not intended for trading or speculation purposes, classified as derivative instruments.

Pursuant to the announcement made by The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) regarding "Accounting for Derivatives", options and forward exchange contracts are classified as derivatives and are marked to market on a portfolio basis at the balance sheet date. The resultant net losses after considering the offsetting effect on the underlying hedge items are recognised in the statement of profit and loss on the principle of prudence. The resultant net gains, if any, on such derivatives are not recognised in financial statements. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is recognised as income or expense for the year.

g) Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value of investments is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of investment.

Current investments are carried in the financial statement at lower of cost of acquisition and fair value determined on an individual investment basis.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

h) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:

i. Sale of goods

a. Domestic sales are recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on dispatch from the point of sale, consequent to property in goods being transferred. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

b. Export sales are recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on the basis of dates of bill of lading.

ii. Export incentives

Export Incentives are accounted for on export of goods if the entitlements can be estimated with reasonable accuracy and conditions precedent to claim is fulfilled.

iii. Sale of services

Revenues from sales of services are recognized pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered. The Company collects service tax on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.

iv. Die design and preparation charges

Revenues from die design and preparation charges are recognized as per the terms of the contract as and when services are rendered. The Company collects service tax and value added tax (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.

v. Sale of electricity - Windmill

Revenue from sales of electricity is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been passed to the buyer, usually on transmission of electricity based on the data provided by the electricity department.

vi. Interest income

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate.

vii. Dividend income

Dividend income is recognized when the Company''s right to receive is established by the reporting date.

viii. Profit / loss on sale of investment

Profit / loss on sale of investment is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership in investment is transferred.

ix. Certified emission reduction units / Renewal energy certificates

Certified emission reduction units / Renewal energy certificates is recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the entity will comply with the conditions attached to it and the grants will be received. At a minimum, these conditions will only be met when the actual emission reductions have been realized and the entity has reasonable assurance these reductions will be confirmed during the verification and certification process by the respective independent authority. This assessment must also take into account any additional terms and conditions that may apply.

i) Retirement and other employee benefits

i Provident fund

The Company operates two plans for its employees to provide employee benefit in the nature of provident fund.

Eligible employees receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined benefit plan. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee''s salary. The Company contributes a part of the contributions to the "Bharat Forge Company Limited Staff Provident Fund Trust". The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the trust is being administered by the government. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investments of the trust and the notified interest rate. The guidance note on implementing AS- 15 (revised 2005) "Employee Benefits", states that benefits involving employer established provident funds, which requires interest shortfalls to be provided, are to be considered as defined benefit plans. Actuarial valuation of this provident fund interest shortfall has been done as per the guidance note issued during the year in this respect by the Institute of Actuaries of India.

The employee which are not covered under the above scheme, there portion of provident fund is contributed to the government administered pension fund which is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

ii Gratuity

The Company operates two defined benefits plan for its employees viz. gratuity and special gratuity scheme. Payment for present liability of future payment of gratuity is being made to approved gratuity funds, which fully cover the same under cash accumulation policy of the Life Insurance Corporation of India. The special gratuity scheme is unfunded. The cost of providing benefits under these plans is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation at each year end. Separate actuarial valuation is carried out for each plan using the project unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses for both defined benefit plans are recognized in full in the period in which they occur in the statement of profit and loss.

iii Superannuation

Retirement benefit in the form of superannuation plan is a defined contribution plan. Defined contributions to Life Insurance Corporation of India for employees covered under Superannuation scheme are accounted at the rate of 15% of such employees'' annual salary. The Company recognizes expense toward the contribution paid/ payable to the defined contribution plan as and when an employee renders the relevant service. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for service before the balance sheet date, the company should recognise that excess as an asset (prepaid expense) to the extent that the prepayment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payments or cash refund. If the contribution already paid is lower than the contribution due for service before the balance sheet date, the company recognises that difference excess as a liability. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the superannuation fund.

iv Privilege leave benefits

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred. The Company presents the leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date. Where the Company has the unconditional legal and contractual right to defer the settlement for a period beyond 12 months, the same is presented as non-current liability.

v Termination benefits

The Company recognizes termination benefit as a liability and an expense when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

j) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest and amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

k) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India and tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where the Company operates. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write- down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The Company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the guidance note on "Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax" under the Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The Company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

l) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

m) Impairment of tangible asset

The Company tests for impairments at the close of the accounting period if and only if there are indications that suggest a possible reduction in the recoverable value of an asset. If the recoverable value amount of an asset, i.e. the net realisable value or the economic value in use of a cash generating unit, is lower than the carrying amount of the asset the difference is provided for as impairment. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or cash generating units exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the company estimates the asset''s or cash-generating unit''s recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase.

n) Leases

Where the Company is the lessee

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

o) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that (i) the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them, and (ii) the grant/subsidy will be received.

When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis in the statement of profit and loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate. Where the grant relates to an asset, it is recognized as deferred income and is allocated to statement of profit and loss over the periods and in the proportions in which depreciation on those assets is charged.

Where the Company receives non-monetary grants, the asset is accounted for on the basis of its acquisition cost. In case a non-monetary asset is given free of cost, it is recognized at a nominal value.

Government grants of the nature of promoters'' contribution are credited to capital reserve and treated as a part of the shareholders'' funds.

p) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they are entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

q) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

r) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

s) Derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as, foreign currency forward contracts to hedge foreign currency risk arising from future transactions in respect of which firm commitments are made or which are highly probable forecast transactions. The Company designates these forward contracts in a hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles of AS 30 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

For the purpose of hedge accounting, hedges are classified as:

i. Fair value hedges when hedging the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognized asset or liability or an unrecognized firm commitment;

ii. Cash flow hedges when hedging the exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction or the foreign currency risk in an unrecognized firm commitment.

At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Company formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Company wishes to apply hedge accounting and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The documentation includes identification of the hedging instrument, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged and how the Company will assess the effectiveness of changes in the hedging instrument''s fair value in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item''s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. Such hedges are expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows and are assessed on an ongoing basis to determine that they actually have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which they were designated.

Hedges that meet the strict criteria for hedge accounting are accounted for as described below:

Fair value hedges

The change in the fair value of a hedging derivative is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. The change in the fair value of the hedged item attributable to the risk hedged is recorded as part of the carrying value of the hedged item and is also recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Cash flow hedges

The effective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recognized directly under shareholders fund in the hedging reserve, while any ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts as hedges of its exposure to foreign currency risk in forecasted transactions. The ineffective portion relating to foreign currency contracts is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Amounts recognized in the hedging reserve are transferred to the statement of profit and loss when the hedged transaction affects profit or loss, such as when the hedged income or expense is recognized or when a forecast sale occurs.

If the forecast transaction or firm commitment is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the hedging reserve is transferred to the statement of profit and loss. If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised without replacement or rollover, or if its designation as a hedge is revoked, any cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the hedging reserve remains in the hedging reserve until the forecast transaction affects profit or loss.


Mar 31, 2012

Basis of preparation

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India under the historical cost convention on accrual basis. These financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material aspects with the accounting standards notified under Section 211(3C) [Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, as amended] and the other relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company's normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current/non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

1. System of Accounting:

i. The Company follows the mercantile system of accounting and recognises income and expenditure on an accrual basis except those with significant uncertainties.

ii. Financial Statements are based on historical cost. These costs are not adjusted to reflect the impact of the changing value in the purchasing power of money.

iii. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. The estimates and assumptions used in the accompanying financial statements are based upon management's evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the financial statements. Actual results may differ from the estimates and assumptions used in preparing the accompanying financial statements. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

2. Fixed Assets and depreciation:

A. Fixed Assets are stated at their original cost of acquisition including incidental expenses related to acquisition and installation of the concerned assets. The fixed assets manufactured by the Company are stated at manufacturing cost. Fixed Assets are shown net of accumulated depreciation (except free hold land) and amortisation. Also refer Para 4(i).

B. Expenditure on New Projects and Expenditure during Construction etc. :

In case of new projects and in case of substantial modernisation or expansion at the existing units of the Company, expenditure incurred including interest on borrowings and financing costs of specific loans, prior to commencement of commercial production is capitalised to the cost of assets. Trial Run expenditure is also capitalised.

C. Depreciation and amortisation:

a) Lease hold land and Power Line:

Premium on leasehold land is amortized over the period of lease and expenditure on power line is amortized over a period of seven year

b) Other Fixed Assets:

i. Depreciation on additions to Buildings, Plant & Machinery, Railway Sidings, Electrical Installations and Aircrafts is being provided on ''Straight Line Method'' basis in accordance with the provisions of Section 205(2(b) of the Companies Act, 1956, in the manner and at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the said Act.

ii. Depreciation in respect of other assets viz. Factory Equipments, Computers, Engineering Instruments, Furniture & Fittings, Office Equipments and Vehicles is being provided on ''Written down value'' basis in accordance with the provisions of Section 205(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 1956 in the manner and at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the said Act.

c) i. Depreciation on additions to assets during the year is being provided on pro-rata basis from the date of acquisition/installation.

ii. Depreciation on assets sold, discarded or demolished during the year, is being provided at their respective rates on pro-rata basis upto the date on which such assets are sold, discarded or demolished.

iii. Depreciation on additions on account of increase in Rupee value due to revalorisation of foreign currency loans is being provided at rates of depreciation over the future life of said asset.

3. Inventories:

Cost of Inventories have been computed to include all cost of Purchases, Cost of Conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition:

i. Raw materials and components, stores and spares are valued at cost. The costs are ascertained using the weighted average method, except in case of slow moving and obsolete material, at lower of cost or estimated realisable value.

ii. Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at the lower of cost or estimated realisable value.

iii. Scrap is valued at estimated realisable value.

iv. Goods in transit are stated at actual cost upto the date of Balance Sheet.

v. Dies are amortised over their productive life. Expenditure incurred to repair the dies from time to time is charged to profit and loss account.

4. Foreign Currency Conversion:

i. Foreign currency exposure in respect of Long Term Foreign Currency Monetary items, for financing fixed assets, outstanding at the close of the financial year are revalorised at the contracted and/or appropriate exchange rates at the close of the year. The gain or loss due to decrease/increase in Rupee liability due to fluctuation in rate of exchange is recognised in the Profit & Loss Account.

ii. Current Assets and other Liabilities in foreign currency and foreign currency exposure in respect of foreign currency loans other than for financing fixed assets outstanding at the close of the financial year are valued at the contracts and/or appropriate exchange rates at the close of the year. The loss or gain due to fluctuation of exchange rates is charged to Profit & Loss Account.

iii. Though the accounting policy detailed in (i) and (ii) above has been consistently followed in terms with the Accounting Standard 11, the policy has been overridden by an amendment to the aforementioned accounting standard for limited period of time as stated in Note No. 3(d) to the Financial Statements.

iv. Foreign Currency Hedging Instruments:

Outstanding Contracts, entered into by the Company intended to serve as a hedge against Foreign Exchange Fluctuations to protect the foreign currency cash flows are marked to market value at the close of each accounting period. The valuation gains and losses in respect of such contracts , where they are intended to hedge future cash flows arising from foreign currency monetary items existing on the valuation date are recognised in the profit and loss account and where they are intended to hedge future cash flows consequent to highly probable forecast transactions are, if effective, carried to Hedge Reserve to flow to the Profit and Loss account when the transactions occur, else are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

5. Technical Know-how Fees:

Expenditure on acquiring Technical Know-how is being amortized over a period of six years.

6. Investments:

a. Trade and Strategic Investments made by the Company are of a long term nature and hence diminution in value of investments if any is generally not considered to be of permanent nature. However if the diminution is considered to be of permanent nature then necessary provisions are made.

b. Current Investments are valued at cost of acquisition, less provision for diminution, as necessary, if any.

7. Revenue Recognition:

a. Sales:

i. Domestic Sales are accounted for when dispatched from the point of sale, consequent to property in goods being transferred.

ii. Export Sales are accounted on the basis of dates of Bill of Lading.

b. Export Incentives: - Export Incentives are accounted for on Export of Goods if the entitlements can be estimated with reasonable accuracy and conditions precedent to claim is fulfilled.

c. Interest is accrued over the period of loan/ investment

d. Dividend is accrued in the year in which it is declared, whereby right to receive is established

e. Profit/ Loss on sale of investment is recognised on contract date.

8. Research & Development Expenditure:

Research & Development expenditure is charged to Revenue under the natural heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. However, expenditure incurred at development phase, where it is reasonably certain that outcome of research will be commercially exploited to yield economic benefits to the Company, is considered as an intangible asset.

Fixed Assets purchased for research and development are accounted for in the manner stated in clause 2 above.

9. Employee Benefits:

i Benefits in the form of Provident Fund and Pension Schemes whether in pursuance of law or otherwise which are defined contributions is accounted on accrual basis and charged to Profit & Loss account of the year. Provident Fund contributions are made to Company's Provident Fund Trust. Deficits if any, of the Fund as compared to a actuarial liability determined under the Interest guarantee method is eventually to be additionally contributed by the Company and hence are recognized as a liability.

ii Gratuity:

Payment for present liability of future payment of gratuity is being made to approved gratuity funds, which fully cover the same under cash accumulation policy of the Life Insurance Corporation of India. The employee's gratuity is a defined benefit funded plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on the actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method as at the date of the Balance Sheet and the shortfall in the fair value of the plan Assets is recognised as an obligation.

iii Superannuation:

Defined Contributions to Life Insurance Corporation of India for employees covered under Superannuation scheme are accounted at the rate of 15% of such employees' Annual Salary.

iv Privilege Leave Benefits:

Privilege leave Benefits or compensated absences are considered as long term unfunded benefits and is recognised on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected Unit Credit Method determined by an appointed Actuary.

v Termination benefits:

Termination benefits such as compensation under voluntary retirement scheme are recognized as a liability in the year of termination.

10. Borrowing Costs:

Interest on borrowings is recognised in the Profit and Loss account except interest incurred on borrowings, specifically raised for projects are capitalised to the cost of the assets until such time that the asset is ready to be put to use for its intended purpose except where installation is extended beyond reasonable/ normal time lines.

11. Taxation:

Provision for Taxation is made on the basis of the Taxable Profits computed for the current accounting period in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred Tax resulting from timing difference between Book Profits and Tax Profits is accounted for at the applicable rate of Tax to the extent the timing differences are expected to crystallise, in case of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities with reasonable certainty and in case of Deferred Tax Assets represented by unabsorbed depreciation and carried forward business losses, with virtual certainty that there would be adequate future taxable income against which Deferred Tax Assets can be realised.

12. Provisions:

Necessary Provisions are made for present obligations that arise out of past events prior to the Balance Sheet date entailing future outflow of economic resources. Such provisions reflect best estimates based on available information.

13. Impairment of Asset:

The Company tests for impairments at the close of the accounting period if and only if there are indications that suggest a possible reduction in the recoverable value of an asset. If the recoverable value amount of an Asset, i.e. the net realisable value or the economic value in use of a cash generating unit, is lower than the carrying amount of the Asset the difference is provided for as impairment. However, if subsequently the position reverses and the recoverable amount become higher than the then carrying value the provision to the extent of the then difference is reversed, but not higher than the amount provided for.


Mar 31, 2011

1. System of Accounting:

i. The Company follows the mercantile system of accounting and recognises income and expenditure on an accrual basis, except those with significant uncertainties.

ii. Financial Statements are based on historical cost. These costs are not adjusted to reflect the impact of the changing value in the purchasing power of money.

iii. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. The estimates and assumptions used in the accompanying financial statements are based upon management’s evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the financial statements. Actual results may differ from the estimates and assumptions used in preparing the accompanying financial statements. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

2. Fixed Assets and Depreciation:

A. Fixed Assets are stated at their original cost of acquisition including incidental expenses related to acquisition and installation of the concerned assets. The Fixed Assets manufactured by the Company are stated at manufacturing cost. Fixed Assets are shown net of accumulated depreciation (except free hold land) and amortisation. Also refer Para 4(i).

B. Expenditure on New Projects and Expenditure during Construction etc.:

In case of new projects and in case of substantial modernisation or expansion at the existing units of the Company, expenditure incurred including interest on borrowings and financing costs of specific loans, prior to commencement of commercial production is capitalised to the cost of assets. Trial Run expenditure is also capitalised.

C. Depreciation and Amortisation:

a) Lease hold land and Power Line:

Premium on leasehold land is amortized over the period of lease and expenditure on power line is amortized over a period of seven years.

b) Other Fixed Assets:

i. Depreciation on additions to Buildings, Plant & Machinery, Railway Sidings, Electrical Installations and Aircrafts is being provided on "Straight Line Method" basis in accordance with the provisions of Section 205(2)(b) of the Companies Act, 1956 in the manner and at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the said Act.

ii. Depreciation in respect of other assets viz. Factory Equipments, Computers, Engineering Instruments, Furniture & Fittings, Office Equipments and Vehicles is being provided on "Written Down Value" basis in accordance with the provisions of Section 205(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 1956 in the manner and at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the said Act.

c) i. Depreciation on additions to assets during the year is being provided on pro-rata basis from the date of acquisition/ installation.

ii. Depreciation on assets sold, discarded or demolished during the year, is being provided at their respective rates on pro-rata basis upto the date on which such assets are sold, discarded or demolished.

iii. Depreciation on additions on account of increase in Rupee value due to revalorisation of foreign currency loans is being provided at rates of depreciation over the future life of said asset.

3. Inventories:

Cost of Inventories have been computed to include all cost of Purchases, Cost of Conversion and Other Costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition:

i. Raw materials and components, stores and spares are valued at cost. The costs are ascertained using the weighted average method, except in case of slow moving and obsolete material, at lower of cost or estimated realisable value.

ii. Work-in-Progress and finished goods are valued at the lower of cost or estimated realisable value.

iii. Scrap is valued at estimated realisable value.

iv. Goods in transit are stated at actual cost upto the date of Balance Sheet.

v. Dies are amortised over their productive life. Expenditure incurred to repair the dies from time to time is charged to Profit and Loss Account.

4. Foreign Currency Conversion:

i. Foreign currency exposure in respect of Long Term Foreign Currency Monetary items, for financing Fixed Assets, outstanding at the close of the financial year are revalorised at the contracted and/or appropriate exchange rates at the close of the year. The gain or loss due to decrease/increase in Rupee liability due to fluctuation in rate of exchange is recognised in the Profit & Loss Account.

ii. Current Assets and Other Liabilities in foreign currency and foreign currency exposure in respect of foreign currency loans other than for financing fixed assets outstanding at the close of the financial year are valued at the contracts and/or appropriate exchange rates at the close of the year. The loss or gain due to fluctuation of exchange rates is charged to Profit & Loss Account.

iii. Though the accounting policy detailed in (i) and (ii) above has been consistently followed in terms with the Accounting Standard-11, the policy has been overridden by an amendment to the aforementioned accounting standard for limited period of time as stated in Note No. 21 in Schedule "K" to the Financial Statements.

iv. Foreign Currency Hedging Instruments:

Outstanding Contracts, entered into by the Company intended to serve as a hedge against Foreign Exchange Fluctuations to protect the foreign currency cash flows are marked to market value at the close of each accounting period. The valuation gains and losses in respect of such contracts, where they are intended to hedge future cash flows arising from foreign currency monetary items existing on the valuation date are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account and where they are intended to hedge future cash flows consequent to highly probable forecast transactions are, if effective, carried to Hedge Reserve to flow to the Profit and Loss Account when the transactions occur, else are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

5. Technical Know-how Fees:

Expenditure on acquiring Technical Know-how is being amortized over a period of six years.

6. Investments:

a. Trade and Strategic Investments made by the Company are of a long term nature and hence, diminution in value of investments, if any, is generally not considered to be of permanent nature.

b. Current Investments are valued at cost of acquisition, less provision for diminution, as necessary, if any.

7. Revenue Recognition:

a. Sales:

i. Domestic Sales are accounted for when dispatched from the point of sale, consequent to property in goods being transferred.

ii. Export Sales are accounted on the basis of dates of Bill of Lading.

b. Export Incentives:

Export Incentives are accounted for on Export of Goods if the entitlements can be estimated with reasonable accuracy and conditions precedent to claim is fulfilled.

c. Interest is accrued over the period of loan/investment.

d. Dividend is accrued in the year in which it is declared, whereby right to receive is established.

e. Profit/Loss on sale of investment is recognised on contract date.

8. Research & Development Expenditure:

Research & Development Expenditure is charged to Revenue under the natural heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. However, expenditure incurred at development phase, where it is reasonably certain that outcome of research will be commercially exploited to yield economic benefits to the Company, is considered as an intangible asset.

Fixed Assets purchased for research and development are accounted for in the manner stated in clause 2 above.

9. Employee Benefits:

i. Benefits in the form of Provident Fund and Pension Schemes whether in pursuance of law or otherwise which are defined contributions, is accounted on accrual basis and charged to Profit & Loss Account of the year.

ii. Gratuity:

Payment for present liability of future payment of gratuity is being made to approved gratuity funds, which fully cover the same under cash accumulation policy of the Life Insurance Corporation of India. The employee’s gratuity is a defined benefit funded plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on the actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method as at the date of the Balance Sheet and the shortfall in the fair value of the plan Assets is recognised as an obligation.

iii. Superannuation:

Defined Contributions to Life Insurance Corporation of India for employees covered under Superannuation scheme, are accounted at the rate of 15% of such employees’ Annual Salary.

iv. Privilege Leave Benefits:

Privilege Leave Benefits or compensated absences are considered as long term unfunded benefits and is recognised on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected Unit Credit Method determined by an appointed Actuary.

v. Termination benefits:

Termination benefits such as compensation under voluntary retirement scheme, are recognized as a liability in the year of termination.

10. Borrowing Costs:

Interest on borrowings is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account except, interest incurred on borrowings, specifically raised for projects are capitalised to the cost of the assets until such time that the asset is ready to be put to use for its intended purpose, except where installation is extended beyond reasonable/normal time lines.

11. Taxation:

Provision for Taxation is made on the basis of the Taxable Profits computed for the current accounting period in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred Tax resulting from timing difference between Book Profits and Tax Profits is accounted for, at the applicable rate of Tax to the extent the timing differences are expected to crystallise, in case of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities with reasonable certainty and in case of Deferred Tax Assets represented by unabsorbed depreciation and carried forward business losses, with virtual certainty that there would be adequate future taxable income against which Deferred Tax Assets can be realised.

12. Provisions:

Necessary Provisions are made for present obligations that arise out of past events prior to the Balance Sheet date entailing future outflow of economic resources. Such provisions reflect best estimates based on available information.

13. Impairment of Assets:

The Company tests for impairments at the close of the accounting period, if and only if, there are indications that suggest a possible reduction in the recoverable value of an asset. If the recoverable value amount of an Asset, i.e. the net realisable value or the economic value in use of a cash generating unit, is lower than the carrying amount of the Asset, the difference is provided for as impairment. However, if subsequently, the position reverses and the recoverable amount become higher than the then carrying value, the provision to the extent of the then difference is reversed, but not higher than the amount provided for.


Mar 31, 2010

1. System of Accounting:

i. The Company follows the mercantile system of accounting and recognises income and expenditure on an accrual basis except those with signifi cant uncertainties.

ii. Financial Statements are based on historical cost. These costs are not adjusted to refl ect the impact of the changing value in the purchasing power of money.

iii. The preparation of fi nancial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. The estimates and assumptions used in the accompanying fi nancial statements are based upon management’s evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the fi nancial statements. Actual results may differ from the estimates and assumptions used in preparing the accompanying fi nancial statements. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

2. Fixed Assets and Depreciation:

A. Fixed Assets are stated at their original cost of acquisition including incidental expenses related to acquisition and installation of the concerned assets. The fi xed assets manufactured by the Company are stated at manufacturing cost. Fixed Assets are shown net of accumulated depreciation (except free hold land) and amortisation. Also refer Para 4(i).

B. Expenditure on New Projects and Expenditure during Construction etc.:

In case of new projects and in case of substantial modernisation or expansion at the existing units of the Company, expenditure incurred including interest on borrowings and fi nancing costs of specifi c loans, prior to commencement of commercial production is capitalised to the cost of assets. Trial Run expenditure is also capitalised.

C. Depreciation and Amortisation:

a) Lease hold land and Power Line:

Premium on lease hold land is amortized over the period of lease and expenditure on power line is amortized over a period of seven years.

b) Other Fixed Assets:

i. Depreciation on additions to Buildings, Plant & Machinery, Railway Sidings, Electrical Installations and Aircrafts is being provided on “Straight Line Method” basis in accordance with the provisions of Section 205(2)(b) of the Companies Act, 1956, in the manner and at the rates specifi ed in Schedule

XIV to the said Act. ii. Depreciation in respect of other assets, viz. Factory Equipments, Computers, Engineering Instruments, Furniture & Fittings, Offi ce Equipments and Vehicles is being provided on “Written Down Value” basis in accordance with the provisions of Section 205(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 1956 in the manner and at the rates specifi ed in Schedule XIV to the said Act.

c) i) Depreciation on additions to assets during the year is being provided on pro-rata basis from the date of acquisition/installation.

ii) Depreciation on assets sold, discarded or demolished during the year, is being provided at their respective rates on pro-rata basis upto the date on which such assets are sold, discarded or demolished.

iii) Depreciation on additions on account of increase in Rupee value due to revalorisation of foreign currency loans is being provided at rates of depreciation over the future life of said asset.

3. Inventories:

Cost of Inventories have been computed to include all cost of Purchases, Cost of Conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition:

i. Raw materials and components, stores and spares are valued at cost. The costs are ascertained using the weighted average method, except in case of slow moving and obsolete material, at lower of cost or estimated realisable value.

ii. Work-in-progress and fi nished goods are valued at the lower of cost or estimated realisable value.

iii. Scrap is valued at estimated realisable value.

iv. Goods in transit are stated at actual cost upto the date of Balance Sheet.

v. Dies are amortised over their productive life. Expenditure incurred to repair the dies from time to time is charged to Profi t and Loss Account.

4. Foreign Currency Conversion:

i. Foreign currency exposure in respect of Long Term Foreign Currency Monetary items, for fi nancing fi xed assets, outstanding at the close of the fi nancial year are revalorised at the contracted and/or appropriate exchange rates at the close of the year. The gain or loss due to decrease/increase in rupee liability due to fl uctuation in rate of exchange is recognised in the Profi t & Loss Account.

ii. Current assets and other liabilities in foreign currency and foreign currency exposure in respect of foreign currency loans other than for fi nancing fi xed assets outstanding at the close of the fi nancial year are valued at the contracts and/or appropriate exchange rates at the close of the year. The loss or gain due to fl uctuation of exchange rates is charged to Profi t & Loss Account.

iii. Though the accounting policy detailed in (i) and (ii) above has been consistently followed in terms with the Accounting Standard-11, the policy has been overridden by an amendment to the aforementioned accounting standard for limited period of time as stated in Note No. 21 in Schedule “L” to the Financial Statements.

iv. Foreign Currency Hedging Instruments:

Outstanding contracts, entered into by the Company intended to serve as a hedge against foreign exchange fl uctuations to protect the foreign currency cash fl ows are marked to market value at the close of each accounting period. The valuation gains and losses in respect of such contracts, where they are intended to hedge future cash fl ows arising from foreign currency monetary items existing on the valuation date are recognised in the Profi t and Loss Account and where they are intended to hedge future cash fl ows consequent to highly probable forecast transactions are, if effective, carried to Hedge Reserve to fl ow to the Profi t and Loss Account when the transactions occur, else are recognised in the Profi t and Loss Account.

5. Technical Know-how Fees:

Expenditure on acquiring Technical Know-how is being amortized over a period of six years.

6. Investments:

a) Trade and Strategic Investments made by the Company are of a long term nature and hence diminution in value of investments, if any, is generally not considered to be of permanent nature.

b) Current Investments are valued at cost of acquisition, less provision for diminution, as necessary, if any.

7. Revenue Recognition:

a. Sales:

i. Domestic Sales are accounted for when dispatched from the point of sale, consequent to property in goods being transferred.

ii. Export Sales are accounted on the basis of dates of Bill Of Lading.

b. Export Incentives:

Export Incentives are accounted for on Export of Goods if the entitlements can be estimated with reasonable accuracy and conditions precedent to claim is fulfi lled.

c. Interest is accrued over the period of loan/investment.

d. Dividend is accrued in the year in which it is declared, whereby right to receive is established.

e. Profi t/ Loss on sale of investment is recognised on contract date.

8. Research & Development Expenditure:

Research & Development Expenditure is charged to Revenue under the natural heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. However, expenditure incurred at development phase, where it is reasonably certain that outcome of research will be commercially exploited to yield economic benefi ts to the company, is considered as an intangible asset. Fixed Assets purchased for research and development are accounted for in the manner stated in clause 2 above.

9. Employee Benefi ts:

i. Benefi ts in the form of Provident Fund and Pension Schemes whether in pursuance of law or otherwise which are defi ned contributions is accounted on accrual basis and charged to Profi t & Loss Account of the year.

ii. Gratuity:

Payment for present liability of future payment of gratuity is being made to approved gratuity funds, which fully cover the same under cash accumulation policy of the Life Insurance Corporation of India. The employee’s gratuity is a defi ned benefi t funded plan. The present value of the obligation under such defi ned benefi t plan is determined based on the actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method as at the date of the Balance Sheet and the shortfall in the fair value of the plan Assets is recognised as an obligation.

iii. Superannuation:

Defi ned Contributions to Life Insurance Corporation of India for employees covered under Superannuation scheme are accounted at the rate of 15% of such employees’ Annual Salary.

iv. Privilege Leave Benefi ts:

Privilege Leave Benefi ts or compensated absences are considered as long term unfunded benefi ts and is recognised on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected Unit Credit Method determined by an appointed Actuary.

v. Termination benefi ts:

Termination benefi ts such as compensation under voluntary retirement scheme are recognized as a liability in the year of termination.

10. Borrowing Costs:

Interest on borrowings is recognised in the Profi t and Loss account except interest incurred on borrowings, specifi cally raised for projects are capitalised to the cost of the assets until such time that the asset is ready to be put to use for its intended purpose except where installation is extended beyond reasonable/normal time lines.

11. .Taxation:

Provision for Taxation is made on the basis of the Taxable Profi ts computed for the current accounting period in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred Tax resulting from timing difference between Book Profi ts and tax Profi ts is accounted for at the applicable rate of Ta x to the extent the timing differences are expected to crystallise, in case of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities with reasonable certainty and in case of Deferred Tax Assets represented by unabsorbed depreciation and carried forward business losses, with virtual certainty that there would be adequate future taxable income against which Deferred Tax Assets can be realised.

12. Provisions:

Necessary Provisions are made for present obligations that arise out of past events prior to the Balance Sheet date entailing future outfl ow of economic resources. Such provisions refl ect best estimates based on available information.

13. Impairment of Asset:

The Company tests for impairments at the close of the accounting period if and only if there are indications that suggest a possible reduction in the recoverable value of an asset. If the recoverable value amount of an Asset i.e. the net realisable value or the economic value in use of a cash generating unit, is lower than the carrying amount of the Asset the difference is provided for as impairment. However, if subsequently the position reverses and the recoverable amount becomes higher than the then carrying value the provision to the extent of the then difference is reversed, but not higher than the amount provided for.

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