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Accounting Policies of Cairn India Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

A. Changes in accounting policies

(i) Depreciation on Fixed Assets

With the implementation of Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013, from 1 April 2014 the Company has decided to change the method of depreciation on some of its oil and gas assets from ''Straight Line'' method to the ''Unit of Production'' method, with retrospective effect, so as to be in compliance with the requirements of ''Guidance Note on Accounting for Oil and Gas Producing Activities (Revised 2013)'' issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). The additional depreciation charge arising due to the same for the period up to 31 March 2014 is Rs. 1,046.39 crore and has resulted in a reduction in profit after tax by Rs. 819.31 crore. Further, the depreciation charge for the year ended 31 March 2015 is higher by Rs. 191.13 crore and the profit after tax is lower by Rs. 131.44 crore due to the aforementioned change.

(ii) Employee Stock Compensation Cost

Till 27 October 2014, the SEBI (Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme) Guidelines, 1999, dealt with the grant of share-based payments to employees. Hence, the Company being a listed entity was required to comply with these Guidelines as well as the Guidance Note on Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments with regard to accounting for employee share-based payments. Particularly, in case of conflict between the two requirements, the SEBI guidelines were prevailing over the ICAI Guidance.

From 28 October 2014, the SEBI (Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme) Guidelines, 1999 have been replaced by the SEBI (Share Based Employee Benefits) Regulations, 2014. The new regulations don''t contain any specific accounting treatment; rather, they require ICAI Guidance Note to be followed. Consequent to the application of the new regulations, the Company has changed its accounting for equity settled option expiring unexercised after vesting in line with accounting prescribed in the Guidance Note, i.e., expense is not reversed through the statement of profit and loss. The management has decided to apply the revised accounting policy prospectively from the date of notification of new regulation, i.e., 28 October 2014.

Since there are no material equity settled options expiring unexercised after 28 October 2014, the change in accounting policy did not have any material impact on these financial statements. However due to application of the regulation, the manner of presentation of "Employee Stock Option Outstanding Account" under the head "Reserves and Surplus" has changed. The Company has changed this presentation for the current as well as previous year.

b. Oil and gas assets

The Company follows the successful efforts method of accounting for oil and gas assets as set out by the Guidance Note issued by the ICAI on "Accounting for Oil and Gas Producing Activities" (Revised 2013).

Expenditure incurred on the acquisition of a license interest is initially capitalised on a license by license basis. Costs are held, undepleted, within exploratory & development work in progress until the exploration phase relating to the license area is complete or commercial oil and gas reserves have been discovered.

Exploration expenditure incurred in the process of determining exploration targets which cannot be directly related to individual exploration wells is expensed in the period in which it is incurred.

Exploration/appraisal drilling costs are initially capitalised within exploratory and development work in progress on a well by well basis until the success or otherwise of the well has been established. The success or failure of each exploration/appraisal effort is judged on a well by well basis. Drilling costs are written off on completion of a well unless the results indicate that oil and gas reserves exist and there is a reasonable prospect that these reserves are commercial.

Where results of exploration drilling indicate the presence of oil and gas reserves which are ultimately not considered commercially viable, all related costs are written off to the statement of profit and loss immediately. Following appraisal of successful exploration wells, when a well is ready for commencement of commercial production, the related exploratory and development work in progress are transferred into a single field cost centre within producing properties, after testing for impairment.

Where costs are incurred after technical feasibility and commercial viability of producing oil and gas is demonstrated and it has been determined that the wells are ready for commencement of commercial production, they are capitalised within producing properties for each cost centre. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised when it enhances the economic benefits of the producing properties or replaces part of the existing producing properties. Any costs remaining associated with such part replaced are expensed off in the financial statements.

Net proceeds from any disposal of an exploration asset within exploratory and development work in progress are initially credited against the previously capitalised costs and any surplus proceeds are credited to the statement of profit and loss. Net proceeds from any disposal of producing properties are credited against the previously capitalised cost and any gain or loss on disposal of producing properties is recognised in the statement of profit and loss, to the extent that the net proceeds exceed or are less than the appropriate portion of the net capitalised costs of the asset.

Amounts which are not being paid by the joint venture partner in oil and gas blocks where the Company is the operator and have hence been funded by it are treated as exploration, development or production costs, as the case may be.

c. Site restoration costs

At the end of the producing life of a field, costs are incurred in restoring the site of production facilities. The Company recognizes the full cost of site restoration as a liability when the obligation to rectify environmental damage arises. The site restoration expenses form part of the exploration & development work in progress or cost of producing properties, as the case may be, of the related asset. The amortization of the asset, calculated on a unit of production basis based on proved and developed reserves, is included in the depletion cost in the statement of profit and loss.

d. Impairment

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized where the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre tax discount rate that reflects current market assessment of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

After impairment, depreciation/depletion is provided in subsequent periods on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

e. Other tangible and intangible fixed assets

Tangible assets, other than oil and gas assets, are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Intangible assets, other than oil and gas assets, have finite useful lives and are measured at cost.

Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which take a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

f. Depletion, depreciation and amortization Oil and gas assets

Depletion is charged on a unit of production basis, based on proved reserves for acquisition costs and proved and developed reserves for successful exploratory wells, development wells, processing facilities, distribution assets, estimated future abandonment cost and all other related costs (also refer note 41). These assets are depleted within each cost centre. Reserves for this purpose are considered on working interest basis which are reassessed atleast annually. Impact of changes to reserves are accounted for prospectively.

Other assets

Depreciation on assets, other than oil and gas assets, is provided using the Straight Line Method as per the useful lives of the assets stated below. The same have been determined by the management based on technical estimates.

Vehicles 4 years

Buildings (including lease hold improvements) 6 years to 10 years

Computers 2 years

Furniture and fixtures 4 years

Office equipments 4 years

Computer Software 2 years

The useful lives of assets as mentioned in Schedule II of Companies Act 2013 is higher than those assessed by the management for all its fixed assets.

Leasehold lands are amortised over the lease period which is a maximum of 10 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the remaining period of the primary lease (3 to 12 years) or expected useful economic lives, whichever is shorter.

g. Leases As lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalised at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalised.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalised leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

h. Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are measured at cost or market value, whichever is lower, determined on an individual investment basis. Long term investments are measured at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the long-term investments.

i. Inventories

Inventories of oil and condensate held at the balance sheet date are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. Cost is determined on a quarterly weighted average basis.

Inventories of stores and spares related to exploration, development and production activities are valued at cost or net realizable value whichever is lower. Cost is determined on first in first out (FIFO) basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

j. Joint Ventures

The Company participates in several Joint Ventures involving joint control of assets for carrying out oil and gas exploration, development and producing activities. The Company accounts for its share of the assets and liabilities of Joint Ventures along with attributable income and expenses in such Joint Ventures, in which it holds a participating interest.

k. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognised.

Revenue from operating activities

From sale of oil, gas and condensate

Revenue represents the Company''s share (net of Government''s share of profit petroleum) of oil, gas and condensate production, recognized on a direct entitlement basis, when significant risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyers. Government''s share of profit petroleum is accounted for when the obligation (legal or constructive), in respect of the same arises.

As operator from the joint venture

The Company recognizes revenue from joint ventures for services rendered in the form of parent company overhead based on the provisions of respective PSCs.

Toiling income

Tolling income represents the Company''s share of revenues from Pilotage and Oil Transfer Services from the respective joint ventures, which is recognized based on the rates agreed with the customers, as and when the services are rendered.

INTEREST INCOME

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis.

Treatment of Taxes

The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue.

Dividend income

Revenue is recognized when the instrument/unit holders'' right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

l. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest and commitment charges on borrowings, amortisation of costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings, exchange differences to the extent they are considered a substitute to the interest cost and finance charges under leases. Costs incurred on borrowings directly attributable to development projects, which take a substantial period of time to complete, are capitalised within the development/producing asset for each cost-centre.

All other borrowing costs are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which they are incurred.

m. Foreign currency transactions and translations

The Company translates foreign currency transactions into Indian Rupees at the rate of exchange prevailing at the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are translated into Indian Rupees at the rate of exchange prevailing at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting the Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise.

n. Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred income tax reflects the impact of current period timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier period.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured, based on tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. If the Company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty, supported by convincing evidence, that all such deferred tax assets can be realised against future taxable profits. Unrecognised deferred tax assets of earlier periods are re-assessed and recognised to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

In the situations where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India or tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where it operates, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognized in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company''s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the Company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the timing differences which originate first are considered to reverse first.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay income tax under the normal provisions during the specified period, resulting in utilization of MAT credit. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will utilize MAT credit during the specified period.

o. Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period/year is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the no of equity shares outstanding, without corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares, if any.

p. Provisions

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

q. Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise of cash at bank and in hand and short term investments, with an original maturity of 90 days or less.

r. Employee Benefits Retirement and Gratuity benefits

Retirement benefits in the form of provident fund, superannuation fund and national pension scheme are defined contribution schemes. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund and superannuation fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund and superannuation fund as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the fund for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the fund is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year. The scheme is maintained and administered by an insurer to which the trustees make periodic contributions.

Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation made at the end of each financial year. The actuarial valuation is done on projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

Employee Stock Compensation Cost

The Share Based Employee Benefits Regulations, 2014 has come into force from 28 October 2014 and to comply the same the measurement and disclosure of the employee share-based payment plans is done as per SEBI ( Share Based Employee Benefits) Regulations, 2014 and the Guidance Note on Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments, issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). Prior to 28 October 2014 the Company was following SEBI (Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme) Guidelines, 1999 and the Guidance Note on Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments, issued by the ICAI.

In accordance with the above guidelines ,the Company measures compensation cost relating to employee stock options using the fair value method. Compensation expense is amortized over the vesting period of the option on a straight line basis.

s. Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non- occurrence of one or more uncertain in future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

t. Segment Reporting Identification of segments:

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

u. Derivative Instruments

As per the ICAI Announcement, accounting for derivative contracts, other than those covered under AS-11, is done on marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss is charged to the income statement. Net gains are ignored.

v. Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

(d) Aggregate no. of shares issued for consideration other than cash during the period of five years immediately preceding the reporting date:

The Company has issued total 1.46 crore equity shares (31 March 2014: 1.42 crore equity shares) during the period of five years immediately preceding the reporting date on exercise of options granted under the employee stock option plan (ESOP scheme) wherein part consideration was received in form of employee services. No other equity shares have been issued for consideration other than cash during the period five years immediately preceding the end of current period.

(e) Aggregate number and class of shares bought back during the period of five years immediately preceding the reporting date:

The Company bought back 3.67 crore equity shares (31 March 2014 : 0.33 crore) during the period of five years immediately preceding the reporting date. Also refer note 40 below.

* CIHL holds interest in RJ-ON-90/1 oil and gas field, through a step down subsidiary. The Production Sharing Contract (''PSC'') for the said field provides for an extension of the contract by a maximum period of ten years, in case there is a continued production of commercial natural gas from the said field. Since the management expects to continue with the production and sale of natural gas for a period of ten years even after the completion of the initial contract period, they believe that market participants would consider cash flows from the said asset for the said additional period of ten years as well. Further, the management has been legally advised that the said extension should not entail any modification in the terms of the PSC. Accordingly, the value of the Company''s investment in CIHL, has been computed after considering the said extension, basis which no diminution exists in the carrying value of the investments.

**The Company''s investment in CMHPL was for funding the operations of an oil and gas block in Srilanka, held by CMHPL''s step down subsidiary, Cairn Lanka Private limited. Given the current level of gas prices and fiscal terms, the development of hydrocarbons in the said block is not commercially viable. Therefore, the value of the investment has been considered as permanently diminished.


Mar 31, 2013

A. Oil and gas assets

The Company follows the successful efforts method of accounting for oil and gas assets as set out by the Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) on "Accounting for Oil and Gas Producing Activities" (2003).

Expenditure incurred on the acquisition of a license interest is initially capitalised on a license by license basis. Costs are held, undepleted, within exploratory & development work in progress until the exploration phase relating to the license area is complete or commercial oil and gas reserves have been discovered.

Exploration expenditure incurred in the process of determining exploration targets which cannot be directly related to individual exploration wells is expensed in the period in which it is incurred.

Exploration/appraisal drilling costs are initially capitalised within exploratory and development work in progress on a well by well basis until the success or otherwise of the well has been established. The success or failure of each exploration/appraisal effort is judged on a well by well basis. Drilling costs are written off on completion of a well unless the results indicate that oil and gas reserves exist and there is a reasonable prospect that these reserves are commercial.

Where results of exploration drilling indicate the presence of oil and gas reserves which are ultimately not considered commercially viable, all related costs are written off to the statement of profit and loss immediately. Following appraisal of successful exploration wells, when a well is ready for commencement of commercial production, the related exploratory and development work in progress are transferred into a single field cost centre within producing properties, after testing for impairment.

Where costs are incurred after technical feasibility and commercial viability of producing oil and gas is demonstrated and it has been determined that the wells are ready for commencement of commercial production, they are capitalised within producing properties for each cost centre. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised when it enhances the economic benefits of the producing properties or replaces part of the existing producing properties. Any costs remaining associated with such part replaced are expensed off in the financial statements.

Net proceeds from any disposal of an exploration asset within exploratory and development work in progress are initially credited against the previously capitalised costs and any surplus proceeds are credited to the statement of profit and loss. Net proceeds from any disposal of producing properties are credited against the previously capitalised cost and any gain or loss on disposal of producing properties is recognised in the statement of profit and loss, to the extent that the net proceeds exceed or are less than the appropriate portion of the net capitalised costs of the asset.

Amounts which are not being paid by the joint venture partner in oil and gas blocks where the Company is the operator and have hence been funded by it are treated as exploration, development or production costs, as the case may be.

b. Depletion

The expenditure on producing properties is depleted within each cost centre.

Depletion is charged on a unit of production basis, based on proved reserves for acquisition costs and proved and developed reserves for other costs. Reserves for this purpose are considered on working interest basis which are reassessed atleast annually. Impact of changes to reserves are accounted for prospectively.

c. Site restoration costs

At the end of the producing life of a field, costs are incurred in restoring the site of production facilities. The Company recognizes the full cost of site restoration as a liability when the obligation to rectify environmental damage arises. The site restoration expenses form part of the exploration & development work in progress or cost of producing properties, as the case may be, of the related asset. The amortization of the asset, calculated on a unit of production basis based on proved and developed reserves, is included in the depletion cost in the statement of profit and loss.

d. Impairment

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized where the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre tax discount rate that reflects current market assessment of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

After impairment, depreciation/depletion is provided in subsequent periods on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

e. Tangible fixed assets, depreciation and amortization

Tangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which take a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

Depreciation is provided using the Straight Line Method as per the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management stated below, or at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act 1956, whichever is higher.

Vehicles 2 to 5 years

Freehold buildings 10 years

Computers 2 to 5 years

Furniture and fixtures 2 to 5 years

Office equipments 2 to 5 years

Plant and Equipment 2 to 10 years

Leasehold lands are amortised over the lease period. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the remaining period of the primary lease (3 to 6 years) or expected useful economic lives, whichever is shorter.

f. Intangible fixed assets and amortization

Intangible assets, other than oil and gas assets, have finite useful lives and are measured at cost and amortized over their expected useful economic lives as follows:

Computer software 2 to 4 years

g. Leases As lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalised at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalised.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalised leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

h. Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are measured at cost or market value, whichever is lower, determined on an individual investment basis. Long term investments are measured at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

i. Inventory

Inventories of oil and condensate held at the balance sheet date are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. Cost is determined on a quarterly weighted average basis.

Inventories of stores and spares related to exploration, development and production activities are valued at cost or net realizable value whichever is lower. Cost is determined on first in first out (FIFO) basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

j. Joint Ventures

The Company participates in several Joint Ventures involving joint control of assets for carrying out oil and gas exploration, development and producing activities. The Company accounts for its share of the assets and liabilities of Joint Ventures along with attributable income and expenses in such Joint Ventures, in which it holds a participating interest.

k. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue from operating activities From sale of oil, gas and condensate

Revenue represents the Company''s share (net of Government''s share of profit petroleum) of oil, gas and condensate production, recognized on a direct entitlement basis, when significant risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyers. Government''s share of profit petroleum is accounted for when the obligation (legal or constructive), in respect of the same arises.

As operator from the joint venture

The Company recognizes revenue from joint ventures for services rendered in the form of parent company overhead based on the provisions of respective PSCs.

Tolling income

Tolling income represents the Company''s share of revenues from Pilotage and Oil Transfer Services from the respective joint ventures, which is recognized based on the rates agreed with the customers, as and when the services are rendered.

Interest income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis.

Dividend income

Revenue is recognized when the instrument/unit holders'' right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

l. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest and commitment charges on borrowings, amortisation of costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings, exchange differences to the extent they are considered a substitute to the interest cost and finance charges under leases. Costs incurred on borrowings directly attributable to development projects, which take a substantial period of time to complete, are capitalised within the development/producing asset for each cost-centre.

All other borrowing costs are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they are incurred.

m. Foreign currency transactions and translations

The Company translates foreign currency transactions into Indian Rupees at the rate of exchange prevailing at the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are translated into Indian Rupees at the rate of exchange prevailing at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting the Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise.

n. Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income tax reflects the impact of current period timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier period.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured, based on tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. If the Company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty, supported by convincing evidence, that such deferred tax assets can be realised against future taxable profits. Unrecognised deferred tax assets of earlier periods are re-assessed and recognised to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay income tax under the normal provisions during the specified period, resulting in utilization of MAT credit. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will utilize MAT credit during the specified period.

o. Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares, if any.

p. Provisions

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

q. Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise of cash at bank and in hand and short term investments, with an original maturity of 90 days or less.

r. Employee Benefits

Retirement and Gratuity benefits

Retirement benefits in the form of provident fund and superannuation fund are defined contribution schemes. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund and superannuation fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund and superannuation fund as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the fund for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the fund is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year. The scheme is maintained and administered by an insurer to which the trustees make periodic contributions.

Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation made at the end of each financial year. The actuarial valuation is done on projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

Employee Stock Compensation Cost

Measurement and disclosure of the employee share-based payment plans is done in accordance with SEBI (Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme) Guidelines, 1999 and the Guidance Note on Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments, issued by the ICAI. The Company measures compensation cost relating to employee stock options using the intrinsic value method. Compensation expense is amortized over the vesting period of the option on a straight line basis.

s. Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

t. Segment Reporting Policies Identification of segments:

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

u. Derivative Instruments

As per the ICAI Announcement, accounting for derivative contracts, other than those covered under AS-11, is done on marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss is charged to the income statement. Net gains are ignored.


Mar 31, 2012

A) Oil and gas assets

The Company follows a successful efforts method for accounting for oil and gas assets as set out by the Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) on "Accounting for Oil and Gas Producing Activities".

Expenditure incurred on the acquisition of a license interest is initially capitalised on a license by license basis. Costs are held, undepleted, within exploratory & development work in progress until the exploration phase relating to the license area is complete or commercial oil and gas reserves have been discovered.

Exploration expenditure incurred in the process of determining exploration targets which cannot be directly related to individual exploration wells is expensed in the period in which it is incurred.

Exploration/appraisal drilling costs are initially capitalised within exploratory and development work in progress on a well by well basis until the success or otherwise of the well has been established. The success or failure of each exploration/appraisal effort is judged on a well by well basis. Drilling costs are written off on completion of a well unless the results indicate that oil and gas reserves exist and there is a reasonable prospect that these reserves are commercial.

Where results of exploration drilling indicate the presence of oil and gas reserves which are ultimately not considered commercially viable, all related costs are written off to the statement of profit and loss immediately. Following appraisal of successful exploration wells, when a well is ready for commencement of commercial production, the related exploratory and development work in progress are transferred into a single field cost centre within producing properties, after testing for impairment.

Where costs are incurred after technical feasibility and commercial viability of producing oil and gas is demonstrated and it has been determined that the wells are ready for commencement of commercial production, they are capitalised within producing properties for each cost centre. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised when it enhances the economic benefits of the producing properties or replaces part of the existing producing properties. Any costs remaining associated with such part replaced are expensed off in the financial statements.

Net proceeds from any disposal of an exploration asset within exploratory and development work in progress are initially credited against the previously capitalised costs and any surplus proceeds are credited to the statement of profit and loss. Net proceeds from any disposal of producing properties are credited against the previously capitalised cost and any gain or loss on disposal of producing properties is recognised in the statement of profit and loss, to the extent that the net proceeds exceed or are less than the appropriate portion of the net capitalised costs of the asset.

b) Depletion

The expenditure on producing properties is depleted within each cost centre.

Depletion is charged on a unit of production basis, based on proved reserves for acquisition costs and proved and developed reserves for other costs. Reserves for this purpose are considered on working interest basis which are reassessed atleast annually. Impact of changes to reserves are accounted for prospectively.

c) Site restoration costs

At the end of the producing life of a field, costs are incurred in restoring the site of production facilities. Cairn India Limited recognizes the full cost of site restoration as a liability when the obligation to rectify environmental damage arises. The site restoration expenses form part of the exploration & development work in progress or cost of producing properties, as the case may be, of the related asset. The amortization of the asset, calculated on a unit of production basis based on proved and developed reserves, is included in the depletion cost in the statement of profit and loss.

d) Impairment

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized where the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre tax discount rate that reflects current market assessment of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

After impairment, depreciation/depletion is provided in subsequent periods on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

e) Tangible fixed assets, depreciation and amortization

Tangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which take a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

Depreciation is provided using the Straight Line Method as per the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management stated below, or at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act 1956, whichever is higher.

Vehicles 2 to 5 years

Freehold buildings 10 years

Computers 2 to 5 years

Furniture and fixtures 2 to 5 years Office equipments 2 to 5 years

Plant and Equipment 2 to 10 years

Leasehold lands are amortised over the lease period. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the remaining period of the primary lease (3 to 6 years) or expected useful economic lives, whichever is shorter.

f) Intangible fixed assets and amortization

Intangible assets, other than oil and gas assets, have finite useful lives and are measured at cost and amortized over their expected useful economic lives as follows:

Computer software 2 to 4 years

g) Leases As lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalised at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalised.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalised leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

h) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are measured at cost or market value, whichever is lower, determined on an individual investment basis. Long term investments are measured at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

i) Joint Ventures

The Company participates in several Joint Ventures involving joint control of assets for carrying out oil and gas exploration, development and producing activities. The Company accounts for its share of the assets and liabilities of Joint Ventures along with attributable income and expenses in such Joint Ventures, in which it holds a participating interest. Joint venture cash and cash equivalent balances are considered by the Company to be the amounts contributed in excess of the Company's obligations to the joint ventures and are therefore, disclosed within loans and advances.

j) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Revenue from operating activities As operator from the joint venture

The Company recognizes revenue from joint ventures for services rendered in the form of parent company overhead based on the provisions of respective PSCs.

Interest income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis.

Dividend income

Revenue is recognized when the instrument/unit holders' right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date,

k) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest and commitment charges on borrowings, amortisation of costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings, exchange differences to the extent they are considered a substitute to the interest cost and finance charges under leases. Costs incurred on borrowings directly attributable to development projects, which take a substantial period of time to complete, are capitalised within the development/producing asset for each cost-centre.

All other borrowing costs are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they are incurred.

I) Foreign currency transactions and translations

The Company translates foreign currency transactions into Indian Rupees at the rate of exchange prevailing at the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are translated into Indian Rupees at the rate of exchange prevailing at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting the Company's monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise.

m) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income tax reflects the impact of current period timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier period.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured, based on tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. If the Company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty, supported by convincing evidence, that such deferred tax assets can be realised against future taxable profits. Unrecognised deferred tax assets of earlier periods are re-assessed and recognised to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

n) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares, if any.

o) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

p) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments, with an original maturity of 90 days or less.

q) Employee Benefits

Retirement and Gratuity benefits

Retirement benefits in the form of provident fund and superannuation scheme are defined contribution schemes and the contributions are charged to the statement of profit and loss of the period when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective funds.

Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation made at the end of each financial year. The actuarial valuation is done on projected unit credit method.

Employee Stock Compensation Cost

Measurement and disclosure of the employee share-based payment plans is done in accordance with SEBI (Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme) Guidelines, 1999 and the Guidance Note on Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments, issued by the ICAI. The Company measures compensation cost relating to employee stock options using the intrinsic value method. Compensation expense is amortized over the vesting period of the option on a straight line basis.

r) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

s) Segment Reporting Policies Identification of segments

The Company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

t) Inventory

Inventories of stores and spares related to exploration, development and production activities are valued at cost or net realizable value whichever is lower. Cost is determined on first in first out (FIFO) basis. Net realisable value is estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs necessary to make the sale.


Mar 31, 2011

(A) Basis of preparation

The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the mandatory Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006 (as amended) under the historical cost convention and on an accrual basis. The accounting policies, in all material respects, have been consistently applied by the Company and are consistent with those used in the previous year.

(B) Oil and gas assets

The Company follows a successful efforts method for accounting for oil and gas assets as set out by the Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) on "Accounting for Oil and Gas Producing Activities".

Expenditure incurred on the acquisition of a license interest is initially capitalised on a license by license basis. Costs are held, undepleted, within exploratory & development wells in progress until the exploration phase relating to the license area is complete or commercial oil and gas reserves have been discovered.

Exploration expenditure incurred in the process of determining exploration targets which cannot be directly related to individual exploration wells, is expensed in the period in which it is incurred.

Exploration/appraisal drilling costs are initially capitalised within exploratory and development work in progress on a well by well basis until the success or otherwise of the well has been established. The success or failure of each exploration/appraisal effort is judged on a well by well basis. Drilling costs are written off on completion of a well unless the results indicate that oil and gas reserves exist and there is a reasonable prospect that these reserves are commercial.

Where results of exploration drilling indicate the presence of oil and gas reserves which are ultimately not considered commercially viable, all related costs are written off to the profit and loss account. Following appraisal of successful exploration wells, when a well is ready for commencement of commercial production, the related exploratory and development work-in-progress are transferred into a single field cost centre within producing properties, after testing for impairment.

Where costs are incurred after technical feasibility and commercial viability of producing oil and gas is demonstrated and it has been determined that the wells are ready for commencement of commercial production, they are capitalised within producing properties for each cost centre. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised when it enhances the economic benefits of the producing properties or replaces part of the existing producing properties. Any costs remaining associated with such part replaced are expensed in the financial statements.

Net proceeds from any disposal of an exploration asset within exploratory and development work in progress is initially credited against the previously capitalised costs and any surplus proceeds are credited to the profit and loss account. Net proceeds from any disposal of producing properties are credited against the previously capitalised cost and any gain or loss on disposal of producing properties is recognised in the profit and loss account, to the extent that the net proceeds exceed or are less than the appropriate portion of the net capitalised costs of the asset.

(C) Depletion

The expenditure on producing properties is depleted within each cost centre.

Depletion is charged on a unit of production basis, based on proved reserves for acquisition costs and proved and developed reserves for other costs.

(D) Site restoration costs

At the end of the producing life of a field, costs are incurred in restoring the site of production facilities. The Company recognizes the full cost of site restoration as a liability when the obligation to rectify environmental damage arises. The site restoration expenses form part of the exploration & development work in progress or cost of producing properties, as the case may be, of the related asset. The amortization of the asset, calculated on a unit of production basis based on proved and developed reserves, is included in the depletion cost in the profit and loss account.

(E) Impairment

i The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized where the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash fl ows are discounted to their present value using a pre tax discount rate that reflects current market assessment of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

ii After impairment, depreciation/depletion is provided in subsequent periods on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

(F) Tangible fi xed assets, depreciation and amortization

Tangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fi xed assets which take a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

(G) Intangible fi xed assets and amortization

Intangible assets, other than oil and gas assets, have finite useful lives and are measured at cost and amortized over their expected useful economic lives as follows:

Computer software 2 to 4 years

(H) Leases

As lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalised at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are charged directly against income. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalised.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalised leased assets are depre- ciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the profit and loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

(I) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are measured at cost or market value, whichever is lower, determined on an individual investment basis. Long term investments are measured at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

(J) Joint ventures

The Company participates in several joint ventures involving joint control of assets for carrying out oil and gas exploration, development and producing activities. The Company accounts for its share of the assets and liabilities of joint ventures along with attributable income and expenses in such joint ventures, in which it holds a participating interest. Joint venture cash and cash equivalent balances are considered by the Company to be the amounts contributed in excess of the Company's obligations to the joint ventures and are, therefore, disclosed within loans and advances.

(K) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Revenue from operating activities As operator from joint venture

The Company recognizes parent company overhead as revenue from joint ventures (in which its foreign subsidiaries are participants) based on the provisions of respective PSCs.

Interest income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis.

(L) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest and commitment charges on borrowings, amortisation of costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings, exchange differences to the extent they are considered a substitute to the interest cost and finance charges under leases. Costs incurred on borrowings directly attributable to development projects, which take a substantial period of time to complete, are capitalised within the development/producing asset for each cost centre.

All other borrowing costs are recognised in the profit and loss account in the period in which they are incurred.

(M) Foreign currency transactions and translations

The Company translates foreign currency transactions into Indian Rupees at the rate of exchange prevailing at the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are translated into Indian Rupees at the rate of exchange prevailing at the balance sheet date. Non- monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting the Company's monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise.

(N) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured, based on tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. If the Company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty, supported by convincing evidence, that such deferred tax assets can be realised against future taxable profits. Unrecognised deferred tax assets of earlier periods are re-assessed and recognised to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain as the case may be, that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that suffi cient future taxable income will be available.

(O) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares, if any.

(P) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(Q) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments, with an original maturity of 90 days or less.

(R) Employee benefits Retirement and gratuity benefits Retirement benefits in the form of provident fund and superannuation scheme are defined contribution schemes and the contributions are charged to the profit and loss account of the period when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective funds.

Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actu- arial valuation made at the end of each financial year. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to profit and loss account and are not deferred.

Employee stock compensation cost

Measurement and disclosure of the employee share-based payment plans is done in accordance with SEBI (Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme) Guidelines, 1999 and the Guidance Note on Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments, issued by ICAI.

The Company measures compensation cost relating to employee stock options using the intrinsic value method. Compensation expense is amortized over the vesting period of the option on a straight line basis.

(S) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

(T) Segment reporting policies Identification of segments

The Company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

(U) Inventory

Inventories of stores and spares related to exploration, development and production activities are valued at cost or net realizable value whichever is lower. Cost is determined on first in first out (FIFO) basis. Net realisable value is estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(V) Deferred revenue expenditure

Costs incurred in raising debts are amortised using the effective interest rate method over the period for which the funds have been acquired.


Mar 31, 2010

(A) Basis of preparation

The fi nancial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the mandatory Accounting Standards notifi ed under the Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006 under the historical cost convention and on an accrual basis. The accounting policies, in all material respects, have been consistently applied by the Company and are consistent with those used in the previous period.

(B) Oil and gas assets

The Company follows a successful efforts method for accounting for oil and gas assets as set out by the Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) on "Accounting for Oil and Gas Producing Activities".

Expenditure incurred on the acquisition of a license interest is initially capitalised on a license by license basis. Costs are held, undepleted, within exploratory & development wells in progress until the exploration phase relating to the license area is complete or commercial oil and gas reserves have been discovered.

Exploration expenditure incurred in the process of determining exploration targets which cannot be directly related to individual exploration wells, is expensed in the period in which it is incurred. Exploration/appraisal drilling costs are initially capitalised within exploratory and development work in progress on a well by well basis until the success or otherwise of the well has been established. The success or failure of each exploration/ appraisal effort is judged on a well by well basis. Drilling costs are written off on completion of a well unless the results indicate that oil and gas reserves exist and there is a reasonable prospect that these reserves are commercial.

Where results of exploration drilling indicate the presence of oil and gas reserves which are ultimately not considered commercially viable, all related costs are written off to the profi t and loss account. Following appraisal of successful exploration wells, when a well is ready for com- mencement of commercial production, the related exploratory and development work-in-progress are transferred into a single fi eld cost centre within producing properties, after testing for impairment.

Where costs are incurred after technical feasibility and commercial viability of producing oil and gas is demonstrated and it has been deter- mined that the wells are ready for commencement of commercial production, they are capitalised within producing properties for each cost centre. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised when it enhances the economic benefi ts of the producing properties or replaces part of the existing producing properties. Any costs remaining associated with such part replaced are expensed in the fi nancial statements.

Net proceeds from any disposal of an exploration asset within exploratory and development work in progress is initially credited against the previously capitalised costs and any surplus proceeds are credited to the profi t and loss account. Net proceeds from any disposal of producing properties are credited against the previously capitalised cost and any gain or loss on disposal of producing properties is recognised in the profi t and loss account, to the extent that the net proceeds exceed or are less than the appropriate portion of the net capitalised costs of the asset.

(C) Depletion

The expenditure on producing properties is depleted within each cost centre.

Depletion is charged on a unit of production basis, based on proved reserves for acquisition costs and proved and developed reserves for other costs.

(D) Site restoration costs

At the end of the producing life of a fi eld, costs are incurred in restoring the site of production facilities. The Company recognizes the full cost of site restoration as a liability when the obligation to rectify environmental damage arises. The site restoration expenses form part of the exploration & development work in progress or cost of producing properties, as the case may be, of the related asset. The amortization of the asset, calculated on a unit of production basis based on proved and developed reserves, is included in the depletion cost in the profi t and loss account.

(E) Impairment

1 The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized where the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash fl ows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital.

2 After impairment, depreciation/depletion is provided in subsequent periods on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

(F) Tangible fi xed assets, depreciation and amortization

Tangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fi xed assets which take a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

Depreciation is provided using the Straight Line Method as per the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management, or at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act 1956, whichever is higher. The expected useful economic lives are as follows: Vehicles 2 to 5 years

Freehold buildings 10 years

Computers 2 to 5 years

Furniture and fi xtures 2 to 5 years

Offi ce equipments 2 to 5 years

Plant and Equipment 2 to 10 years

Leasehold land Lease period

Leasehold improvements are amortized over the remaining period of the primary lease or expected useful economic lives, whichever is shorter.

(G) Intangible fi xed assets and amortization

Intangible assets, other than oil and gas assets, have fi nite useful lives and are measured at cost and amortized over their expected useful economic lives as follows:

Computer software 2 to 4 years

(H) Leases

Finance leases, which effectively transfer substantially all the risks and benefi ts incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalised at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the fi nance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are charged directly against income. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalised.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalised leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefi ts of ownership of the leased item, are classifi ed as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the profi t and loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

(I) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classifi ed as current investments. All other investments are classifi ed as long-term investments. Current investments are measured at cost or market value, whichever is lower, determined on an individual investment basis. Long term investments are measured at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

(J) Joint Ventures

The Company participates in several Joint Ventures involving joint control of assets for carrying out oil and gas exploration, development and producing activities. The Company accounts for its share of the assets and liabilities of Joint Ventures along with attributable income and expenses in such Joint Ventures, in which it holds a participating interest. Joint venture cash and cash equivalent balances are considered by the Company to be the amounts contributed in excess of the Companys obligations to the joint ventures and are, therefore, disclosed within loans and advances.

(K) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefi ts will fl ow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Revenue from operating activities

The Company recognizes parent company overhead as revenue from joint ventures (in which its foreign subsidiaries are participants) based on the provisions of respective PSCs.

Interest income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis.

(L) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest and commitment charges on borrowings, amortisation of costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings, exchange differences to the extent they are considered a substitute to the interest cost and fi nance charges under leases. Costs incurred on borrowings directly attributable to development projects, which take a substantial period of time to complete, are capitalised within the development/producing asset for each cost-centre.

All other borrowing costs are recognised in the profi t and loss account in the period in which they are incurred.

(M) Foreign currency transactions and translations

The Company translates foreign currency transactions into Indian Rupees at the rate of exchange prevailing at the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are translated into Indian Rupees at the rate of exchange prevailing at the balance sheet date. Non- monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting the Companys monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period, or reported in previous fi nancial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise.

(N) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income tax refl ects the impact of current period timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier periods.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured, based on tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that suffi cient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. If the Company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty, supported by convincing evidence, that such deferred tax assets can be realised against future taxable profi ts. Unrecognised deferred tax assets of earlier periods are re-assessed and recognised to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain as the case may be, that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

(O) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profi t or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profi t or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares, if any.

(P) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outfl ow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to refl ect the current best estimates.

(Q) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the cash fl ow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments, with an original maturity of 90 days or less.

(R) Employee Benefi ts Retirement and Gratuity benefi ts

Retirement benefi ts in the form of provident fund and superannuation scheme are defi ned contribution schemes and the contributions are charged to the profi t and loss account of the period when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective funds.

Gratuity liability is a defi ned benefi t obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each fi nancial year. The scheme is maintained and administered by an insurer for the entire Cairn India Group to which the trustees make periodic contributions.

Short term compensated absences are provided for on based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation made at the end of each fi nancial year. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to profi t and loss account and are not deferred.

Employee Stock Compensation Cost

Measurement and disclosure of the employee share-based payment plans is done in accordance with SEBI (Employee Stock Option Scheme and

Employee Stock Purchase Scheme) Guidelines, 1999 and the Guidance Note on Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments, issued by ICAI. The Company measures compensation cost relating to employee stock options using the intrinsic value method. Compensation expense is amortized over the vesting period of the option on a straight line basis.

(S) Use of estimates

The preparation of fi nancial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and as- sumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the fi nancial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon managements best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

(T) Segment Reporting Policies Identifi cation of segments:

The Companys operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

(U) Inventory

Inventories of stores and spares related to exploration, development and production activities are stated at cost, determined on fi rst in fi rst out (FIFO) basis. However, inventories of stores and spares, which are not likely to be consumed, are written down to their net realizable value.

 
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