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Accounting Policies of CIL Securities Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention . The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year .

1.2Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements are in conformity with Indian GAAP which requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable.

1.3Cash and cash equivalents (for purposes of Cash Flow Statement)

Cash comprises of cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

1.4Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non- cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

1.5 Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciation has been provided on the written down method as per the rates prescribed in Part 'C' of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life as follows:

Intangibles – 3 – 6 years.

The estimated useful life of the intangible assets and the amortisation period are reviewed at the end of each financial year and the amortisation method is revised to reflect the changed pattern.

1.6Revenue recognition

Income from services

Revenues from contracts priced on a time and material basis are recognised when services are rendered and related costs are incurred.

1.7Other income

Interest income is accounted on accrual basis. Dividend income is accounted for on receipt basis.

1.8Tangible Fixed Assets

Fixed assets, are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of fixed assets includes interest on borrowings attributable to acquisition of qualifying fixed assets up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use and other incidental expenses incurred up to that date. Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset and whose use is expected to be irregular are capitalised and depreciated over the useful life of the principal item of the relevant assets. Subsequent expenditure relating to fixed assets is capitalised only if such expenditure results in an increase in the future benefits from such asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Fixed assets acquired in full or part exchange for another asset are recorded at the fair market value or the net book value of the asset given up, adjusted for any balancing cash consideration. Fair market value is determined either for the assets acquired or asset given up, whichever is more clearly evident. Fixed assets acquired in exchange for securities of the Company are recorded at the fair market value of the assets or the fair market value of the securities issued, whichever is more clearly evident.

The Company has not revalued its assets.

Fixed assets retired from active use and held for sale are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realisable value and are disclosed separately in the Balance Sheet.

1.9 Intangible assets

Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an intangible asset comprises its purchase price, including any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities), and any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use and net of any trade discounts and rebates. Subsequent expenditure on an intangible asset after its purchase / completion is recognised as an expense when incurred unless it is probable that such expenditure will enable the asset to generate future economic benefits in excess of its originally assessed standards of performance and such expenditure can be measured and attributed to the asset reliably, in which case such expenditure is added to the cost of the asset.

1.10 Foreign currency transactions and translations

Transactions in foreign currencies are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

1.11 Investments

Long-term investments (excluding investment properties), are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such investments. Current investments are carried individually, at the lower of cost and fair value. Cost of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties. Investment properties are carried individually at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. Investment properties are capitalised and depreciated (where applicable) in accordance with the policy stated for Tangible Fixed Assets. Impairment of investment property is determined in accordance with the policy stated for Impairment of Assets.

1.12 Employee benefits

Employee benefits include provident fund, superannuation fund, gratuity fund.

The Company's contribution to provident fund is considered as defined contribution plan and is charged as an expense as they fall due based on the amount of contribution required to be made.

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service. The cost of such compensated absences is accounted as under :(a) in case of accumulated compensated absences, when employees render the services that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and(b) in case of non-accumulating compensated absences, when the absences occur.

1.13 Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organisation and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis have been included under "unallocated revenue / expenses / assets / liabilities".

1.14. Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.

Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented. The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for share splits / reverse share splits and bonus shares, as appropriate.

1.15 Taxes on income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) is paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantially enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses are recognised only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise such assets. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of other items only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date for their realisability. Current and deferred tax relating to items directly recognised in equity are recognised in equity and not in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Current and deferred tax relating to items directly recognised in equity and not in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.16 Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognised, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

1.17 Provisions and contingencies

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes.

1.18 Derivative contracts

The Company enters into derivative contracts in the nature of foreign currency swaps, currency options, forward contracts. Futures derivative contracts are marked-to-market and Profit & Losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Option transaction are recognised at cost price till the account is settled.

1.19 Service tax input credit

Service tax input credit is accounted for in the books in the period in which the underlying services are received and are accounted as and when there is no uncertainty in availing / utilising the credits.

1.24 Employee benefit plans

Defined contribution plans

The Company makes Provident Fund contribution for qualifying employees. Under the Schemes, the Company is required to contribute a specified percentage of the payroll costs to fund the benefits. The Company recognised Rs.58017/- (Year ended 31 March, 2015) for Provident Fund contributions and Rs.50660/- (Year ended 31 March, 2014) for contributions in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The contributions payable to these plans by the Company are at the rates specified in the rules of the schemes.


Mar 31, 2013

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention . The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year .

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements are in conformity with Indian GAAP which requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known / materialise..

1.3 Cash and cash equivalents (for purposes of Cash Flow Statement)

Cash comprises of cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

1.4 Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

1.5 Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciation has been provided on the written down method as per the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 .

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life as follows:

Intangibles – 3 – 5 years (1-2 years remaining as at the Balance Sheet date)

Amortisation of Product marketing rights over 15 years is based on the term of the marketing right acquired and the economic benefits that are expected to accrue to the Company over such period.

The estimated useful life of the intangible assets and the amortisation period are reviewed at the end of each financial year and the amortisation method is revised to reflect the changed pattern.

1.6 Revenue recognition

Income from services

Revenues from contracts priced on a time and material basis are recognised when services are rendered and related costs are incurred.

1.7 Other income

Interest income is accounted on accrual basis. Dividend income is accounted for on receipt basis.

1.8 Tangible Fixed Assets

Fixed assets, and are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of fixed assets includes interest on borrowings attributable to acquisition of qualifying fixed assets up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use and other incidental expenses incurred up to that date. Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset and whose use is expected to be irregular are capitalised and depreciated over the useful life of the principal item of the relevant assets. Subsequent expenditure relating to fixed assets is capitalised only if such expenditure results in an increase in the future benefits from such asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Fixed assets acquired in full or part exchange for another asset are recorded at the fair market value or the net book value of the asset given up, adjusted for any balancing cash consideration. Fair market value is determined either for the assets acquired or asset given up, whichever is more clearly evident. Fixed assets acquired in exchange for securities of the Company are recorded at the fair market value of the assets or the fair market value of the securities issued, whichever is more clearly evident.

The Company has not revalued its assets.

Fixed assets retired from active use and held for sale are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realisable value and are disclosed separately in the Balance Sheet.

1.9 Intangible assets

Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an intangible asset comprises its purchase price, including any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities), and any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use and net of any trade discounts and rebates. Subsequent expenditure on an intangible asset after its purchase / completion is recognised as an expense when incurred unless it is probable that such expenditure will enable the asset to generate future economic benefits in excess of its originally assessed standards of performance and such expenditure can be measured and attributed to the asset reliably, in which case such expenditure is added to the cost of the asset.

1.10 Foreign currency transactions and translations

Initial recognition

Transactions in foreign currencies are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction. Treatment of exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement of short-term foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company and its integral foreign operations are recognised as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The exchange differences on restatement / settlement of loans to non-integral foreign operations that are considered as net investment in such operations are accumulated in a “Foreign currency translation reserve” until disposal / recovery of the net investment.The exchange differences arising on restatement / settlement of long-term foreign currency monetary items are capitalised as part of the depreciable fixed assets to which the monetary item relates and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets or amortised on settlement / over the maturity period of such items if such items do not relate to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets. The unamortised balance is carried in the Balance Sheet as “Foreign currency monetary item translation difference account” net of the tax effect thereon. Accounting of forward contracts

Premium / discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amortised over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the Balance Sheet date.

1.11 Investments

Long-term investments (excluding investment properties), are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such investments. Current investments are carried individually, at the lower of cost and fair value. Cost of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties. Investment properties are carried individually at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. Investment properties are capitalised and depreciated (where applicable) in accordance with the policy stated for Tangible Fixed Assets. Impairment of investment property is determined in accordance with the policy stated for Impairment of Assets.

1.12 Employee benefits

Employee benefits include provident fund, superannuation fund, gratuity fund, compensated absences, long service awards and post-employment medical benefits. Defined contribution plans

The Company’s contribution to provident fund and superannuation fund are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense as they fall due based on the amount of contribution required to be made. Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund and post-employment medical benefits, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes. Short-term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service. The cost of such compensated absences is accounted as under :(a) in case of accumulated compensated absences, when employees render the services that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and(b) in case of non-accumulating compensated absences, when the absences occur. Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date less the fair value of the plan assets out of which the obligations are expected to be settled. Long Service Awards are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date.

1.13 Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organisation and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis have been included under “unallocated revenue / expenses / assets / liabilities”.

1.14 Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.

Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented. The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for share splits / reverse share splits and bonus shares, as appropriate.

1.15 Taxes on income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantially enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses are recognised only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise such assets. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of other items only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date for their realisability. Current and deferred tax relating to items directly recognised in equity are recognised in equity and not in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Current and deferred tax relating to items directly recognised in equity are recognised in equity and not in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.16 Research expenses

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Value addition costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a product’s technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised. The amount capitalised comprises expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Fixed assets utilised for research and development are capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Tangible Fixed Assets and Intangible Assets.

1.17 Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognised, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

1.18 Provisions and contingencies

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes.

1.19 Derivative contracts

The Company enters into derivative contracts in the nature of foreign currency swaps, currency options, forward contracts with an intention to hedge its existing assets and liabilities, firm commitments and highly probable transactions. Derivative contracts which are closely linked to the existing assets and liabilities are accounted as per the policy stated for Foreign Currency Transactions and Translations. Derivative contracts designated as a hedging instrument for highly probable forecast transactions are accounted as per the policy stated for Hedge Accounting. All other derivative contracts are marked-to-market and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognised, until realised, on grounds of prudence.

1.20 Service tax input credit

Service tax input credit is accounted for in the books in the period in which the underlying services are received and are accounted and when there is no uncertainty in availing / utilising the credits.


Mar 31, 2010

- GENERAL

The accompanying financial statements is in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 (The Act).

- REVENUE RECOGNITION

Income is accounted for on Accrual Basis. In appropriate circumstances Income is recognised when no significant uncertainty as to measurability or collectability exist. However, Dividend Income Is accounted for on receipt basis.

- EXPENSES

The Company provides for all expenses on Accrual Basis. Material known liabilities for expenses are provided for on the basis of available information / estimates.

- FIXED ASSETS

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses where applicable. Cost comprises purchase price and all direct/indirect costs incurred to bring the asset to its working condition for the intended use.

- DEPRECIATION

The Company provides depreciation on Written Down Value method on pro-rata basis at the rate specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

- INVENTORIES

Stocks are valued at Cost or Market Value whichever is lower.

- INVESTMENTS

Investments are valued at Cost. Diminution in value is provided for where the management is of the opinion that the diminution is of permanent nature.

- RETIREMENT BENEFIT

Companys contribution to Provident Fund & Family Pension Fund are statutorily deposited with the Government and charged to Profit & Loss A/c. For eligible employees year end liability on account of Gratuity under the payment of Gratuity Act 1972 is provided for on accrual basis as at Balance Sheet date.

- INCOME TAX

Income-tax have been computed using the tax effect accounting method, where taxes are accrued in the same period as the related revenue and expenses.

- DEFERRED TAXATION

Deferred Tax is recognized on timing differences between the accounting income and the taxable income for the year, and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted as on the Balance Sheet Date. Deferred tax assets relating to unabsorbed depreciation/business losses are recognized and carried forward to the extent there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. The deferred tax account is used for reversing timing difference as and when crystallized.

- EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS

Exchange transactions have been recorded to coincide with transation obligation within the financial year.

 
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