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Accounting Policies of Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2017

NOTE 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPANY AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

1.1 Description of the Company

Dr. Reddy''s Laboratories Limited ("Dr. Reddy''s" or "the Company") is a leading India-based pharmaceutical company headquartered and having its registered office in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Through its three businesses - Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients, Global Generics and Proprietary Products - the Company offers a portfolio of products and services, including Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients ("APIs"), Custom Pharmaceutical Services ("CPS"), generics, biosimilars, differentiated formulations and New Chemical Entities ("NCEs"). The Company''s principal research and development facilities are located in Andhra Pradesh, India; its principal manufacturing facilities are located in Telangana, India; Andhra Pradesh, India; Himachal Pradesh, India; and its principal markets are in India, Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Venezuela and Germany. The Company''s shares trade on the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange in India and, since 11 April 2001, also on the New York Stock Exchange in the United States.

1.2 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of Dr. Reddy''s Laboratories Limited ("Dr. Reddy''s" or "the Company") have been prepared and presented in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards ("Ind AS") notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016. For all periods up to and including the year ended 31 March 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with accounting standards notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read with Rule 7 of Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014. These financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2017 are the first the Company has prepared in accordance with Ind AS.

Refer note 2.19 for information on how the Company adopted Ind AS.

These financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost convention and on an accrual basis, except for the following material items in the balance sheet:

- derivative financial instruments are measured at fair value;

- certain financial assets are measured either at fair value or at amortized cost depending on the classification;

- employee defined benefit assets/(liability) are recognized as the net total of the fair value of plan assets, plus actuarial losses, less actuarial gains and the present value of the defined benefit obligation; and

- long-term borrowings, except obligations under finance leases, are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate method.

1.3 Use of estimates and judgments

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected. In particular, information about significant areas of estimation uncertainty and critical judgments in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the financial statements is included in the following notes:

- Note 1.4 (a) — Assessment of functional currency;

- Note 1.4 (q) — Financial instruments;

- Note 1.4 (b) — Business combinations;

- Notes 1.4 (j) and 1.4 (k) — Useful lives of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets;

- Note 1.4 (m) — Valuation of inventories;

- Note 1.4 (n) — Measurement of recoverable amounts of cash-generating units;

- Note 1.4 (o) — Assets and obligations relating to employee benefits;

- Note 1.4 (o) — Share based payments;

- Note 1.4 (p) — Provisions and other accruals;

- Note 1.4 (e) — Sales returns provisions;

- Note 1.4 (h) — Evaluation of recoverability of deferred tax assets; and

- Note 1.4 (p) — Contingencies

1.4 Significant accounting policies

a) Functional currency

These financial statements are presented in Indian rupees, which is also the functional currency of the Company. All financial information presented in Indian rupees has been rounded to the nearest million.

b) Business combinations and goodwill

In accordance with Ind AS 101 provisions related to first time adoption, the Company has elected to apply Ind AS accounting for business combinations prospectively from transition date i.e., 1 April 2015. As such, Indian GAAP balances relating to business combinations entered into before that date, including goodwill, have been carried forward.

The Company uses the acquisition method of accounting to account for business combinations. The acquisition date is the date on which control is transferred to the acquirer. Judgment is applied in determining the acquisition date and determining whether control is transferred from one party to another. Control exists when the Company is exposed to, or has rights to variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through power over the entity. In assessing control, potential voting rights are considered only if the rights are substantive. The Company measures goodwill as of the applicable acquisition date at the fair value of the consideration transferred, including the recognized amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquire, less the net recognized amount of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. When the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed exceeds the consideration transferred, the excess is recognized in equity as capital reserve. Consideration transferred includes the fair values of the assets transferred, liabilities incurred by the Company to the previous owners of the acquire, and equity interests issued by the Company. Consideration transferred also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration. Consideration transferred does not include amounts related to the settlement of pre-existing relationships. Any goodwill that arises on account of such business combination is tested annually for impairment.

Any contingent consideration is measured at fair value at the date of acquisition. If an obligation to pay contingent consideration that meets the definition of a financial instrument is classified as equity, then it is not re-measured and the settlement is accounted for within equity. Otherwise, other contingent consideration is re-measured at fair value at each reporting date and subsequent changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are recorded in the statement of profit and loss.

A contingent liability of the acquire is assumed in a business combination only if such a liability represents a present obligation and arises from a past event, and its fair value can be measured reliably. On an acquisition-by-acquisition basis, the Company recognizes any non-controlling interest in the acquire either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest''s proportionate share of the acquirer’s identifiable net assets. Transaction costs that the Company incurs in connection with a business combination, such as finder''s fees, legal fees, due diligence fees and other professional and consulting fees, are expensed as incurred.

c) Current and noncurrent classification

All the assets and liabilities have been classified as current or noncurrent as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013.

Assets:

An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a) it is expected to be realized in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the Company''s normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting date; or

d) it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date.

Liabilities:

A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a) it is expected to be settled in the Company''s normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting date; or

d) the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

Current assets/ liabilities include the current portion of noncurrent assets/ liabilities respectively. All other assets/ liabilities are classified as noncurrent.

d) Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are translated to the functional currency of the Company at exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate at that date. Non-monetary items that are measured based on historical cost in a foreign currency are translated at the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was measured. Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on translating monetary items at rates different from those at which they were translated on initial recognition during the period or in previous financial statements are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise.

When several exchange rates are available, the rate used is that at which the future cash flows represented by the transaction or balance could have been settled if those cash flows had occurred at the measurement date.

e) Revenue Sale of goods

Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated costs and possible return of goods can be estimated reliably, there is no continuing management involvement with the goods and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably. Revenue from the sale of goods includes excise duty and is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns, sales tax and applicable trade discounts and allowances. Revenue includes shipping and handling costs billed to the customer.

Revenue from sales of generic products in India is recognized upon delivery of products to distributors by clearing and forwarding agents of the Company. Significant risks and rewards in respect of ownership of generic products are transferred by the Company when the goods are delivered to distributors from clearing and forwarding agents. Clearing and forwarding agents are generally compensated on a commission basis as a percentage of sales made by them. Revenue from sales of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates in India is recognized on delivery of products to customers (generally formulation manufacturers), from the factories of the Company.

Revenue from export sales and other sales outside of India is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of products are transferred to the customers, which occurs upon delivery of the products to the customers unless the terms of the applicable contract provide for specific revenue generating activities to be completed, in which case revenue is recognized once all such activities are completed.

Profit share revenues

The Company from time to time enters into marketing arrangements with certain business partners for the sale of its products in certain markets. Under such arrangements, the Company sells its products to the business partners at a non-refundable base purchase price agreed upon in the arrangement and is also entitled to a profit share which is over and above the base purchase price. The profit share is typically dependent on the business partner''s ultimate net sale proceeds or net profits, subject to any reductions or adjustments that are required by the terms of the arrangement. Such arrangements typically require the business partner to provide confirmation of units sold and net sales or net profit computations for the products covered under the arrangement.

Revenue in an amount equal to the base purchase price is recognized in these transactions upon delivery of products to the business partners. An additional amount representing the profit share component is recognized as revenue in the period which corresponds to the ultimate sales of the products made by business partners only when the collectability of the profit share becomes probable and a reliable measurement of the profit share is available. Otherwise, recognition is deferred to a subsequent period pending satisfaction of such collectability and measurability requirements. In measuring the amount of profit share revenue to be recognized for each period, the Company uses all available information and evidence, including any confirmations from the business partner of the profit share amount owed to the Company, to the extent made available before the date the Company''s Board of Directors authorizes the issuance of its financial statements for the applicable period.

Milestone payments and out licensing arrangements

Revenues include amounts derived from product out-licensing agreements. These arrangements typically consist of an initial up-front payment on inception of the license and subsequent payments dependent on achieving certain milestones in accordance with the terms prescribed in the agreement. Non-refundable up-front license fees received in connection with product out-licensing agreements are deferred and recognized over the period in which the Company has continuing performance obligations. Milestone payments which are contingent on achieving certain clinical milestones are recognized as revenues either on achievement of such milestones, if the milestones are considered substantive, or over the period the Company has continuing performance obligations, if the milestones are not considered substantive. If milestone payments are creditable against future royalty payments, the milestones are deferred and released over the period in which the royalties are anticipated to be paid.

Sales Returns

The Company accounts for sales returns accrual by recording an allowance for sales returns concurrent with the recognition of revenue at the time of a product sale. This allowance is based on the Company''s estimate of expected sales returns. The Company deals in various products and operates in various markets. Accordingly, the estimate of sales returns is determined primarily by the Company''s historical experience in the markets in which the Company operates. With respect to established products, the Company considers its historical experience of sales returns, levels of inventory in the distribution channel, estimated shelf life, product discontinuances, price changes of competitive products, and the introduction of competitive new products, to the extent each of these factors impact the Company''s business and markets. With respect to new products introduced by the Company, such products have historically been either extensions of an existing line of product where the Company has historical experience or in therapeutic categories where established products exist and are sold either by the Company or the Company''s competitors.

Services

Revenue from services rendered, which primarily relate to contract research, is recognized in the statement of profit and loss as the underlying services are performed. Upfront non-refundable payments received under these arrangements are deferred and recognized as revenue over the expected period over which the related services are expected to be performed.

License fee

The Company enters into certain dossier sales, licensing and supply arrangements with various parties. Income from licensing arrangements is generally recognized over the term of the contract. Some of these arrangements include certain performance obligations by the Company. Revenue from such arrangements is recognized in the period in which the Company completes all its performance obligations.

f) Government grants

The Company recognizes government grants only when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them will be complied with, and the grants will be received. Government grants received in relation to assets are presented in the balance sheet by setting up the grant as deferred income. Grants related to income are deducted in reporting the related expense in the statement of profit and loss.

Export entitlements from government authorities are recognized in the statement of profit and loss as a reduction from "Cost of materials consumed" when the right to receive credit as per the terms of the scheme is established in respect of the exports made by the Company, and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.

g) Interest income and dividend

Interest income primarily comprises of interest from term deposits with banks and on loans to subsidiary companies. Interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset. Interest income is included in other income in the statement of profit and loss.

Dividend income is recognized when the Company''s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.

h) Income tax

Income tax expense consists of current and deferred tax. Income tax expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in equity. Current tax is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.

Deferred tax is recognized using the balance sheet method, providing for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is not recognized for the following temporary differences: the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit; differences relating to investments in subsidiaries and jointly controlled entities to the extent that it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and taxable temporary differences arising upon the initial recognition of goodwill. Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to the temporary differences when they reverse, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different tax entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realized simultaneously.

A deferred tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilized. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized.

The Company recognizes deferred tax liability for all taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint arrangements, except to the extent that both of the following conditions are satisfied:

a) When the Company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference; and

b) it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

Dividend distribution tax arising out of payment of dividends to shareholders under the Indian Income tax regulations is not considered as tax expense for the Company and all such taxes are recognized in the statement of changes in equity as part of the associated dividend payment.

i) Earnings per share

The Company presents basic and diluted earnings per share ("EPS") data for its ordinary shares. Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to ordinary shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is determined by adjusting the profit or loss attributable to ordinary shareholders and the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding for the effects of all dilutive potential ordinary shares, which includes all stock options granted to employees.

j) Property, plant and equipment Recognition and measurement

Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost includes expenditures that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. The cost of self-constructed assets includes the cost of materials and other costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to a working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost of that asset.

When parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.

Gains and losses upon disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment are determined by comparing the proceeds from disposal with the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

The cost of replacing part of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognized in the carrying amount of the item if it is probable that the future economic benefits embodied within the part will flow to the Company and its cost can be measured reliably. The costs of repairs and maintenance are recognized in the statement of profit and loss as incurred.

Items of property, plant and equipment acquired through exchange of non-monetary assets are measured at fair value, unless the exchange transaction lacks commercial substance or the fair value of either the asset received or asset given up is not reliably measurable, in which case the asset exchanged is recorded at the carrying amount of the asset given up.

Depreciation

Depreciation is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment. Leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives. Land is not depreciated.

Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the period of the lease agreement or the useful life, whichever is shorter.

Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date and, if expectations differ from previous estimates, the change(s) are accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.

Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 ("Schedule") prescribes the useful lives for various classes of tangible assets. For certain class of assets, based on the technical evaluation and assessment, the Company believes that the useful lives adopted by it best represent the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use. Accordingly, for these assets, the useful lives estimated by the Company are different from those prescribed in the Schedule.

Software for internal use, which is primarily acquired from third-party vendors and which is an integral part of a tangible asset, including consultancy charges for implementing the software, is capitalized as part of the related tangible asset. Subsequent costs associated with maintaining such software are recognized as expense as incurred. The capitalized costs are amortized over the estimated useful life of the software or the remaining useful life of the tangible fixed asset, whichever is lower.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at each reporting date is disclosed as capital advances under other noncurrent assets. The cost of property, plant and equipment not ready to use before such date are disclosed under capital work-in-progress. Assets not ready for use are not depreciated.

k) Goodwill and other intangible assets Goodwill

Goodwill represents the excess of consideration transferred, together with the amount of non-controlling interest in the acquire, over the fair value of the Company''s share of identifiable net assets acquired.

Goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses.

Other intangible assets

Other intangible assets that are acquired by the Company and that have finite useful lives are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses.

Subsequent expenditures are capitalized only when they increase the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which they relate.

Research and development

Expenditures on research activities undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when incurred.

Development activities involve a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes. Development expenditures are capitalized only if:

- development costs can be measured reliably;

- the product or process is technically and commercially feasible;

- future economic benefits are probable; and

- the Company intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and to use or sell the asset.

The expenditures to be capitalized include the cost of materials and other costs directly attributable to preparing the asset for its intended use. Other development expenditures are recognized as expense in the statement of profit and loss as incurred.

Payments to third parties that generally take the form of up-front payments and milestones for in-licensed products, compounds and intellectual property are capitalized. The Company''s criteria for capitalization of such assets are consistent with the guidance given in paragraph 25 of Ind AS 38 (i.e., receipt of economic benefits out of the separately purchased transaction is considered to be probable).

Acquired research and development intangible assets that are under development are recognized as Intangible assets under development. These assets are not amortized, but evaluated for potential impairment on an annual basis or when there are indications that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Any impairment charge on such assets is recorded as an expense in the statement of profit and loss.

Subsequent expenditure on an in-process research or development project acquired separately or in a business combination and recognized as an intangible asset is:

- recognized as an expense when incurred, if it is research expenditure;

- recognized as an expense when incurred, if it is development expenditure that does not satisfy the criteria for recognition as an intangible asset; and

- added to the carrying amount of the acquired in-process research or development project, if it is development expenditure that satisfies the recognition criteria.

Intangible assets relating to products in development, other intangible assets not available for use and intangible assets having indefinite useful life are subject to impairment testing at each reporting date. All other intangible assets are tested for impairment when there are indications that the carrying value may not be recoverable. All impairment losses are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Amortization

Amortization is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of intangible assets or on any other basis that reflects the pattern in which the asset''s future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the entity. Intangible assets that are not available for use are amortized from the date they are available for use.

The amortization period and the amortization method for intangible assets with a finite useful life are reviewed at each reporting date. De-recognition of intangible assets

Intangible assets are de-recognized either on their disposal or where no future economic benefits are expected from their use. Losses arising on such de-recognition are recorded in the statement of profit and loss, and are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds, if any, and the carrying amount of respective intangible assets as on the date of de-recognition.

l) Leases

At the inception of each lease, the lease arrangement is classified as either a finance lease or an operating lease, based on the substance of the l ease arrangement.

Finance leases

A finance lease is recognized as an asset and a liability at the commencement of the lease, at the lower of the fair value of the asset and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Initial direct costs, if any, are also capitalized and, subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to that asset. Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance expense and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance expense is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

Operating leases

Other leases are operating leases, and the leased assets are not recognized on the Company''s balance sheet. Payments made under operating leases are recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

Operating lease incentives received from the landlord are recognized as a reduction of rental expense on a straight line basis over the lease term.

m) Inventories

Inventories consist of raw materials, stores and spares, work-in-progress and finished goods and are measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost of all categories of inventories is based on the weighted average method. Cost includes expenditures incurred in acquiring the inventories, production or conversion costs and other costs incurred in bringing them to their existing location and condition. In the case of finished goods and work-in-progress, cost includes an appropriate share of overheads based on normal operating capacity. Stores and spares, that do not qualify to be recognized as property, plant and equipment, consists of packing materials, engineering spares (such as machinery spare parts) and consumables (such as lubricants, cotton waste and oils), which are used in operating machines or consumed as indirect materials in the manufacturing process.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses.

The factors that the Company considers in determining the allowance for slow moving, obsolete and other non-saleable inventory include estimated shelf life, planned product discontinuances, price changes, ageing of inventory and introduction of competitive new products, to the extent each of these factors impact the Company''s business and markets. The Company considers all these factors and adjusts the inventory provision to reflect its actual experience on a periodic basis.

n) Impairment of non-financial assets

The carrying amounts of the Company''s non-financial assets, other than inventories and deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset''s recoverable amount is estimated. For goodwill and intangible assets that have indefinite lives or that are not yet available for use, an impairment test is performed each year at 31 March.

The recoverable amount of an asset or cash-generating unit (as defined below) is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or the cash-generating unit. For the purpose of impairment testing, assets are grouped together into the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or groups of assets (the "cash-generating unit").

The goodwill acquired in a business combination is, for the purpose of impairment testing, allocated to cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.

An impairment loss is recognized in the statement of profit and loss if the estimated recoverable amount of an asset or its cash-generating unit is lower than its carrying amount. Impairment losses recognized in respect of cash-generating units are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the units and then to reduce the carrying amount of the other assets in the unit on a pro-rata basis.

An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. In respect of other assets, impairment losses recognized in prior periods are assessed at each reporting date for any indications that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset''s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, if no impairment loss had been recognized. Goodwill that forms part of the carrying amount of an investment in an associate is not recognized separately, and therefore is not tested for impairment separately. Instead, the entire amount of the investment in an associate is tested for impairment as a single asset when there is objective evidence that the investment in an associate may be impaired.

An impairment loss in respect of equity accounted investee is measured by comparing the recoverable amount of investment with its carrying amount. An impairment loss is recognized in the statement of profit and loss, and reversed if there has been a favorable change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount.

o) Employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognized for the amount expected to be paid if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.

Defined contribution plans

The Company''s contributions to defined contribution plans are charged to the statement of profit and loss as and when the services are received from the employees.

Defined benefit plans

The liability in respect of defined benefit plans and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the projected unit credit method consistent with the advice of qualified actuaries. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid, and that have terms to maturity approximating to the terms of the related defined benefit obligation. In countries where there is no deep market in such bonds, the market rates on government bonds are used. The current service cost of the defined benefit plan, recognized in the statement of profit and loss in employee benefit expense, reflects the increase in the defined benefit obligation resulting from employee service in the current year, benefit changes, curtailments and settlements. Past service costs are recognized immediately in income. The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss. Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to equity in other comprehensive income in the period in which they arise.

Termination benefits

Termination benefits are recognized as an expense when the Company is demonstrably committed, without realistic possibility of withdrawal, to a formal detailed plan to either terminate employment before the normal retirement date, or to provide termination benefits as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy. Termination benefits for voluntary redundancies are recognized as an expense if the Company has made an offer encouraging voluntary redundancy, it is probable that the offer will be accepted, and the number of acceptances can be estimated reliably.

Other long-term employee benefits

The Company''s net obligation in respect of other long-term employee benefits is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and previous periods. That benefit is discounted to determine its present value. Remeasurements are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise.

Compensated absences

The Company''s current policies permit certain categories of its employees to accumulate and carry forward a portion of their unutilized compensated absences and utilize them in future periods or receive cash in lieu thereof in accordance with the terms of such policies. The Company measures the expected cost of accumulating compensated absences as the additional amount that the Company incurs as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date. Such measurement is based on actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date carried out by a qualified actuary.

Share-based payments

The grant date fair value of options granted to employees is recognized as an employee expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period that the employees become unconditionally entitled to the options. The expense is recorded for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award was, in substance, multiple awards. The increase in equity recognized in connection with share-based payment transaction is presented as a separate component in equity under "share-based payment reserve". The amount recognized as an expense is adjusted to reflect the actual number of stock options that vest.

p) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. Where discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.

Restructuring

A provision for restructuring is recognized when the Company has approved a detailed and formal restructuring plan, and the restructuring either has commenced or has been announced publicly. Future operating costs are not provided.

Onerous contracts

A provision for onerous contracts is recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Company recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

Reimbursement rights

Expected reimbursements for expenditures required to settle a provision are recognized only when receipt of such reimbursements is virtually certain. Such reimbursements are recognized as a separate asset in the balance sheet, with a corresponding credit to the specific expense for which the provision has been made.

Contingent liabilities

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Contingent assets

Contingent assets are not recognized in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise, the asset and related income are recognized in the period in which the change occurs.

q) Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

Financial assets

Initial recognition and measurement

All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognized on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.

Subsequent measurement

For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:

- Debt instruments at amortized cost

- Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

- Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

Debt instruments at amortized cost

A ''debt instrument'' is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:

a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in other income in the statement of profit and loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables.

Debt instrument at FVTOCI

A ''debt instrument'' is classified as at the FVTOCI if both of the following criteria are met:

a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

b) The asset''s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.

Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified to the state ent of profit and loss. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.

Debt instrument at FVTPL

FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.

In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ''accounting mismatch''). The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.

Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Equity investments

All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading and contingent consideration recognized by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS103 applies are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to the statement of profit and loss, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Investments in subsidiaries and joint venture

Investments in subsidiaries and joint venture are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses, if any. Where an indication of impairment exists, the carrying amount of the investment is assessed and written down immediately to its recoverable amount. On disposal of investments in subsidiaries and joint venture, the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying amounts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Upon first-time adoption of Ind AS, the Company has elected to measure its investments in subsidiaries and joint ventures at the Previous GAAP carrying amount as its deemed cost on the date of transition to Ind AS i.e., 1 April 2015.

Derecognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognized (i.e., removed from the Company''s balance sheet) when:

- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ''pass-through'' arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognize the transferred asset to the extent of the Company''s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognizes an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

Impairment of trade receivables

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 18.

For this purpose, the Company follows ''simplified approach'' for recognition of impairment loss allowance on the trade receivable balances. The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognizes impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analyzed.

Financial liabilities

Initial recognition and measurement

Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.

All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

The Company''s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.

Subsequent measurement

The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.

Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/ losses are not subsequently transferred to the statement of profit and loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. The company has not designated any financial liability as fair value through profit and loss.

Loans and borrowings

After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the liabilities are derecognized as well as through the EIR amortization process.

Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.

Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Derivative financial instruments

The Company is exposed to exchange rate risk which arises from its foreign exchange revenues and expenses, primarily in US dollars, UK pounds sterling, Russian roubles, Venezuelan bolivars and Euros, and foreign currency debt in US dollars, Russian rubles and Euros.

The Company uses foreign exchange forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts (derivative financial instruments) to mitigate its risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. The Company also uses non derivative financial instruments as part of its foreign currency exposure risk mitigation strategy.

Hedges of highly probable forecasted transactions

The Company classifies its derivative financial instruments that hedge foreign currency risk associated with highly probable forecasted transactions as cash flow hedges and measures them at fair value. The effective portion of such cash flow hedges is recorded in the Company''s hedging reserve as a component of equity and re-classified to the statement of profit and loss as revenue in the period corresponding to the occurrence of the forecasted transactions. The ineffective portion of such cash flow hedges is recorded in the statement of profit and loss as finance costs immediately.

The Company also designates certain non derivative financial liabilities, such as foreign currency borrowings from banks, as hedging instruments for hedge of foreign currency risk associated with highly probable forecasted transactions. Accordingly, the Company applies cash flow hedge accounting to such relationships. Remeasurement gain / loss on such non derivative financial liabilities is recorded in the Company''s hedging reserve as a component of equity and reclassified to the statement of profit and loss as revenue in the period corresponding to the occurrence of the forecasted transactions.

If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in other comprehensive income, remains there until the forecasted transaction occurs. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, then the balance in other comprehensive income is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Hedges of recognized assets and liabilities

Changes in the fair value of derivative contracts that economically hedge monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currencies, and for which no hedge accounting is applied, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. The changes in fair value of such derivative contracts, as well as the foreign exchange gains and losses relating to the monetary items, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Hedges of changes in the interest rates

Consistent with its risk management policy, the Company uses interest rate swaps to mitigate the risk of changes in interest rates. The Company does not use them for trading or speculative purposes.

r) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand, demand deposits and short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value. For this purpose, "short-term" means investments having maturity of three months or less from the date of investment. Bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and form an integral part of our cash management are included as a component of cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of the statement of cash flows.

1.5 Determination of fair values

The Company''s accounting policies and disclosures require the determination of fair value, for certain financial and non-financial assets and liabilities. Fair values have been determined for measurement and/or disclosure purposes based on the following methods. When applicable, further information about the assumptions made in determining fair values is disclosed in the notes specific to that asset or liability.

a) Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment, if acquired in a business combination or through an exchange of non-monetary assets, is measured at fair value on the acquisition date. For this purpose, fair value is based on appraised market values and replacement cost.

b) Intangible assets

The fair value of brands, technology related intangibles, and patents and trademarks acquired in a business combination is based on the discounted estimated royalty payments that have been avoided as a result of these brands, technology related intangibles, patents or trademarks being owned (the "relief of royalty method"). The fair value of customer related, product related and other intangibles acquired in a business combination has been determined using the multi-period excess earnings method after deduction of a fair return on other assets that are part of creating the related cash flows.

c) Inventories

The fair value of inventories acquired in a business combination is determined based on its estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and sale, and a reasonable profit margin based on the effort required to complete and sell the inventories.

d) Investments in equity and debt securities and units of mutual funds

The fair value of marketable equity and debt securities is determined by reference to their quoted market price at the reporting date. For debt securities where quoted market prices are not available, fair value is determined using pricing techniques such as discounted cash flow analysis.

In respect of investments in mutual funds, the fair values represent net asset value as stated by the issuers of these mutual fund units in the published statements. Net asset values represent the price at which the issuer will issue further units in the mutual fund and the price at which issuers will redeem such units from the investors.

Accordingly, such net asset values are analogous to fair market value with respect to these investments, as transactions of these mutual funds are carried out at such prices between investors and the issuers of these units of mutual funds.

e) Derivatives

The fair value of foreign exchange forward contracts is estimated by discounting the difference between the contractual forward price and the current forward price for the residual maturity of the contract using a risk-free interest rate (based on government bonds). The fair value of foreign currency option and swap contracts and interest rate swap contracts is determined based on the appropriate valuation techniques, considering the terms of the contract.

f) Non derivative financial liabilities

Fair value, which is determined for disclosure purposes, is calculated based on the present value of future principal and interest cash flows, discounted at the market rate of interest at the reporting date. For finance leases the market rate of interest is determined by reference to similar lease agreements. In respect of the Company''s borrowings that have floating rates of interest, their fair value approximates carrying value.

g) Share-based payment transactions

The fair value of employee stock options is measured using the Black-Scholes-Merton valuation model. Measurement inputs include share price on grant date, exercise price of the instrument, expected volatility (based on weighted average historical volatility), expected life of the instrument (based on historical experience), expected dividends, and the risk free interest rate (based on government bonds).

(a) (i) The balance of long-term loan, outstanding as at 31 March 2017, comprises of External Commercial Borrowing, carrying interest rate of

LIBOR plus 82.7 bps and is repayable in three equal installments in the years ending 31 March 2020 and 31 March 2021.

(ii) External Commercial Borrowing, outstanding as at 31 March 2016, carrying interest rate of LIBOR plus 125 bps, was repaid in the current financial year. As part of the aforesaid loan arrangements, the Company is required to comply with certain financial covenants and the Company was in compliance with such covenants as at 31 March 2017, 31 March 2016 and 1 April 2015.

(b) Finance lease obligations are towards lease rentals payable for the vehicles leased by the Company. (Refer note 2.33)

(c) Packing credit loans for the year ended 31 March 2017, comprised of US$ denominated loans carrying interest rates of LIBOR minus 30 to plus 1 bps, RUB denominated loans carrying fixed interest rate of 9.95%, and INR denominated loans carrying fixed interest rate of 6.92% to 6.95% and Treasury bill plus 30 bps and are repayable within 6 to 12 months from the date of drawdown. Packing credit loans, for the year ended 31 March 2016, comprised of US$ and EUR denominated loans carrying interest rates of LIBOR minus 5 to plus 15 bps and RUB denominated loans carrying fixed interest rate of 10.65% to 11.57%, and are repayable within 6 to 12 months from the date of drawdown.

(a) The principal amount remaining unpaid as at 31 March 2017 in respect of enterprises covered under the "Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006" (MSMED) is '' 43 (31 March 2016: '' 20; 1 April 2015: '' 79). The interest amount computed based on the provisions under Section 16 of the MSMED is '' 0.02 (31 March 2016: '' 0.11; 1 April 2015: '' 0.09) is remaining unpaid as of 31 March 2017. The interest amount of '' 0.02 that remained unpaid as at 31 March 2016 was paid fully during the current year.

(b) The amount of interest due and payable for the period of delay in making payment (which have been paid but beyond the ap


Mar 31, 2013

A) Basis of preparation

The financial statements of Dr. Reddy''s Laboratories Limited ("DRL" or "the Company") have been prepared and presented in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (IGAAP). IGAAP comprises accounting standards notified by the Central Government of India under Section 211 (3C) of the Companies Act, 1956, other pronouncements of Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the relevant provisions of Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded off to the nearest million.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with IGAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the year. Examples of such estimates include estimation of useful life of tangible and intangible assets, assessment of recoverable amounts of deferred tax assets, provision for obligations relating to employees, provisions against litigations and impairment of assets. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

c) Current and non current classification

All the assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956.

Assets:

An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a) it is expected to be realised in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the Company''s normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is expected to be realised within 12 months after the reporting date; or

d) it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.

Liabilities:

A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a) it is expected to be settled in the Company''s normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or

d) the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

Current assets / liabilities include the current portion of non current financial assets / liabilities respectively. All other assets / liabilities are classified as non current.

d) Tangible fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are carried at the cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation. The cost of fixed assets includes non refundable taxes, duties, freight and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of those fixed assets which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised. Borrowing costs are interest and other costs incurred by the Company in connection with the borrowing of funds.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of tangible fixed asset is capitalised only if it increases the future benefits from the existing assets beyond its previously assessed standards of performance.

Advances paid towards acquisition of tangible fixed assets outstanding at each balance sheet date are shown under long term loans and advances. Cost of assets not ready for intended use, as on the balance sheet date, is shown as capital work-in-progress.

Depreciation on tangible fixed assets is provided using the straight-line method at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or based on the useful life of the assets as estimated by Management, whichever is higher. Depreciation is calculated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed. Individual assets costing less than Rs. 5,000/- are depreciated in full in the year of acquisition. Assets acquired on finance leases are depreciated over the period of the lease agreement or the useful life whichever is shorter. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over their estimated useful life, or the remaining period of lease, whichever is shorter.

Gains or losses from disposal of tangible fixed assets are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

e) Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are recorded at the consideration paid for acquisition including any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable by the enterprise from the taxing authorities), and any directly attributable expenditure in making the asset ready for its intended use.

Intangible assets are amortised on a systematic basis over the best estimate of their useful lives, commencing from the date the asset is available to the Company for its use.

The Management estimates the useful lives for the various intangible assets as follows:

An intangible asset is derecognised on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use and disposal. Gains or losses arising from the disposal of intangible assets are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

f) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than 12 months from the date of acquisition are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as non current investments.

Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value. The comparison of cost and fair value is done separately in respect of each category of investment.

Non current investments are carried at cost less any other-than-temporary diminution in value, determined separately for each individual investment. The reduction in the carrying amount is reversed when there is a rise in the value of the investment or if the reasons for the reduction no longer exist. Any reduction in the carrying amount and any reversal in such reductions are charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

g) Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Net realisable value (NRV) is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of the business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. Cost of inventories comprises all cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. The cost of all categories of inventory is determined using weighted average cost method.

h) Research and development

Expenditure on research activities undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding is recognized as expense in the statement of profit and loss when incurred.

Development activities involve a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes. Development expenditure is capitalized only if:

- development costs can be measured reliably;

- the product or process is technically and commercially feasible;

- future economic benefits are probable; and

- the Company intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and has the ability to use or sell the asset.

Expenditure incurred on fixed assets used for research and development is capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the depreciation policy of the Company.

i) Employee benefits Defined benefit plans

The liability in respect of defined benefit plans and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the projected unit credit method and spread over the period during which the benefit is expected to be derived from employees'' services, consistent with the advice of qualified actuaries. The long term obligations are measured at present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at rates reflecting the yields on risk free government bonds that have maturity dates approximating the terms of the Company''s obligations. Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are expensed as the related service is provided.

All actuarial gains and losses arising during the year are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Defined contribution plans

The Company''s contributions to defined contribution plans are charged to profit or loss as and when the services are received from the employees.

Compensated leave of absence

The Company provides for accumulation of compensated absences by certain categories of its employees. These employees can carry forward a portion of the unutilized compensated absences and utilize it in future periods or receive cash in lieu thereof as per Company policy. The Company records an obligation for compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increases this entitlement. The measurement of such obligation is based on actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date carried out by a qualified actuary.

Employee stock option schemes

In accordance with the SEBI guidelines, the cost is calculated based on intrinsic value method i.e. the excess of the market price of shares, at the date prior to the day of grant of options under the Employee stock option schemes, over the exercise price is treated as employee compensation and amortised over the vesting period.

j) Foreign currency transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are recorded using the exchange rates prevailing on the dates of the respective transactions. Exchange differences arising on foreign currency transactions settled during the year are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies as at the balance sheet date are translated using the foreign exchange rates as at the balance sheet date. The resultant exchange differences are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Non monetary assets and liabilities are carried at the rates prevailing on the date of transaction.

Exchange differences arising on a monetary item that, in substance, forms part of the Company''s net investment in a non integral foreign operation are accumulated in a foreign currency translation reserve in the Company''s financial statements. Such exchange differences are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the event of disposal of the net investment.

k) Derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Company uses foreign exchange forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts (derivatives) to mitigate its risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates and does not use them for trading or speculative purposes.

The premium or discount on foreign exchange forward contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. The exchange difference is calculated and recorded in accordance with AS-11 (revised) in the statement of profit and loss. The changes in the fair value of foreign currency option and swap contracts are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they arise. Fair value of such option and swap contracts is determined based on the appropriate valuation techniques considering the terms of the contract.

Pursuant to ICAI Announcement "Accounting for Derivatives" on the early adoption of Accounting Standard AS-30 "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement", the Company has adopted the Standard, to the extent that the adoption does not conflict with existing mandatory accounting standards and other authoritative pronouncements, Company law and other regulatory requirements.

Cash flow hedges

The Company classifies its derivative contracts that hedge foreign currency risk associated with highly probable forecasted transactions as cash flow hedges and measures them at fair value. The effective portion of such cash flow hedges is recorded as part of reserves and surplus within the Company''s "hedging reserve", and re-classified into the statement of profit and loss as revenue in the period corresponding to the occurrence of the forecasted transactions. The ineffective portion is immediately recorded in the statement of profit and loss.

The Company also designates certain non derivative financial liabilities, such as foreign currency borrowings from banks, as hedging instruments for the hedge of foreign currency risk associated with highly probable forecasted transactions and, accordingly, applies cash flow hedge accounting for such relationships. Re-measurement gain/loss on such non derivative financial liabilities is recorded as part of reserves and surplus within the Company''s "hedging reserve", and re-classified in the statement of profit and loss as revenue in the period corresponding to the occurrence of the forecasted transactions.

If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, gets expired or is sold, terminated or exercised before the occurrence of the forecasted transaction, the hedge accounting on such transaction is discontinued prospectively. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in hedging reserve continues to remain there until the forecasted transaction occurs. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the balance in hedging reserve is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

l) Revenue recognition Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when significant risks and rewards in respect of ownership of products are transferred to customers. Revenue from domestic sales of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates is recognized on delivery of products to customers from the factories of the Company. Revenue from domestic sales of formulation products is recognized upon delivery of products to stockists by clearing and forwarding agents of the Company. Revenue from export sales is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of products are transferred to the customers, which is based upon the terms of the applicable contract.

Revenue from product sales is net of returns, sales tax and applicable trade discounts and allowances.

Service Income

Service income is recognised as per the terms of contracts with customers when the related services are performed, or the agreed milestones are achieved.

License fee

The Company enters into certain dossier sales, licensing and supply arrangements with various parties. Some of these arrangements include certain performance obligations by the Company. Revenue from such arrangements is recognized in the period in which the Company completes all its performance obligations.

Dividend and interest income

Dividend income is recognised when the unconditional right to receive the income is established. Income from interest on deposits, loans and interest bearing securities is recognised on the time proportionate method.

Export entitlements

Export entitlements are recognised as reduction from cost of material consumed when the right to receive credit as per the terms of the scheme is established in respect of the exports made and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.

m) Income tax expense

Income tax expense comprises current tax and deferred tax charge or credit.

Current tax

The current charge for income taxes is calculated in accordance with the relevant tax regulations applicable to the Company.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax charge or credit reflects the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period. The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax consequences of timing differences that originate in the tax holiday period and reverse after the tax holiday period are recognised in the period in which the timing differences originate. Timing differences that originate and reverse within the tax holiday period are not considered for deferred tax purposes.

Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date and are written-down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably/virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset where the Company has a legally enforceable right to set-off assets against liabilities representing current tax.

n) Earnings per share

The basic earnings per share ("EPS") is computed by dividing the profit after tax for the year by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, profit after tax for the year and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares. The dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The diluted potential equity shares have been adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding shares).

o) provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are recognised at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. Provisions are measured on an undiscounted basis.

Sales returns

The Company accounts for sales returns by recording an allowance for sales returns concurrent with the recognition of revenue at the time of a product sale. This allowance is based on the Company''s estimate of expected sales returns. The estimate of sales returns is determined primarily by the Company''s historical experience in the markets in which the Company operates.

Contingencies

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made. Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise, the asset and related income are recognised in the period in which the change occurs.

p) Impairment of assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset.

For the purpose of impairment testing, assets are grouped together into the smallest group of assets (Cash Generating Unit or CGU) that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or CGUs.

The recoverable amount of an asset or CGU is the greater of its value in use and its net selling price.

If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that if a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of amortised historical cost.

q) Leases

The lease arrangement is classified as either a finance lease or an operating lease, at the inception of the lease, based on the substance of the lease arrangement.

Finance leases

A finance lease is a lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incident to ownership of an asset. A finance lease is recognized as an asset and a liability at the commencement of the lease, at the lower of the fair value of the asset and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Initial direct costs, if any, are also capitalized and, subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to that asset. Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance expense and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance expense is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

Operating leases

Other leases are operating leases, and the leased assets are not recognized on the Company''s balance sheet. Payments made under operating leases are recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.


Mar 31, 2012

A) Basis of preparation

The financial statements of Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited ('DRL" or "the Company") have been prepared and presented in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis. GAAP comprises accounting standards notified by the Central Government of India under Section 211 (3C) of the Companies Act, 1956, other pronouncements of Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the provisions of Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by Securities and Exchange Board of India. The financial statements are rounded off to the nearest million.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the year. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

c) fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are carried at the cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation. The cost of fixed assets includes non-refundable taxes, duties, freight and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of those fixed assets which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided using the straight-line method at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or based on the useful life of the assets as estimated by Management, whichever is higher. Depreciation is calculated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed. Individual assets costing less than Rs 5,000/- are depreciated in full in the year of acquisition. Assets acquired on finance leases are depreciated over the period of the lease agreement or the useful life whichever is shorter.

d) Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are recorded at the consideration paid for acquisition. Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available to the Company for its use. The management estimates the useful lives for the various intangible assets as follows:

e) Investments

Non-current investments are carried at cost less any other-than-temporary diminution in value, determined separately for each individual investment. The reduction in the carrying amount is reversed when there is a rise in the value of the investment or if the reasons for the reduction no longer exist.

Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value. The comparison of cost and fair value is done separately in respect of each category of investment.

f) Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises all cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Effective as of 1 April 2011, the Company has changed its policy on valuation of inventory from the first-in first-out method (FIFO) to the weighted average cost method (WAC). Under the prior policy, the cost of all categories of inventories, except stores and spares, had been based on the first-in first-out method. Stores and spares consists of packing materials, engineering spares (such as machinery spare parts) and consumables (such as lubricants, cotton waste and oils), which are used in operating machines or consumed as indirect materials in the manufacturing process, had been valued at cost based on a weighted average method. Effective as of 1 April 2011, the cost of all categories of inventory is based on a weighted average cost method. Using the weighted average method will produce more accurate, reasonable and relevant information on the amounts of inventory reported in the balance sheet and, in turn, more accurate material consumption reported in the statement of profit and loss. The effect of this change in the methodology of valuation of inventory is immaterial and, accordingly, no further disclosures have been made in these financial statements.

g) Research and development

Expenditures on research activities undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding are recognized as expense in the statement of profit and loss when incurred.

Development activities involve a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes. Development expenditures are capitalized only if:

- development costs can be measured reliably,

- the product or process is technically and commercially feasible,

- future economic benefits are probable and ascertainable, and

- the Company intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and has the ability to use or sell the asset.

Expenditure incurred on fixed assets used for research and development is capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the depreciation policy of the Company.

h) Employee benefits Defined contribution plan

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which an entity pays fixed contributions into a separate entity and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. Obligations for contributions to recognized provident funds and approved superannuation schemes which are defined contribution plans are recognized as an employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss as and when the services are received from the employees.

Defined benefit plans

A defined benefit plan is a post-employment benefit plan other than a defined contribution plan. The Company's net obligation in respect of an approved gratuity plan, which is a defined benefit plan, and certain other defined benefit plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods; that benefit is discounted to determine its present value. Any unrecognized past service costs and the fair value of any plan assets are deducted. The discount rate is the yield at the reporting date on risk free government bonds that have maturity dates approximating the terms of the Company's obligations and that are denominated in the same currency in which the benefits are expected to be paid. The calculation is performed annually by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method.

Contributions payable to an approved gratuity fund determined by an independent actuary at the balance sheet date are charged to the statement of profit and loss. All actuarial gains and losses arising during the year are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Provision for compensated absences is made on the basis of actuarial valuation at the balance sheet date.

Employee stock option schemes

In accordance with the Securities and Exchange Board of India guidelines, the excess of the market price of shares, at the date of grant of options under the Employee stock option schemes, over the exercise price is treated as employee compensation and amortised over the vesting period.

i) Foreign currency transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are recorded using the exchange rates prevailing on the dates of the respective transactions. Exchange differences arising on foreign currency transactions settled during the year are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies as at the balance sheet date are translated using the foreign exchange rates as at the balance sheet date. The resultant exchange differences are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Non-monetary assets and liabilities are not translated.

Exchange differences arising on a monetary item that, in substance, forms part of an enterprise's net investment in a non-integral foreign operation are accumulated in a foreign currency translation reserve in the enterprise's financial statements. Such exchange differences are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the event of disposal of the net investment.

j) Derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Company uses foreign exchange forward contracts and option contracts (derivatives) to mitigate its risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates and does not use them for trading or speculative purposes.

The premium or discount on foreign exchange forward contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. The exchange difference is calculated and recorded in accordance with AS-11 (revised). The exchange difference on such a forward exchange contract is calculated as the difference of the foreign currency amount of the contract translated at the exchange rate at the reporting date, or the settlement date where the transaction is settled during the reporting period and the corresponding foreign currency amount translated at the later of the date of inception of the forward exchange contract and the last reporting date. Such exchange differences are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the reporting period in which the exchange rates change. The changes in the fair value of foreign currency option contracts are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they arise. Fair value of such option contracts is determined based on the appropriate valuation techniques considering the terms of the contract.

Pursuant to ICAI Announcement "Accounting for Derivatives" on the early adoption of Accounting Standard AS-30 "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement", the Company has adopted the Standard, to the extent that the adoption does not conflict with existing mandatory accounting standards and other authoritative pronouncements, Company law and other regulatory requirements.

Cashflow hedges

The Company classifies its option and forward contracts that hedge highly probable forecasted transactions as cash flow hedges and measures them at fair value. The effective portion of such cash flow hedges is recorded as part of reserves and surplus within the Company's "hedging reserve", and re-classified in the statement of profit and loss as revenue in the period corresponding to the occurrence of the forecasted transactions. The ineffective portion is immediately recorded in the statement of profit and loss.

The Company also designates certain non-derivative financial liabilities, such as foreign currency borrowings from banks, as hedging instruments for the hedge of foreign currency risk associated with highly probable forecasted transactions and, accordingly, applies cash flow hedge accounting for such relationships. Re-measurement gain / loss on such non-derivative financial liabilities is recorded as a part of reserves and surplus within the Company's "hedging reserve", and re-classified in the statement of profit and loss as revenue in the period corresponding to the occurrence of the forecasted transactions.

If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, gets expired or is sold, terminated or exercised before the occurrence of the forecasted transaction, the hedge accounting on such transaction is discontinued prospectively. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in hedging reserve continues to remain there until the forecasted transaction occurs. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the balance in hedging reserve is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Fair value hedges

The Company uses derivative financial instruments to hedge its exposure to changes in the fair value of firm commitment contracts and measures them at fair value. Any amount representing changes in the fair value of such derivative financial instruments is recorded in the statement of profit and loss. The corresponding gain / loss representing the changes in the fair value of the hedged item attributable to hedged risk is also recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

k) Revenue recognition Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when significant risks and rewards in respect of ownership of products are transferred to customers. Revenue from domestic sales of generic products is recognized upon delivery of products to stockists by clearing and forwarding agents of the Company. Revenue from domestic sales of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates is recognized on delivery of products to customers, from the factories of the Company. Revenue from export sales is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of products are transferred to the customers, which is based upon the terms of the applicable contract.

Revenue from product sales is stated exclusive of returns, sales tax and applicable trade discounts and allowances.

Service Income

Service income is recognised as per the terms of contracts with customers when the related services are performed, or the agreed milestones are achieved.

License fee

The Company enters into certain dossier sales, licensing and supply arrangements with certain third parties. These arrangements include certain performance obligations by the Company. Revenue from such arrangements is recognized in the period in which the Company completes all its performance obligations.

Dividend and interest income

Dividend income is recognised when the unconditional right to receive the income is established. Income from interest on deposits, loans and interest bearing securities is recognised on the time proportionate method.

Export entitlements

Export entitlements are recognised as reduction from material consumption when the right to receive credit as per the terms of the scheme is established in respect of the exports made and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.

l) Income tax expense

Income tax expense comprises current tax and deferred tax charge or credit.

Current tax

The current charge for income taxes is calculated in accordance with the relevant tax regulations applicable to the Company.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax charge or credit reflects the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period. The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date and is written-down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised. The break-up of the major components of the deferred tax assets and liabilities as at balance sheet date has been arrived at after setting off deferred tax assets and liabilities where the Company has a legally enforceable right to set-off assets against liabilities and where such assets and liabilities relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing taxation laws.

m) Earnings per share

The basic earnings per share ("EPS") is computed by dividing the net profit after tax for the year by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, net profit after tax for the year and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares. The dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The diluted potential equity shares have been adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding shares).

n) provisions and contingent liabilities

The Company creates a provision when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

o) Impairment of assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that if a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of amortised historical cost.

p) Leases

The lease arrangement is classified as either a finance lease or an operating lease, at the inception of the lease, based on the substance of the lease arrangement. Finance leases

Finance leases

A finance lease is recognized as an asset and a liability at the commencement of the lease, at the lower of the fair value of the asset and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Initial direct costs, if any, are also capitalized and, subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to that asset. Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance expense and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance expense is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

Operating leases

Other leases are operating leases, and the leased assets are not recognized on the Company's balance sheet. Payments made under operating leases are recognized in statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.


Mar 31, 2011

A) Basis of preparation

The financial statements of Dr. Reddys Laboratories Limited ("DRL" or "the Company") have been prepared and presented in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis. GAAP comprises accounting standards notifed by the Central Government of India under Section 211 (3C) of the Companies Act, 1956, other pronouncements of Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the provisions of Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by Securities and Exchange Board of India. The financial statements are rounded off to the nearest million.

b) use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the year. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

c) fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are carried at the cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation. The cost of fixed assets includes non-refundable taxes, duties, freight and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of those fixed assets which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each balance sheet date and the cost of fixed assets not ready for their intended use before such date are disclosed under capital work-in-progress.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided using the straight-line method at the rates specifed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or based on the useful life of the assets as estimated by Management, whichever is higher. Depreciation is calculated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed. Individual assets costing less than Rs. 5,000/- are depreciated in full in the year of acquisition. Assets acquired on fnance leases are depreciated over the period of the lease agreement or the useful life whichever is shorter.

e) investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less any other-than-temporary diminution in value, determined separately for each individual investment. The reduction in the carrying amount is reversed when there is a rise in the value of the investment or if the reasons for the reduction no longer exist.

Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value. The comparison of cost and fair value is done separately in respect of each category of investment.

f) inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises all cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

The methods of determining cost of various categories of inventories are as follows:

Raw materials First-in-first-out (FIFO) Stores and spares and packing materials Weighted average method Work-in-process and fnished goods (manufactured) FIFO and including an appropriate share of production overheads Finished goods (traded) Specifc identifcation method

g) research and development

Revenue expenditure on research and development is expensed as incurred. Capital expenditure incurred on research and development is capitalised as fixed assets and depreciated in accordance with the depreciation policy of the Company.

h) employee benefts

Contributions payable to an approved gratuity fund (a defned beneft plan), determined by an independent actuary at the balance sheet date, are charged to the Profit and loss account. Provision for compensated absences is made on the basis of actuarial valuation at the balance sheet date, carried out by an independent actuary. Contributions payable to the recognised provident fund and approved superannuation scheme, which are defned contribution schemes, are charged to the Profit and loss account. All actuarial gains and losses arising during the year are recognized in the Profit and loss account of the year.

i) foreign currency transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are recorded using the exchange rates prevailing on the dates of the respective transactions. Exchange differences arising on foreign currency transactions settled during the year are recognised in the Profit and loss account.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies as at the balance sheet date, not covered by forward exchange contracts, are translated at year-end rates. The resultant exchange differences are recognised in the Profit and loss account. Non-monetary assets are recorded at the rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

Income and expenditure items at representative offces are translated at the respective monthly average rates. Monetary assets at representative offces at the balance sheet date are translated using the year-end rates. Non-monetary assets are recorded at the rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

Forward contracts are entered into to hedge the foreign currency risk of the underlying outstanding at the balance sheet date. The premium or discount on all such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Any Profit or loss arising on the cancellation or renewal of forward contracts is recognised as income or expense for the period.

In relation to the forward contracts entered into to hedge the foreign currency risk of the underlying outstanding at the balance sheet date, the exchange difference is calculated and recorded in accordance with AS-11 (revised). The exchange difference on such a forward exchange contract is calculated as the difference of the foreign currency amount of the contract translated at the exchange rate at the reporting date, or the settlement date where the transaction is settled during the reporting period and the corresponding foreign currency amount translated at the later of the date of inception of the forward exchange contract and the last reporting date. Such exchange differences are recognized in the Profit and loss account in the reporting period in which the exchange rates change.

Exchange differences arising on a monetary item that, in substance, forms part of an enterprises net investment in a non-integral foreign operation has been accumulated in a foreign currency translation reserve in the enterprises financial statements until the disposal of the net investment, at which time they should be recognised as income or as expense.

j) derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Company uses foreign exchange forward contracts and options to hedge its movements in foreign exchange rates and does not use the foreign exchange forward contracts and options for trading or speculative purposes.

Pursuant to ICAI Announcement "Accounting for Derivatives" on the early adoption of Accounting Standard AS-30 "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement", the Company has adopted the Standard, to the extent that the adoption does not confict with existing mandatory accounting standards and other authoritative pronouncements, Company law and other regulatory requirements.

The Company classifes foreign currency options in respect of the forecasted transactions at the inception of each contract meeting the hedging criterion, as cash fow hedges. Changes in the fair value of options classifed as cash fow hedges are recognised directly in reserves and surplus (under the head "Hedging Reserves") and are reclassifed into the Profit and loss account upon the occurrence of the hedged transaction. The gains / losses on options designated as cash fow hedges are included along with the underlying hedged forecasted transactions. The exchange differences relating to options not designated as cash fow hedges are recognised in the Profit and loss account as they arise. Further, the changes in fair value relating to the ineffective portion of the cash fow hedges are recognised in the Profit and loss account as they arise.

Fair value of foreign currency option contracts is determined based on the appropriate valuation techniques considering the terms of the contract.

In addition to the use of derivative financial instruments to hedge foreign currency exposure, the Company designates certain non-derivative financial liabilities, denominated in foreign currencies, as hedges against foreign currency exposures associated with forecasted transactions. Accordingly, exchange differences arising on re-measurement of such non-derivative liabilities are recognized directly as part of hedging reserve included as part of reserves and surplus, to the extent that the hedge is effective.

If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in hedging reserve remains there until the forecast transaction occurs. If the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, then the balance in hedging reserve is recognized immediately in Profit and loss account. In other cases the amount recognized in hedging reserve is transferred to Profit and loss account in the same period that the hedged item affects Profit and loss account.

k) revenue recognition

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when significant risks and rewards in respect of ownership of products are transferred to customers. Revenue from domestic sales of generic products is recognized upon delivery of products to stockists by clearing and forwarding agents of the Company. Revenue from domestic sales of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates is recognized on delivery of products to customers, from the factories of the Company. Revenue from export sales is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of products are transferred to the customers, which is based upon the terms of the applicable contract.

Revenue from product sales is stated exclusive of returns, sales tax and applicable trade discounts and allowances.

Service income is recognised as per the terms of contracts with customers when the related services are performed, or the agreed milestones are achieved.

Dividend income is recognised when the unconditional right to receive the income is established. Income from interest on deposits, loans and interest bearing securities is recognised on the time proportionate method.

Export entitlements are recognised as income when the right to receive credit as per the terms of the scheme is established in respect of the exports made and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.

The Company enters into certain dossier sales, licensing and supply arrangements with certain third parties. These arrangements include certain performance obligations by the Company. Revenue from such arrangements is recognized in the period in which the Company completes all its performance obligations.

l) income-tax expense

Income tax expense comprises current tax and deferred tax charge or credit.

Current tax

The current charge for income taxes is calculated in accordance with the relevant tax regulations applicable to the Company.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax charge or credit refects the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period. The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date and is written-down or written-up to refect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised. The break-up of the major components of the deferred tax assets and liabilities as at balance sheet date has been arrived at after setting off deferred tax assets and liabilities where the Company has a legally enforceable right to set-off assets against liabilities and where such assets and liabilities relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing taxation laws.

m) earnings per share

The basic earnings per share ("EPS") is computed by dividing the net Profit after tax for the year by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, net Profit after tax for the year and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares. The dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The diluted potential equity shares have been adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding shares).

n) employee stock option schemes

In accordance with the Securities and Exchange Board of India guidelines, the excess of the market price of shares, at the date of grant of options under the Employee stock option schemes, over the exercise price is treated as employee compensation and amortised over the vesting period.

o) Provisions and contingent liabilities

The Company creates a provision when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outfow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outfow of resources. Where there is possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outfow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

p) impairment of assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the Profit and loss account. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that if a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is refected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost.

q) leases

Assets taken on lease where the company acquires substantially the entire risks and rewards incidental to ownership are classifed as fnance leases. The amount recorded is the lesser of the present value of minimum lease rental and other incidental expenses during the lease term or the fair value of the assets taken on lease. The rental obligations, net of interest charges, are refected as secured loans. Leases that do not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classifed as operating leases and recorded as expense as and when the payments are made over the lease term.


Mar 31, 2010

A) Basis of preparation

The financial statements of Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Limited (“DRL” or “the Company”) have been prepared and presented in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis. GAAP comprises accounting standards notified by the Central Government of India under Section 211 (3C) of the Companies Act, 1956, other pronouncements of Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the provisions of Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by Securities and Exchange Board of India. The financial statements are rounded off to the nearest million.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the year. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

c) Fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are carried at the cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation. The cost of fixed assets includes non-refundable taxes, duties, freight and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of those fixed assets which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each balance sheet date and the cost of fixed assets not ready for their intended use before such date are disclosed under capital work-in-progress.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided using the straight-line method at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or based on the useful life of the assets as estimated by Management, whichever is higher. Depreciation is calculated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed. Individual assets costing less than Rs. 5,000/- are depreciated in full in the year of acquisition. Assets acquired on finance leases are depreciated over the period of the lease agreement or the useful life whichever is shorter.

e) Investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less any other-than-temporary diminution in value, determined separately for each individual investment. The reduction in the carrying amount is reversed when there is a rise in the value of the investment or if the reasons for the reduction no longer exist.

Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value. The comparison of cost and fair value is done separately in respect of each category of investment.

f) Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises all cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition

The methods of determining cost of various categories of inventories are as follows:

Raw materials First-in-first-out (FIFO)

Stores and spares and packing materials Weighted average method

Work-in-process and finished goods (manufactured) FIFO and including an appropriate share of production overheads

Finished goods (traded) Specific identification method

g) Research and development

Revenue expenditure on research and development is expensed as incurred. Capital expenditure incurred on research and development is capitalised as fixed assets and depreciated in accordance with the depreciation policy of the Company.

h) Employee benefits

Contributions payable to an approved gratuity fund (a defined benefit plan), determined by an independent actuary at the balance sheet date, are charged to the Profit and Loss Account. Provision for compensated absences is made on the basis of actuarial valuation at the balance sheet date, carried out by an independent actuary. Contributions payable to the recognised provident fund and approved superannuation scheme, which are defined contribution schemes, are charged to the Profit and Loss Account. All actuarial gains and losses arising during the year are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account of the year

i) Foreign currency transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are recorded using the exchange rates prevailing on the dates of the respective transactions. Exchange differences arising on foreign currency transactions settled during the year are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies as at the balance sheet date, not covered by forward exchange contracts, are translated at year- end rates. The resultant exchange differences are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account. Non-monetary assets are recorded at the rates prevailing on the date of the transaction

Income and expenditure items at representative offices are translated at the respective monthly average rates. Monetary assets at representative offices at the balance sheet date are translated using the year-end rates. Non-monetary assets are recorded at the rates prevailing on the date of the transaction

Forward contracts are entered into to hedge the foreign currency risk of the underlying outstanding at the balance sheet date. The premium or discount on all such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Any profit or loss arising on the cancellation or renewal of forward contracts is recognised as income or expense for the period

In relation to the forward contracts entered into to hedge the foreign currency risk of the underlying outstanding at the balance sheet date, the exchange difference is calculated and recorded in accordance with AS-11 (revised). The exchange difference on such a forward exchange contract is calculated as the difference of the foreign currency amount of the contract translated at the exchange rate at the reporting date, or the settlement date where the transaction is settled during the reporting period and the corresponding foreign currency amount translated at the later of the date of inception of the forward exchange contract and the last reporting date. Such exchange differences are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account in the reporting period in which the exchange rates change

Exchange differences arising on a monetary item that, in substance, forms part of an enterprise’s net investment in a non-integral foreign operation has been accumulated in a foreign currency translation reserve in the enterprise’s financial statements until the disposal of the net investment, at which time they should be recognised as income or as expense.

j) Derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Company uses foreign exchange forward contracts and options to hedge its movements in foreign exchange rates and does not use the foreign exchange forward contracts and options for trading or speculative purposes.

Pursuant to ICAI Announcement “Accounting for Derivatives” on the early adoption of Accounting Standard AS-30 “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement”, the Company has adopted the Standard, to the extent that the adoption does not conflict with existing mandatory accounting standards and other authoritative pronouncements, Company law and other regulatory requirements.

The Company classifies foreign currency options in respect of the forecasted transactions at the inception of each contract meeting the hedging criterion, as cash flow hedges. Changes in the fair value of options classified as cash flow hedges are recognised directly in shareholders’ funds (under the head “Hedging Reserves”) and are reclassified into the Profit and Loss Account upon the occurrence of the hedged transaction. The gains / losses on options designated as cash flow hedges are included along with the underlying hedged forecasted transactions. The exchange differences relating to options not designated as cash flow hedges are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account as they arise. Further, the changes in fair value relating to the ineffective portion of the cash flow hedges are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account as they arise.

k) Revenue recognition

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when significant risks and rewards in respect of ownership of products are transferred to customers. Revenue from domestic sales of generic products is recognized upon delivery of products to stockists by clearing and forwarding agents of the Company. Revenue from domestic sales of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates is recognized on delivery of products to customers, from the factories of the Company. Revenue from export sales is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of products are transferred to the customers, which is based upon the terms of the applicable contract.

Revenue from product sales is stated exclusive of returns, sales tax and applicable trade discounts and allowances.

Service income is recognised as per the terms of contracts with customers when the related services are performed, or the agreed milestones are achieved.

Dividend income is recognised when the unconditional right to receive the income is established. Income from interest on deposits, loans and interest bearing securities is recognised on the time proportionate method.

Export entitlements are recognised as income when the right to receive credit as per the terms of the scheme is established in respect of the exports made and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.

The Company enters into certain dossier sales, licensing and supply arrangements with certain third parties. These arrangements include certain performance obligations by the Company. Revenue from such arrangements is recognized in the period in which the Company completes all its performance obligations.

l) Income-tax expense

Income tax expense comprises current tax and deferred tax charge or credit.

Current tax

The current charge for income taxes is calculated in accordance with the relevant tax regulations applicable to the Company.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax charge or credit reflects the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period. The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date and is written-down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised. The break-up of the major components of the deferred tax assets and liabilities as at balance sheet date has been arrived at after setting off deferred tax assets and liabilities where the Company has a legally enforceable right to set-off assets against liabilities and where such assets and liabilities relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing taxation laws.

m) Earnings per share

The basic earnings per share (“EPS”) is computed by dividing the net profit after tax for the year by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, net profit after tax for the year and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares. The dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The diluted potential equity shares have been adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding shares).

n) Employee stock option schemes

In accordance with the Securities and Exchange Board of India guidelines, the excess of the market price of shares, at the date of grant of options under the Employee stock option schemes, over the exercise price is treated as employee compensation and amortised over the vesting period.

o) Provisions and contingent liabilities

The Company creates a provision when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

p) Impairment of assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that if a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost.

q) Leases

Assets taken on lease where the company acquires substantially the entire risks and rewards incidental to ownership are classified as finance leases. The amount recorded is the lesser of the present value of minimum lease rental and other incidental expenses during the lease term or the fair value of the assets taken on lease. The rental obligations, net of interest charges, are reflected as secured loans. Leases that do not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as operating leases and recorded as expense as and when the payments are made over the lease term.

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