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Accounting Policies of EID Parry (India) Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2017

Corporate information

E.I.D. Parry is a significant player in Sugar with interests in promising areas of Bio Pesticides and Nutraceuticals. The company also has a significant presence in Farm Inputs business through its subsidiary, Coromandel International Limited.

EID Parry together with its subsidiaries has nine sugar factories having a capacity to crush 43,400 Tonnes of Cane per day, generate 160 MW of power and four distilleries having a capacity of 234 KLPD. In the Bio Pesticides business, the Company offers an unique neem extract, Azadirachtin, having a good demand in the developed countries’ bio pesticide markets. In the Nutraceuticals business, it holds a strong position in the growing wellness segment mainly catering to the world markets with its organic products.

Application of new and revised Ind AS

In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows’ and Ind AS 102, ‘Share-based payment’. The amendments are applicable to the Company from April 01, 2017.

Amendment to Ind AS 7

The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement.

The Company is currently evaluating the requirements of the amendment and has not yet determined the impact on the financial statements.

Amendment to Ind AS 102

The amendment to Ind AS 102 provides specific guidance to measurement of cash-settled awards, modification of cash-settled awards and awards that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes.

It clarifies that the fair value of cash-settled awards is determined on a basis consistent with that used for equity-settled awards. Market-based performance conditions and non-vesting conditions are reflected in the ‘fair values’, but non-market performance conditions and service vesting conditions are reflected in the estimate of the number of awards expected to vest. Also, the amendment clarifies that if the terms and conditions of a cash-settled share-based payment transaction are modified with the result that it becomes an equity-settled share-based payment transaction, the transaction is accounted for as such from the date of the modification. Further, the amendment requires the awards that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes to be treated as equity-settled in its entirety. The cash payment to the tax authority is treated as if it was part of an equity settlement.

The Company has not issued any awards that are cash-settled or which have net settlement feature.”

SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

1.1 Statement of Compliance

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Ind ASs notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015.

Up to the year ended March 31, 2016, the company prepared its financial statements in accordance with the requirements of previous GAAP, which includes Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006. These are the Company’s first Ind AS financial statements. The date of transition to Ind AS is April 1, 2015. Refer Note 1.23 for the details of first-time adoption exemptions availed by the Company.

1.2 Basis of preparation and presentation

The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies below.

Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Fair value for measurement and/or disclosure purposes in these financial statements is determined on such a basis, except for share-based payment transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 102, leasing transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 17, and measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as net realizable value in Ind AS 2 or value in use in Ind AS 36.

In addition, for financial reporting purposes, fair value measurements are categorized into Level 1, 2, or 3 based on the degree to which the inputs to the fair value measurements are observable and the significance of the inputs to the fair value measurement in its entirety, which are described as follows:

- Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date;

- Level 2 inputs are inputs, other than quoted prices included within Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; and

- Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability. The principal accounting policies are set out below.

1.3 Revenue Recognition

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Revenue is reduced for estimated customer returns, rebates and other similar allowances.

a. Sale of goods

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognized when the goods are dispatched and titles have passed, at which time all the following conditions are satisfied:

- the company has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods;

- the company retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold;

- the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;

- it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the company; and

- the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.

In barter transaction, revenue is recognized at fair value of the goods given up when the goods are dispatched.

b. Rendering of services

Revenue from a contract to provide services is recognized by reference to the stage of completion of the contract. The stage of completion of the contract is determined based on the agreements/ arrangements with the concerned parties and when services are rendered.

c. Dividend and interest income

a). Dividend income from investments is recognized when the shareholder’s right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).

b). Interest income from a financial asset is recognized when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.

d Insurance Claims

Insurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted/ expected to be admitted and to the extent that the amount recoverable can be measured reliably and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection.

e. Export Incentives

Export incentive under Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme are treated as income in the year of export at the estimated realizable value.

1.4 Leasing

Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

Company as Lessee

The Company’s significant leasing arrangements are in respect of operating leases for premises that are cancelable in nature. The lease rentals under such agreements are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as per the terms of the lease.

Rental expense from operating leases is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease or based on the time pattern of user benefit basis. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the less or’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognized in the year in which such benefits accrue. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

In the event that lease incentives are received to enter into operating leases, such incentives are recognized as a liability. The aggregate benefit of incentives is recognized as a reduction of rental expense on a straight-line basis, except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed.

Company as Less or

The Company’s significant leasing arrangements are in respect of operating leases for premises that are cancelable in nature. The lease rentals under such agreements are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as per the terms of the lease.

Rental income from operating leases is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the Company’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognized in the year in which such benefits accrue. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

1.5 Functional and presentation currency and Foreign Currency Transactions

Items included in the financial statements of the Company are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which these entities operate (i.e. the “functional currency”). The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee (''), the national currency of India, which is the functional currency of the Company.

In preparing the financial statements of the company, transactions in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency (foreign currencies) are recognized at the rates of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at that date. Non-monetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated

Exchange differences on monetary items are recognized in profit or loss in the period in which they arise except for :

- Exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings;

- Exchange differences on transactions entered into in order to hedge certain foreign currency risks (see note 1.21 below for hedging accounting policies); and

- Exchange differences on monetary items receivable from or payable to a foreign operation for which settlement is neither planned nor likely to occur (therefore forming part of the net investment in the foreign operation), which are recognized initially in other comprehensive income and reclassified from equity to profit or loss on repayment of the monetary items.

1.6 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale. Interest income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalization. All other borrowing costs are recognized in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.

1.7 Government grants

Government grants are not recognized until there is reasonable assurance that the company will comply with the conditions attaching to them and that the grants will be received.

Government grants are recognized in profit or loss on a systematic basis over the periods in which the company recognises as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate. Specifically, government grants whose primary condition is that the company should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire noncurrent assets are recognized as deferred revenue in the balance sheet and transferred to profit or loss on a systematic and rational basis over the useful lives of the related assets.

Government grants that are receivable as compensation for expenses or losses already incurred or for the purpose of giving immediate financial support to the company with no future related costs are recognized in profit or loss in the period in which they become receivable.

The benefit of a government loan at a below-market rate of interest is treated as a government grant, measured as the difference between proceeds received and the fair value of the loan based on prevailing market interest rates.

In respect of government loans at below-market rate of interest existing on the date of transition, the Company has availed the optional exemption under Ind AS 101 - First Time Adoption and has not recognized the corresponding benefit of the government loan at below-market interest rate as Government grant.

1.8 Employee Benefits

(a) Retirement benefit costs and termination benefits

Payments to defined contribution retirement benefit plans are recognized as an expense when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contributions.

For defined benefit retirement benefit plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period.

Defined benefit costs are categorized as follows:

- Service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements);

- net interest expense or income; and

- Re-measurement

The company presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in profit or loss in the line item ‘Employee benefits expense’.

Past service cost is recognized in profit or loss in the period of a plan amendment.

Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset.

Re-measurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest), is reflected immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit recognized in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Re-measurement recognized in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and is not reclassified to profit or loss.

Curtailment gains and losses are accounted for as past service costs. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the balance sheet represents the actual deficit or surplus in the Company’s defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans.

Contributions paid/payable to defined contribution plans comprising of Superannuation (under a scheme of Life Insurance Corporation of India) and Provident Funds for certain employees covered under the respective Schemes are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss each year.

The Company makes contributions to Provident Fund Trusts for certain employees, at a specified percentage of the employees’ salary. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investments of trust and the notified interest rates

A liability for a termination benefit is recognized at the earlier of when the entity can no longer withdraw the offer of the termination benefit and when the entity recognizes any related restructuring costs.

(b) Short-term and other long-term employee benefits

A liability is recognized for benefits accruing to employees in respect of wages and salaries in the period the related service is rendered.

Liabilities recognized in respect of short-term employee benefits are measured at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the related service.

Liabilities recognized in respect of other long-term employee benefits are measured at the present value of the estimated future cash outflows expected to be made by the Company in respect of services provided by employees up to the reporting date.

Gratuity for certain employees is covered under a Scheme of Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and contributions in respect of such scheme are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The liability as at the Balance Sheet date is provided for based on the actuarial valuation carried out as at the end of the year.

1.9 Share-based payment arrangements

Equity-settled share-based payments to employees and others providing similar services are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date. Details regarding the determination of the fair value of equity-settled share-based transactions are set out in note 51.

The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Company’s estimate of equity instruments that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in equity. At the end of each reporting period, the Company revises its estimate of the number of equity instruments expected to vest. The impact of the revision of the original estimates, if any, is recognized in profit or loss such that the cumulative expense reflects the revised estimate, with a corresponding adjustment to the equity-settled employee benefits reserve.

Under the previous GAAP, share based payment costs were accrued on a intrinsic value method. Upon transition to Ind AS, the company has availed the exemption to apply the fair value to only unvested options.

1.10 Earnings per Share

The Company presents basic and diluted earnings per share (EPS) data for its equity shares. Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is determined by adjusting the profit or loss attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

1.11 Taxation

Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.

a. Current tax

The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from ‘profit before tax’ as reported in the statement of profit and loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company’s current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

b. Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognized for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilized. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognized if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit. In addition, deferred tax liabilities are not recognized if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates, and interests in joint ventures, except where the Company is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences associated with such investments and interests are only recognized to the extent that it is probable that there will be sufficient taxable profits against which to utilize the benefits of the temporary differences and they are expected to reverse in the foreseeable future.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realized, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

c. Current and deferred tax for the year

Current and deferred tax are recognized in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively. Where current tax or deferred tax arises from the initial accounting for a business combination, the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business combination.

1.12 Property, Plant and Equipment

Land and buildings held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, or for administrative purposes, are stated in the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Freehold land is not depreciated.

Properties in the course of construction for production, supply or administrative purposes are carried at cost, less any recognized impairment loss. Cost includes professional fees and, for qualifying assets, borrowing costs capitalized in accordance with the Company’s accounting policy. Such properties are classified to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for intended use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as other property assets, commences when the assets are ready for their intended use.

Fixtures and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.

Depreciation is recognized so as to write off the cost of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.

Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets. However, when there is no reasonable certainty that ownership will be obtained by the end of the lease term, assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives.

Assets costing Rs, 5,000 and below are depreciated over a period of one year.

Assets on leased premises are depreciated on the remaining period of lease or as per the useful life prescribed in schedule II of the Companies Act 2013 whichever is earlier

An item of property, plant and equipment is de-recognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in profit or loss.

For transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognized as of April 1, 2015 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.

1.13 Investment Property

Investment properties are properties held to earn rentals and/or for capital appreciation (including property under construction for such purposes). Investment properties are measured initially at cost including transactions costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are measured in accordance with Ind AS 16Rs,s requirement for cost model.

An investment property is derecognized upon disposal or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefits are expected from the disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the property (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in profit or loss in the period in which the property is de-recognized.

For transition to Ind AS, the Group has elected to continue with the carrying value of its investment property recognized as of April 1, 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.

1.14 Intangible Assets

a. Intangible assets acquired separately

Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization is recognized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortization method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.

b. Internally-generated intangible assets-research and development expenditure

Expenditure on research activities is recognized as an expense in the period in which it is incurred.

An internally-generated intangible asset arising from development (or from the development phase of an internal project) is recognized if, and only if, all of the following have been demonstrated:

- the technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale;

- the intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it;

- the ability to use or sell the intangible asset;

- how the intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits;

- the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset; and

- the ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.

The amount initially recognized for internally-generated intangible assets is the sum of the expenditure incurred from the date when the intangible asset first meets the recognition criteria listed above. Where no internally-generated intangible asset can be recognized, development expenditure is recognized in profit or loss in the period in which it is incurred.

Subsequent to initial recognition, internally-generated intangible assets are reported at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, on the same basis as intangible assets that are acquired separately.

c. De-recognition of intangible assets

An intangible asset is de-recognized on disposal, or when no future economic benefits are expected from use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an intangible asset, measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, are recognized in profit or loss when the asset is de-recognized.

d. Useful lives of intangible assets

Estimated useful lives of the intangible assets are as follows: Licenses 3 to 10 years

1.15 Impairment of Tangible & Intangible Assets

At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.

Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.

If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized immediately in profit or loss.

When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset (or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognized immediately in profit or loss.

1.16 Inventories

Inventories other than by products are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Inventories of by-products are valued at net realisable value. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price for inventories less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale.

Cost of inventories are determined on weighted average basis.

1.17 Provisions

Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the Company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

The amount recognized as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).

When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognized as an asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.

1.18 Financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized when a company entity becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognized immediately in profit or loss.

1.19 Financial assets

All regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are recognized and derecognized on a trade date basis. Regular way purchases or sales are purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within the time frame established by regulation or convention in the marketplace.

All recognized financial assets are subsequently measured in their entirety at either amortized cost or fair value, depending on the classification of the financial assets

a. Classification of financial assets

Debt instruments that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at amortized cost (except for debt instruments that are designated as at fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition). The debt instruments carried at amortised cost include Deposits, Debtors, Loans and advances recoverable in cash.

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows; and

- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

For the impairment policy on financial assets measured at amortized cost, refer Note 1.19e

Investment in subsidiaries are accounted under cost basis.

For the impairment policy on investment in subsidiaries, refer Note 1.19e

All other financial assets are subsequently measured at fair value.

b. Effective interest method

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Income is recognized on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as at FVTPL. Interest income is recognized in profit or loss and is included in the Other income line item.

c. Investments in equity instruments at FVTOCI

The Company has elected to carry investment in equity instruments as Fair value through other comprehensive income. On initial recognition, the Company can make an irrevocable election (on an instrument-by-instrument basis) to present the subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income pertaining to investments in equity instruments. This election is not permitted if the equity investment is held for trading. These elected investments are initially measured at fair value plus transaction costs. Subsequently, they are measured at fair value with gains and losses arising from changes in fair value recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the ‘Reserve for equity instruments through other comprehensive income’. The cumulative gain or loss is not reclassified to profit or loss on disposal of the investments.

The Company has equity investments which are not held for trading. The Company has elected the FVTOCI irrevocable option for these investments (see note 6). Fair value is determined in the manner described in note 50.8.

Dividends on these investments in equity instruments are recognized in profit or loss when the Company’s right to receive the dividends is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the entity, the dividend does not represent a recovery of part of cost of the investment and the amount of dividend can be measured reliably. Dividends recognized in profit or loss are included in the ‘Other income’ line item.

d. Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

The Company carries derivative contracts not designated in a hedge relationship at FVTPL. Financial assets at FVTPL also includes assets held for trading.

A financial asset is held for trading if:

- it has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling it in the near term; or

- on initial recognition it is part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that the Company manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or

- it is a derivative that is not designated and effective as a hedging instrument or a financial guarantee.

Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognized in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognized in profit or loss incorporates any dividend or interest earned on the financial asset and is included in the ‘Other income’ line item. Dividend on financial assets at FVTPL is recognized when the Company’s right to receive the dividends is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the entity the dividend does not represent a recovery of part of cost of the investment and the amount of dividend can be measured reliably.

e. Impairment of financial assets

The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognizing impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortized cost, lease receivables, trade receivables, other contractual rights to receive cash or other financial asset, and financial guarantees not designated as at FVTPL.

Expected credit losses are the weighted average of credit losses with the respective risks of default occurring as the weights. Credit loss is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive (i.e. all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate (or credit-adjusted effective interest rate for purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets). The Company estimates cash flows by considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument through the expected life of that financial instrument.

For trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18, the Company always measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.

Further, for the purpose of measuring lifetime expected credit loss allowance for trade receivables, the Company has used a practical expedient as permitted under Ind AS 109. This expected credit loss allowance is computed based on a provision matrix which takes into account historical credit loss experience and adjusted for forward-looking information or case to case basis.

f. De-recognition of financial assets

The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognizes its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognize the financial asset and also recognizes a collateralized borrowing for the proceeds received.

On de-recognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity is recognized in profit or loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognized in profit or loss on disposal of that financial asset.

g. Foreign exchange gains and losses

The fair value of financial assets denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the spot rate at the end of each reporting period.

- For foreign currency denominated financial assets measured at amortized cost and FVTPL, the exchange differences are recognized in profit or loss except for those which are designated as hedging instruments in a hedging relationship.

- Changes in the carrying amount of investments in equity instruments at FVTOCI relating to changes in foreign currency rates are recognized in other comprehensive income.

- For the purposes of recognizing foreign exchange gains and losses, FVTOCI debt instruments are treated as financial assets measured at amortized cost. Thus, the exchange differences on the amortized cost are recognized in profit or loss and other changes in the fair value of FVTOCI financial assets are recognized in other comprehensive income.

1.20 Financial liabilities and equity instruments

a. Classification as debt or equity

Debt and equity instruments issued by the company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

b. Equity instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by a company entity are recognized at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

Repurchase of the Company’s own equity instruments is recognized and deducted directly in equity. No gain or loss is recognized in profit or loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Company’s own equity instruments.

c. Financial liabilities

All financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method or at FVTPL.

However, financial liabilities that arise when a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition or when the continuing involvement approach applies, financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company, and commitments issued by the Company to provide a loan at below-market interest rate are measured in accordance with the specific accounting policies set out below.

c.1. Financial liabilities at FVTPL

Financial liabilities at FVTPL includes derivative liabilities. No derivative financial liabilities are classified as at FVTPL when the financial liability is either contingent consideration recognized by the

Company as an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS 103 applies or is held for trading or it is designated as at FVTPL. There are no non-derivative financial liabilities carried at FVTPL.

Financial liabilities at FVTPL are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on re-measurement recognized in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognized in profit or loss incorporates any interest paid on the financial liability and is included in the ‘Other income’ line item.

Fair value is determined in the manner described in note 50.8.

c.2. Financial liabilities subsequently measured at amortized cost

Financial liabilities that are not held-for-trading and are not designated as at FVTPL are measured at amortized cost at the end of subsequent accounting periods. The carrying amounts of financial liabilities that are subsequently measured at amortized cost are determined based on the effective interest method. Interest expense that is not capitalized as part of costs of an asset is included in the ‘Finance costs’ line item.

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial liability, or (where appropriate) a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.

c.3. Financial guarantee contracts

A financial guarantee contract is a contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payments when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument.

Financial guarantee contracts issued by a company entity are initially measured at their fair values and, are subsequently measured at the higher of:

- the amount of loss allowance determined in accordance with impairment requirements of Ind AS 109;

- the amount initially recognized less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognized in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 18.

c.4. Foreign exchange gains and losses

For financial liabilities that are denominated in a foreign currency and are measured at amortized cost at the end of each reporting period, the foreign exchange gains and losses are determined based on the amortized cost of the instruments and are recognized in ‘Other income’.

The fair value of financial liabilities denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the spot rate at the end of the reporting period. For financial liabilities that are measured as at FVTPL, the foreign exchange component forms part of the fair value gains or losses and is recognized in profit or loss.

c.5. Derecognition of financial liabilities

The Company de-recognizes financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired. An exchange between with a lender of debt instruments with substantially different terms is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. Similarly, a substantial modification of the terms of an existing financial liability (whether or not attributable to the financial difficulty of the debtor) is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognized and the consideration paid and payable is recognized in profit or loss.

1.21 Derivative financial instruments & Hedge Accounting

The Company enters into a variety of derivative financial instruments to manage its exposure to interest rate and foreign exchange rate risks, including foreign exchange forward contracts, interest rate swaps and cross currency swaps. Further details of derivative financial instruments are disclosed in note 50.8

Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently premeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognized in profit or loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of the recognition in profit or loss depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item.

The Company designates certain hedging instruments, which include derivatives and non-derivatives in respect of foreign currency risk, as either fair value hedges, cash flow hedges, or hedges of net investments in foreign operations. Hedges of foreign exchange risk on firm commitments are accounted for as cash flow hedges.

At the inception of the hedge relationship, the entity documents the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item, along with its risk management objectives and its strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. Furthermore, at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, the Company documents whether hedging instrument is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk.

Cash Flow Hedge

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges are recorded in other comprehensive income and are grouped under head of cash flow hedge reserve. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the profit or loss, and is included in the ‘Other income’ line item. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in other comprehensive income remains there until the forecast transaction occurs. When the hedged item is a non-financial asset, the amount recognized in other comprehensive income is transferred to the carrying amount of the asset when it is recognized. In other cases the amount recognized in other comprehensive income is transferred to profit or loss in the same period that the hedged item affects profit or loss. Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any gain or loss recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognized when the forecast transaction is ultimately recognized in profit or loss. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognized in the other comprehensive income is transferred to profit or loss, and is included in Other income.

1.22 Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

1.23 First-time adoption - mandatory exceptions, optional exemptions

a. Overall principle

The Company has prepared the opening balance sheet as per Ind AS as of April 1, 2015 (the transition date) by recognizing all assets and liabilities whose recognition is required by Ind AS, not recognizing items of assets or liabilities which are not permitted by Ind AS, by reclassifying items from previous GAAP to Ind AS as required under Ind AS, and applying Ind AS in measurement of recognized assets and liabilities. However, this principle is subject to the certain exception and certain optional exemptions availed by the Company as detailed below.

b. De-recognition of financial assets and financial liabilities

The Company has applied the de-recognition requirements of financial assets and financial liabilities prospectively for transactions occurring on or after April 1, 2015 (the transition date).

c. Classification of debt instruments

The Company has determined the classification of debt instruments in terms of whether they meet the amortized cost criteria or the FVTOCI criteria based on the facts and circumstances that existed as of the transition date.

d. Impairment of financial assets

The Company has applied the impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 retrospectively; however, as permitted by Ind AS 101, it has used reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort to determine the credit risk at the date that financial instruments were initially recognized in order to compare it with the credit risk at the transition date. Further, the Company has not undertaken an exhaustive search for information when determining, at the date of transition to Ind ASs, whether there have been significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition, as permitted by Ind AS 101. The Company has determined the classification of debt instruments in terms of whether they meet the amortized cost criteria or the FVTOCI criteria based on the facts and circumstances that existed as of the transition date.

e. Assessment of embedded derivatives

The Company has assessed whether an embedded derivative is required to be separated from the host contract and accounted for as a derivative on the basis of the conditions that existed at the later of the date it first became a party to the contract and the date when there has been a change in the terms of the contract that significantly modifies the cash flows that otherwise would be required under the contract.

f. Past business combinations

The Company has elected not to apply Ind AS 103 Business Combinations retrospectively to past business combinations that occurred before the transition date of April 1, 2015. Consequently,

- The Company has kept the same classification for the past business combinations as in its previous GAAP financial statements;

- The Company has not recognized assets and liabilities that were not recognized in accordance with previous GAAP in the balance sheet of the acquirer and would also not qualify for recognition in accordance with Ind AS in the separate balance sheet of the acquire;

- The Company has excluded from its opening balance sheet those items recognized in accordance with previous GAAP that do not qualify for recognition as an asset or liability under Ind AS;

- The Company has tested the goodwill for impairment at the transition date based on the conditions as of the transition date;

- The effects of the above adjustments have been given to the measurement of non-controlling interests and deferred tax.

The above exemption in respect of business combinations has also been applied to past acquisitions of investments in associates, interests in joint ventures and interests in joint operations in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business.

g. Deemed cost for property, plant and equipment and investment property

The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its plant and equipment, investment property recognized as of April 1, 2015 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.

h. Determining whether an arrangement contains a lease

The Company has applied Appendix C of Ind AS 17 Determining whether an Arrangement contains a Lease to determine whether an arrangement existing at the transition date contains a lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing at that date.

i. Cumulative translation differences on foreign operations

The Company has elected the option to reset the cumulative translation differences on foreign operations that exist as of the transition date to zero.

j. Equity investments at FVTOCI

The Company has designated investment in equity shares other than subsidiaries, associate and joint ventures as at FVTOCI on the basis of facts and circumstances that existed at the transition date.

k. Unvested Employee Stock options at Fair value

The Company has elected the option to account only unvested options at the transition date under fair value method.

l. Government loan

The Company has elected the option to carry the below market interest rate government loans on transition date at their carrying value measured as per the previous GAAP

1.24 Key sources of estimation uncertainty

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

Key assumption concerning the future, and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period that may have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year is as given below.

a. Fair value measurement and valuation processes

Some of the Company’s assets and liabilities are measured at fair value for financial reporting purposes. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company uses market-observable data to the extent it is available. Where Level 1 inputs are not available, the Company engages third party qualified valuers to perform the valuation. The management works closely with the qualified external valuers to establish the appropriate valuation techniques and inputs to the model. Information about the valuation techniques and inputs used in determining the fair value of various assets and liabilities are disclosed in notes 3 and 50.8.

b. Useful life of Property, Plant & Equipments

The Company reviews the estimated useful lives of Property, plant and equipment at the end of each reporting period. During the current year, there has been no change in life considered for the assets.

1.25 Operating Cycle

Based on the nature of products / activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realization in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.

The fair value of the Company’s investment properties as at March 31, 2017, March 31, 2016 and April 1, 2015 have been arrived at on the basis of a valuation carried out by M/s. Value Assessors & Surveyors Private Limited, independent valuers not related to the Company. M/s.Value Assessors & Surveyors Private Limited are registered with the authority which governs the values in India, and they have appropriate qualifications and relevant experience in the valuation of properties in the relevant locations. Fair value was derived using the market comparable approach based on recent market/government guideline prices without any significant adjustments being made to the market observable data.

In estimating the fair value of the properties, the highest and best use of the properties is their current use.


Mar 31, 2014

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 ("the 1956 Act") (which continue to be applicable in respect of Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the 2013 Act") in terms of General Circular 15/2013 dated 13 September, 2013 of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs) and the relevant provisions of the 1956 Act/ 2013 Act, as applicable. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention except for categories of fixed assets acquired before 30 June, 1987, that are carried at revalued amounts. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year.

1.2 Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known / materialise.

1.3 Inventories

(i) Inventories other than by products are valued at the lower of cost determined on weighted average basis and the net realisable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. Cost includes all charges in bringing the goods to the point of sale, including octroi and other levies, transit insurance and receiving charges. Work-in-progress and finished goods include appropriate proportion of overheads and, where applicable, excise duty.

(ii) Inventories of by-products are valued at estimated net realisable value.

1.4 Cash and cash equivalents (for purposes of Cash Flow Statement)

Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

1.5 Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

1.6 Depreciation and amortisation

(i) Depreciation on fixed assets (other than revalued land and buildings and leased assets) is calculated on Straight line method on following basis:

Assets acquired upto June 30, 1987 are depreciated on the basis of specified period under section 205(2) (b) of the Companies Act, 1956.

(ii) In respect of additions and deletions during the year, depreciation charge is provided on pro-rata basis.

(iii) Leased assets are fully depreciated over the primary lease period.

(iv) Assets costing individually Rs. 5,000 or less are fully depreciated in the year of addition.

(v) The difference between the depreciation for the year on revalued buildings and depreciation calculated on the original cost is recouped from the fixed assets revaluation reserve

(vi) Cost of patent is amortised over a period of 3 years.

1.7 Revenue Recognition

(i) Sales are recognised, net of returns and trade discounts, on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer, which generally coincides with the delivery of goods to customers. Sales include excise duty but exclude sales tax and value added tax.

ii) Income from services rendered is recognised as and when services are rendered based on agreements/arrangements with the concerned parties.

iii) Export Incentive under Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme are treated as income in the year of export at the estimated realisable value.

iv) Interest income is accounted on accrual basis.

v) Dividend income is accounted when the right to receive the dividend is established.

1.8 Fixed Assets

Tangible Fixed Assets (other than those which have been revalued) are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation / amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of fixed assets comprises its purchase price net of any trade discounts and rebates, any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the tax authorities), any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use, other incidental expenses and interest on borrowings attributable to acquisition of qualifying fixed assets up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use. Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset and whose use is expected to be irregular are capitalised and depreciated over the useful life of the principal item of the relevant assets. Subsequent expenditure on fixed assets after its purchase / completion is capitalised only if such expenditure results in an increase in the future benefits from such asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. The revalued fixed assets are restated at their estimated current replacement values as on 30th June 1987 as determined by the valuers.

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortisation.

Leasehold land and leasehold improvements are amortised over the primary period of lease.

Capital Work in Progress: Projects under which tangible fixed assets are not ready for their intended use and other capital work-in-progress are carried at cost, comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable interest.

1.9 Foreign Currency Transactions

Initial Recognition: Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

Measurement on Balance Sheet date: Foreign currency monetary items of the Company, outstanding at the balance sheet date are restated at the year-end rates. Non-monetary items of the Company are carried at historical cost.

Settlement: Exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement of foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company are recognised as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Forward Contracts: Premium / discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amortised over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the balance sheet date. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation of a forward exchange contract is recognized as income or expense for the year. Refer Notes 1.21 and 1.22 for accounting for forward exchange contracts relating to firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions.

1.10Investments

Long-term investments are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such investments. Current investments are carried individually, at the lower of cost and fair value. Cost of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

1.11Employee Benefits

Employee benefits include provident fund, superannuation fund, employee state insurance scheme, gratuity fund, compensated absences, long service awards and post- employment medical benefits.

(a) Defined contribution plans

The Company''s contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund and employee state insurance scheme are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense based on the amount of contribution required to be made and when services are rendered by the employees.

(b) Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund and post-employment medical benefits, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.

(c) Short Term Employee Benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service.

The cost of short-term compensated absences is accounted as under :

(i) in case of accumulated compensated absences, when employees render the services that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and

(ii) in case of non-accumulating compensated absences, when the absences occur.

(d) Long Term Employee Benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date less the fair value of the plan assets out of which the obligations are expected to be settled. Long Service Awards are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date.

With respect to the Provident Fund Trust administered by the Company, the Company shall make good the deficiency, if any, in the interest rate declared by Trust over statutory limit. Having regard to the assets of the Fund and the return on the investments, the Company does not expect any deficiency in the foreseeable future.

(e) Employee share based payments

Stock options granted to the employees under the stock option scheme established are evaluated as per the accounting treatment prescribed by the Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme Guidelines, 1999 issued by Securities and Exchange Board of India. The Company follows the intrinsic value method of accounting for the options and accordingly, the excess of market value of the stock options as on date of grant over the exercise price of the options, if any, is recognized as deferred employee compensation cost and is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on graded vesting basis over the vesting period of the options.

1.12Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Costs in connection with the borrowing of funds to the extent not directly related to the acquisition of qualifying assets are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the tenure of the loan. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilised for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset upto the date of capitalisation of such asset is added to the cost of the assets. Capitalisation of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.

1.13 Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organisation and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the Executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Inter-segment revenue is accounted on the basis of transactions which are primarily determined based on market / fair value factors. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis have been included under "unallocated revenue / expenses / assets / liabilities".

1.14 Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the revenue account as per the lease terms.

1.15 Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income (net of any attributable taxes) relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented. The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for share splits / reverse share splits and bonus shares, as appropriate.

1.16 Taxes on Income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of items other than unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward losses only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. However, if there are unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise the assets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date for their reliability.

1.17 Insurance claims

Insurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted / expected to be admitted and to the extent that the amount recoverable can be measured reliably and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection.

1.18 Research and development expenses

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a product''s technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised. The amount capitalised comprises expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Fixed assets utilised for research and development are capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Fixed Assets.

1.19 Impairment of Assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognised, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

1.20 Provisions and Contingencies

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes. Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements.

1.21 Hedge Accounting

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. The Company designates such forward contracts in a cash flow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles set out in "Accounting Standard 30 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement". These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in "Hedging reserve account" under Reserves and surplus, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Amounts accumulated in the "Hedging reserve account" are reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the same periods during which the forecasted transaction affects profit and loss.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in "Hedging reserve account" is retained until the forecasted transaction occurs. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in "Hedging reserve account" is immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.22 Derivative contracts

The Company enters into derivative contracts in the nature of foreign currency swaps, forward contracts with an intention to hedge its existing assets and liabilities, firm commitments and highly probable transactions. Derivative contracts which are closely linked to the existing assets and liabilities are accounted as per the policy stated for Foreign Currency Transactions and Translations.

Derivative contracts designated as a hedging instrument for highly probable forecast transactions are accounted as per the policy stated for Hedge Accounting.

All other derivative contracts are marked-to-market and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognised, until realised, on grounds of prudence.

1.23 Service tax input credit

Service tax input credit is accounted for in the books in the period in which the underlying service received is accounted and when there is reasonable certainty in availing / utilising the credits.

1.24 Operating Cycle

Based on the nature of products / activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.


Mar 31, 2013

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention except for certain fixed assets that are carried at revalued amounts. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financials statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year.

1.2 Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known / materialise.

1.3 Inventories

(i) Inventories other than by-products are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.

(ii) In respect of work-in-process and finished goods, cost includes all applicable production overheads incurred in bringing such inventories to their present location and condition. Cost also includes all taxes and duties, but excludes duties and taxes that are subsequently recoverable from taxing authorities.

(iii)ln respect of Raw materials, boughtout items, consumables and stores and spares, cost is determined based on weighted average cost basis.

(iv) Inventories of by-products are valued at estimated net realisable value.

1.4Cash and cash equivalents (for purposes of Cash Flow Statement)

Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short- term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

1.5 Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

1.6 Depreciation and amortisation

(i) Depreciation on fixed assets (other than revalued land and buildings and leased assets) is calculated on Straight line method on following basis:

Assets acquired upto June 30, 1987 are on the basis of specified period under section 205(2) (b) of the Companies Act, 1956.

In respect of assets acquired after June 30,1987, except assets relating to Nutraceutical Division, depreciation is charged based on estimated useful life of the assets at rates which are equal to or higher than the rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act. The depreciation rates followed are specified below : -

Buildings 1.67% to 3.65%

Plant and Machinery 4.75% to 25.89%

Vehicles 23.75%

Computers 31.67%

Furniture 6.67 % to 33.33 %

Office Equipments 4.75 % to 23.75 %

In respect of Assets relating to Nutraceuticals Division, Assets are depreciated at rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

(ii) In respect of additions and deletions during the year, depreciation charge is provided on pro-rata basis.

(iii) Leased assets are fully depreciated over the primary lease period.

(iv) Assets costing individually Rs. 5,000 or less are fully depreciated in the year of addition.

(v) The difference between the depreciation for the year on revalued buildings and depreciation calculated on the original cost is recouped from the fixed assets revaluation reserve

(vi)Cost of patent is amortised over a period of 3 years.

1.7 Revenue Recognition

(i) Sales are recognised, net of returns and trade discounts, on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer, which generally coincides with the delivery of goods to customers. Sales include excise duty but exclude sales tax and value added tax.

ii) Income from services rendered is booked based on agreements/arrangements with the concerned parties.

iii) Export Incentive under Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme are treated as income in the year of export at the estimated realisable value.

iv) Interest income is accounted on accrual basis.

v) Dividend income is accounted when the right to receive the dividend is established.

1.8 Fixed Assets

Tangible Fixed Assets (other than those which have been revalued) are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation / amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of fixed assets comprises its purchase price net of any trade discounts and rebates, any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the tax authorities), any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use, other incidental expenses and interest on borrowings attributable to acquisition of qualifying fixed assets up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use. Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset and whose use is expected to be irregular are capitalised and depreciated over the useful life of the principal item of the relevant assets. Subsequent expenditure on fixed assets after its purchase / completion is capitalised only if such expenditure results in an increase in the future benefits from such asset beyond its previously assessed standard of perform a nee.The revalued fixed assets are restated at their estimated current replacement values as on 30th June 1987 as determined by the valuers.

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortisation.

Leasehold land and leasehold improvements are amortised over the primary period of lease.

Capital Work in Progress: Projects under which tangible fixed assets are not ready for their intended use and other capital work-in-progress are carried at cost, comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable interest.

1.9 Foreign Currency Transactions

Initial Recognition: Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

Measurement on Balance Sheet date: Foreign currency monetary items of the Company, outstanding at the balance sheet date are restated at the year-end rates. Non-monetary items of the Company are carried at historical cost.

Settlement: Exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement of foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company are recognised as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Forward Contracts: Premium / discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amortised over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the balance sheet date. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation of a forward exchange contract is recognized as income or expense for the year.

Refer notes 1.21 and 1.22 for accounting for forward exchange contracts relating to firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions.

1.10 Investments

Long-term investments are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such investments. Current investments are carried individually, at the lower of cost and fair value. Cost of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

1.11 Employee Benefits

Employee benefits include provident fund, superannuation fund, employee state insurance scheme, gratuity fund, compensated absences, long service awards and post-employment medical benefits.

(a) Defined contribution plans

The Company''s contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund and employee state insurance scheme are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense based on the amount of contribution required to be made.

(b) Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund and post-employment medical benefits, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.

(c) Short Term Employee Benefits

The undiscounted amount of short - term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service.

The cost of short-term compensated absences is accounted as under:

(i) in case of accumulated compensated absences, when employees render the services that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and

(ii) in case of non-accumulating compensated absences, when the absences occur.

(d) Long Term Employee Benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the balance sheet date less the fair value of the plan assets out of which the obligations are expected to be settled. Long Service Awards are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the balance sheet date.

With respect to the Provident Fund Trust administered by the company, the company shall make good deficiency, if any, in the interest rate declared by Trust over statutory limit. Having regard to the assets of the Fund and the return on the investments, the company does not expect any deficiency in the foreseeable future.

(e) Employee share based payments

Stock options granted to the employees under the stock option scheme established are evaluated as per the accounting treatment prescribed by the Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme Guidelines, 1999 issued by Securities Exchange Board of India. The Company follows the intrinsic value method of accounting for the options and accordingly, the excess of market value of the stock options as on date of grant over the exercise price of the options, if any, is recognized as deferred employee compensation cost and is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on graded vesting basis over the vesting period of the options.

1.12 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Costs in connection with the borrowing of funds to the extent not directly related to the acquisition of qualifying assets are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the tenure of the loan. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilised for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset upto the date of capitalisation of such asset is added to the cost of the assets. Capitalisation of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.

1.13 Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organisation and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Inter-segment revenue is accounted on the basis of transactions which are primarily determined based on market / fair value factors.

Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis have been included under "unallocated revenue / expenses / assets / liabilities".

1.14 Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the revenue account as per the lease terms

1.15 Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations.

1.16 Taxes on Income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of items other than unabosrbed depreciation and carry forward losses only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. However, if there are unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise the assets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date for their readability.

1.17 Insurance claims

Insurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted / expected to be admitted and to the extent that there is no uncertainty in receiving the claims.

1.18 Research and development expenses

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a product''s technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised. The amount capitalised comprises expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Fixed assets utilised for research and development are capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Tangible Fixed Assets and Intangible Assets.

1.19 Impairment of Assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognised, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

1.20 Provisions and Contingencies

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes. Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements.

1.21 Hedge Accounting

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. The Company designates such forward contracts in a cash flow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles set out in "Accounting Standard 30 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement". These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in "Hedging reserve account" under Reserves and surplus, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Amounts accumulated in the "Hedging reserve account" are reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the same periods during which the forecasted transaction affects profit and loss. Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in "Hedging reserve account" is retained until the forecasted transaction occurs. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in "Hedging reserve account" is immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.22 Derivative contracts

The Company enters into derivative contracts in the nature of foreign currency swaps, currency options, forward contracts with an intention to hedge its existing assets and liabilities, firm commitments and highly probable transactions. Derivative contracts which are closely linked to the existing assets and liabilities are accounted as per the policy stated for Foreign Currency Transactions and Translations.

Derivative contracts designated as a hedging instrument for highly probable forecast transactions are accounted as per the policy stated for Hedge Accounting.

All other derivative contracts are marked-to-market and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognised, until realised, on grounds of prudence.

1.23 Service tax input credit

Service tax input credit is accounted for in the books in the period in which the underlying service received is accounted and when there is no uncertainty in availing / utilising the credits.

1.24 Operating Cycle

Based on the nature of products / activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.


Mar 31, 2012

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention except for certain fixed assets that are carried at revalued amounts.

1.2 Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the periods in which the results are known / materialized.

1.3 Inventories

(i) Inventories other than by-products are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value.

(ii) In respect of work-in-process and finished goods, cost includes all applicable production overheads incurred in bringing such inventories to their present location and condition. Cost also includes all taxes and duties, but excludes duties and taxes that are subsequently recoverable from taxing authorities.

(iii) In respect of Raw materials, bought out items, consumables and stores and spares, cost is determined based on weighted average cost basis.

(iv) Inventories of by-products are valued at estimated net realizable value.

1.4 Cash and cash equivalents (for purposes of Cash Flow Statement)

Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

1.5 Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

1.6 Depreciation and amortization

(i) Depreciation on fixed assets (other than revalued land and buildings and leased assets) is calculated on straight line method on following basis:

Assets acquired up to June 30, 1987 are on the basis of specified period under section 205(2) (b) of the Companies Act, 1956.

In respect of assets acquired after June 30, 1987, except assets relating to Nutraceutical Division, depreciation is charged based on estimated useful life of the assets at rates which are higher than the rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 The depreciation rates followed are specified below : -

Buildings : 1.67% to 3.65%

Plant and Machinery : 4.75% to 25.89%

Vehicles : 23.75%

Computers : 31.67%

Furniture : 6.67 % to 33.33 %

Office Equipment : 4.75 % to 23.75 %

In respect of assets relating to Nutraceuticals Division, assets are depreciated at rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

(ii) In respect of additions and deletions during the year, depreciation charge is provided on pro-rata basis.

(iii) Leased assets are fully depreciated over the primary lease period.

(iv) Assets costing individually Rs 5,000 or less are fully depreciated in the year of addition.

(v) The difference between the depreciation for the year on revalued buildings and depreciation calculated on the original cost is recouped from the fixed assets revaluation reserve.

(vi) Cost of patent is amortized over a period of 3 years.

1.7 Revenue Recognition

i) Sales are recognized, net of returns and trade discounts, on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer, which generally coincides with the delivery of goods to customers. Sales include excise duty but exclude sales tax and value added tax.

ii) Sales include excise duty recovered and are stated net of trade discounts and sales returns.

iii) Income from services rendered is booked based on agreements/arrangements with the concerned parties.

iv) Export Incentive under Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme are treated as income in the year of export at the estimated realizable value.

v) Interest income is accounted on accrual basis.

vi) Dividend income is accounted for in the year in which the right to receive the payment is established.

1.8 Fixed Assets

Tangible Fixed Assets (other than those which have been revalued) are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost includes related taxes, duties, freight, insurance and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of assets and borrowing cost incurred up to the date when the assets are ready for its intended use, but excludes duties and taxes that are recoverable subsequently from taxing authorities. The revalued fixed assets are restated at their estimated current replacement values as on 30th June 1987 as determined by the valuers.

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortization.

Leasehold land and leasehold improvements are amortized over the primary period of lease.

1.9 Foreign Currency Transactions

Premium / discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amortized over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the Balance Sheet date. Refer Notes 1.21 and 1.22 for accounting for forward exchange contracts relating to firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions.

1.10 Investments

Long term investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in value is made if the decline is other than temporary in nature. Current Investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

1.11 Employee Benefits

a. Short Term Employee Benefits

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. Short term employee benefits, including accumulated compensated absences, at the balance sheet date, are recognized as an expense as per the Company's scheme based on expected obligations on undiscounted basis.

b. Long Term Employee Benefits

The obligation for long term employee benefits such as long term compensated absence is provided for based on actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date, using the Projected Unit Credit Method.

(i) Defined Contribution Plans

The company's superannuation scheme, state governed provident fund scheme and employee state insurance scheme are defined contribution plans. Fixed contributions to the Superannuation Fund, which is administered by trustees and managed by LIC are charged to the Profit and Loss Account. The Company has no liability for future Superannuation Fund benefits other than its annual contribution and recognizes such contributions as an expense in the year incurred. The contribution paid/payable under the schemes is recognized during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

(ii) Defined Benefit Plans

Employees pension scheme and provident fund scheme managed by Trust are the company's defined benefit plans. The company also makes annual contribution to a Gratuity fund administered by Life Insurance Corporation of India. The present value of obligation under such defined benefit plans is determined based on actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date, using the Projected Unit Credit Method. Actuarial gains/losses are absorbed in the financial statements.

With respect to the Provident Fund Trust administered by the company, the company shall make good deficiency, if any, in the interest rate declared by Trust over statutory limit. Having regard to the assets of the Fund and the return on the investments, the company does not expect any deficiency in the foreseeable future.

(iii) Deferred Compensation cost

Stock options granted to the employees under the stock option scheme established are evaluated as per the accounting treatment prescribed by the Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme Guidelines, 1999 issued by Securities and Exchange Board of India. The Company follows the intrinsic value method of accounting for the options and accordingly, the excess of market value of the stock options as on date of grant over the exercise price of the options, if any, is recognized as deferred employee compensation cost and is charged to the Profit and Loss Account on graded vesting basis over the vesting period of the options.

1.12 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Costs in connection with the borrowing of funds to the extent not directly related to the acquisition of qualifying assets are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the tenure of the loan. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilized for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset up to the date of capitalization of such asset is added to the cost of the assets. Capitalization of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.

1.13 Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on

the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organization and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Inter-segment revenue is accounted on the basis of transactions which are primarily determined based on market / fair value factors. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis have been included under "unallocated revenue / expenses / assets / liabilities".

1.14 Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the revenue account as per the lease terms.

1.15 Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations.

1.16 Taxes on Income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Deferred tax is recognized for timing differences arising between the taxable income and accounting income computed using the tax rates and the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as of the balance sheet date. Deferred Tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses under Tax Laws, are recognized if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realize such Deferred Tax assets. Other Deferred Tax assets are recognized if there is a reasonable certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realize such Deferred Tax assets.

1.17 Insurance claims

Insurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted / expected to be admitted and to the extent that there is no uncertainty in receiving the claims.

1.18 Research and development expenses

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a product's technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalized. The amount capitalized comprises expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Fixed assets utilized for research and development are capitalized and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Tangible Fixed Assets and Intangible Assets.

1.19 Impairment of Assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognized, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognized for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

1.20 Provision, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognized only when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and when a reasonable estimate of the amount of obligation can be made. Contingent liability is disclosed for (i) possible obligation which will be confirmed only by future

events not wholly within the control of the company or

(ii) present obligations arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made. Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.

1.21 Hedge Accounting

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. The Company designates such forward contracts in a cash flow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles set out in "Accounting Standard 30 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement". These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognized directly in "Hedging reserve account" under Reserves and surplus, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Amounts accumulated in the "Hedging reserve account" are reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the same periods during which the forecasted transaction affects profit and loss. Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognized in "Hedging reserve account" is retained until the forecasted transaction occurs. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognized in "Hedging reserve account" is immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.22 Derivative contracts

The Company enters into derivative contracts in the nature of foreign currency swaps, currency options, forward contracts with an intention to hedge its existing assets and liabilities, firm commitments and highly probable transactions. Derivative contracts which are closely linked to the existing assets and liabilities are accounted as per the policy stated for Foreign Currency Transactions and Translations.

Derivative contracts designated as a hedging instrument for highly probable forecast transactions are accounted as per the policy stated for Hedge Accounting.

All other derivative contracts are marked-to-market and losses are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognized, until realized, on grounds of prudence.


Mar 31, 2011

1.1 Accounting convention

The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on accrual basis and in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India and comply with mandatory Accounting Standards notified by the Central Government of India under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued.

1.2 Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements, disclosure of contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

1.3 Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets (other than those which have been revalued) are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost includes related taxes, duties, freight, insurance and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of assets and borrowing cost incurred up to the date when the assets are ready for its intended use, but excludes duties and taxes that are recoverable subsequently from taxing authorities. The revalued fixed assets are restated at their estimated current replacement values as on 30th June, 1987 as determined by the valuers.

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortisation.

Leasehold land and leasehold improvements are amortised over the primary period of lease.

1.4 borrowing costs

Borrowing Costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalised as part of the cost of qualifying asset when it is possible that they will

result in future economic benefits and the cost can be measured reliably. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

1.5 Depreciation

(i) Depreciation on fixed assets (other than revalued land and buildings and leased assets) is calculated on Straight line method on following basis:

Assets acquired upto June 30, 1987 on the basis of specified period under section 205(2) (b) of the Companies Act, 1956.

In respect of assets acquired after June 30, 1987 except assets relating to Nutraceutical Division, depreciation is charged based on estimated useful life of the assets at rates which are higher than the rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act. The depreciation rates followed are specified below : -

Buildings 1.67% to 3.65%

Plant and Machinery 4.75% to 25.89%

Vehicles 23.75%

Computers 31.67%

Furniture 6.67 % to 33.33 %

Office Equipments 4.75 % to 23.75 %

In respect of Assets relating to Nutraceuticals Division, Assets are depreciated at rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

(ii) In respect of additions and deletions during the year, depreciation charge is provided on pro-rata basis.

(iii) Leased assets are fully depreciated over the primary lease period.

(iv) Assets costing individually Rs. 5,000 or less are fully depreciated in the year of addition.

(v) The difference between the depreciation for the year on revalued buildings and depreciation calculated on the original cost is recouped from the fixed assets revaluation reserve.

(vi) Cost of patent is amortised over a period of 3 years.

1.6 Investments

Long term investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in value is made if the decline is other than temporary in nature. Current Investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

1.7 Inventories

(i) Inventories other than by-products are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value.

(ii) In respect of work-in-process and finished goods, cost includes all applicable production overheads incurred in bringing such inventories to their present location and condition. Cost also includes all taxes and duties, but excludes duties and taxes that are subsequently recoverable from taxing authorities.

(iii) In respect of Raw materials, boughtout items, consumables and stores and spares, cost is determined based on weighted average cost basis.

1.8 Revenue Recognition

i) Revenue from sale is recognised when risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer under the terms of the contract.

ii) Sales include excise duty recovered and are stated net of trade discounts and sales returns.

iii) Income from services rendered is booked based on agreements/arrangements with the concerned parties.

iv) Export Incentive under Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme are treated as income in the year of export at the estimated realisable value.

v) Interest on investments is booked on a time proportion basis taking into account the amounts invested and the rate of interest.

vi) Dividend income is accounted for in the year in which the right to receive the payment is established.

1.9 Foreign currency Transactions

Foreign Currency Transactions are recorded at rates of exchange prevailing on the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies as at the balance sheet date are translated at the rate of exchange prevailing at the year-end. Exchange differences arising on actual payments/realisations and year-end restatements are dealt with in the Profit & Loss Account.

The company enters into forward exchange contracts and other instruments that are in substance a forward exchange contract to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations. The premium or discount arising at the inception of

the foreign exchange contract or similar instrument is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange difference on such contracts is recognised in the Profit & Loss Account in the year in which the exchange rates change.

Any profit or loss arising on cancellation of a forward exchange contract is recognised as income or expense for the year.

1.10 Derivative Instruments and Hedge Accounting

The company uses forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating certain firm commitments and forecasted transactions. The Company designates these as cash flow hedges.

The use of forward contracts is governed by the companys policies on the use of such financial derivatives consistent with the companys risk management strategy. The company does not use derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.

Forward contract derivative instruments are initially measured at fair value, and are re-measured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in “Hedging Reserve Account” under Shareholders Funds and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the profit and loss account.

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account as they arise.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. If any of these events occur or if a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in “Hedging Reserve Account” under Shareholders fund is transferred to the Profit and Loss account for the year.

1.11 Employee Benefits

a. (i) Short Term Employee Benefits

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. Short term employee benefits, including accumulated compensated absences, at the balance sheet date, are recognised as an expense as per the Companys

scheme based on expected obligations on undiscounted basis.

b. Long Term Employee Benefits

The obligation for long term employee benefits such as long term compensated absence is provided for based on actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date, using the Projected Unit Credit Method.

(i) Defined Contribution Plans

The companys superannuation scheme, state governed provident fund scheme and employee state insurance scheme are defined contribution plans. Fixed contributions to the Superannuation Fund, which is administered by trustees and managed by LIC are charged to the Profit and Loss Account. The Company has no liability for future Superannuation Fund benefits other than its annual contribution and recognises such contributions as an expense in the year incurred. The contribution paid/payable under the schemes is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

(ii) Defined Benefit Plans

Employees pension scheme and provident fund scheme managed by Trust are the companys defined benefit plans. The company also makes annual contribution to a Gratuity fund administered by LIC. The present value of obligation under such defined benefit plans is determined based on actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date, using the Projected Unit Credit Method. Actuarial gains/losses are absorbed in the financial statements.

(iii) Deferred compensation cost

Stock options granted to the employees under the stock option scheme established are evaluated as per the accounting treatment prescribed by the Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme Guidelines, 1999 issued by Securities and Exchange Board of India. The Company follows the intrinsic value method of accounting for the options and accordingly, the excess of market value of the stock options as on date of

grant over the exercise price of the options, if any, is recognised as deferred employee compensation cost and is charged to the Profit and Loss Account on graded vesting basis over the vesting period of the options.

1.12 Taxes on Income

Current Tax is determined based on the liability computed in accordance with the relevant tax rates and tax laws.

Deferred tax is recognised for timing differences arising between the taxable income and accounting income computed using the tax rates and the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as of the balance sheet date. Deferred Tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses under tax laws, are recognised if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise such Deferred Tax assets. Other Deferred Tax assets are recognised if there is a reasonable certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise such Deferred Tax assets.

1.13 Provision, contingent Liabilities and contingent Assets

Provisions are recognised only when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and when a reasonable estimate of the amount of obligation can be made. Contingent liability is disclosed for (i) possible obligation which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the company or (ii) present obligations arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made. Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

1.14 segment reporting

a. The generally accepted accounting principles used in the preparation of the financial statements are applied to record revenue and expenditure in individual segments.

b. Segment revenue and segment results include transfers between business segments. Such transfers are accounted for at the agreed transaction value and such transfers are eliminated in the consolidation of the segments.

c. Expenses that are directly identifiable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. Expenses which relate to the company as a whole and are not allocable to segments are included under unallocated corporate expenses.

d. Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments. Unallocated corporate assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

1.15 Impairment of Assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognised wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use.


Mar 31, 2010

1.1 Accounting Convention

The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on accrual basis and in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India and comply with mandatory Accounting Standards notified by the Central Government of India under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued.

1.2 Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

1.3 Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets (other than those which have been revalued) are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost includes related taxes, duties, freight, insurance and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of assets and borrowing cost incurred upto the date when the assets are ready for its intended use, but excludes duties and taxes that are recoverable subsequently from taxing authorities. The revalued fixed assets are restated at their estimated current replacement values as on 30th June 1987 as determined by the valuers.

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortisation.

Leasehold land and leasehold improvements are amortised over the primary period of lease.

Borrowing Costs

Borrowing Costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalised as part of the cost of qualifying asset when it is possible that they will result in future economic

benefits and the cost can be measured reliably. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

1.4 Depreciation

i) Depreciation on fixed assets (other than revalued land and buildings and leased assets) is calculated on Straight line method on following basis:

Assets acquired upto June 30, 1987 on the basis of specified period under section 205(2) (b) of the Companies Act, 1956.

In respect of assets acquired after June 30, 1987, except assets relating to Nutraceutical Division, depreciation is charged based on estimated useful life of the assets at rates which are higher than the rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act. The depreciation rates followed are specified below : -

Buildings 1.67% to 3.65% Plant and Machinery 4.75% to 25.89% Vehicles 23.75% Computers 31.67% Furniture & Office Equipments 4.75 % to 23.75 %

In respect of Assets relating to Nutraceuticals Division, Assets are depreciated at rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

ii) In respect of additions and deletions during the year, depreciation charge is provided on pro-rata basis.

iii) Leased assets are fully depreciated over the primary lease period.

iv) Assets costing individually Rs 5000 or less are fully depreciated in the year of addition.

v) The difference between the depreciation for the year on revalued buildings and depreciation calculated on the original cost is recouped from the fixed assets revaluation reserve.

vi) Cost of patent is amortised over a period of 3 years.

1.5 Investments

Long term investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in value is made if the decline is other than temporary in nature. Current Investments are stated at lower of cost and fair value determined on the basis of each category of investments.

1.6 Inventories

i) Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value.

ii) Cost includes all direct costs and applicable production overheads in the case of finished goods and work in progress, incurred in bringing such inventories to their present location and condition. Cost also includes all taxes and duties, but excludes duties and taxes that are subsequently recoverable from taxing authorities. (Excise Duty is included in the value of finished goods inventory).

iii) Raw materials, bought out items, consumables and stores and spares are valued at lower of weighted average cost and net realisable value.

iv) By products are valued at net realisable value.

v) Work-in-progress and Finished Goods are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Excise Duty is included in the value of finished goods inventory.

1.7 Revenue Recognition

i) Revenue from sale is recognised when risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer under the terms of the contract.

ii) Sales include Excise duty recovered and are stated net of trade discounts and sales returns.

iii) Income from services rendered is booked based on agreements/arrangements with the concerned parties.

iv) Export Incentive under Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme are treated as income in the year of export at the estimated realisable value.

v) Interest on investments is booked on a time proportion basis taking into account the amounts invested and the rate of interest.

vi) Dividend income is accounted for in the year in which the right to receive the payment is established. ward exchange contracts and other instruments that are in substance a forward exchange contract to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations. The premium or discount arising at the inception of the foreign exchange contract or similar instrument is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange difference on such contracts is recognised in the Profit & Loss Account in the year in which the exchange rates change.

Any profit or loss arising on cancellation of a forward exchange contract is recognised as income or expense for the year.

1.9 Derivative Instruments and Hedge Accounting

The company uses forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating certain firm commitments and forecasted transactions. The Company designates these as cash flow hedges.

The use of forward contracts is governed by the companys policies on the use of such financial derivatives consistent with the companys risk management strategy. The company does not use derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.

Forward contract derivative instruments are initially measured at fair value, and are re-measured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in “Hedge Reserve Account” under Shareholders Funds and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the profit and loss account.

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account as they arise.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. If any of these events occur or if a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in “Hedging Reserve Account” under Shareholders fund is transferred to the Profit and Loss account for the year.

1.10 Employee Benefits

a. Short Term Employee Benefits :

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. Short term employee benefits, including accumulated compensated absences, at the balance sheet date, are recognised as an expense as per the Companys scheme based on expected obligations on undiscounted basis.

b. Long Term Employee Benefits :

The obligation for long term employee benefits such as long term compensated absence is provided for based on actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date, using the Projected Unit Credit Method.

i) Defined Contribution Plans: -

The companys superannuation scheme, state governed provident fund scheme and employee state insurance scheme are defined contribution plans. Fixed contributions to the Superannuation Fund, which is administered by trustees and managed by LIC are charged to the Profit and Loss Account. The Company has no liability for future Superannuation Fund benefits other than its annual contribution and recognizes such contributions as an expense in the year incurred.

The contribution paid/payable under the schemes is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

ii) Defined Benefit Plans: -

Employees pension scheme and provident fund scheme managed by Trust are the companys defined benefit plans. The company also makes annual contribution to a Gratuity fund administered by LIC.

The present value of obligation under such defined benefit plans is determined based on actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date, using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to determine the final obligation.

Actuarial gains/losses are absorbed in the financial statements.

iii) Deferred Compensation cost: -

In respect of stock options, Stock options granted to the employees under the stock option scheme established are evaluated as per the accounting treatment prescribed by the Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme Guidelines, 1999 issued by Securities Exchange Board of India. The Company follows the intrinsic value method of accounting for the options and accordingly, the excess of market value of the stock options as on date of grant over the exercise price of the options, if any, is recognised as deferred employee compensation cost and is charged to the Profit and Loss Account on graded vesting basis over the vesting period of the options.

1.11 Miscellaneous Expenditure

Voluntary Separation Scheme expenditure is amortised over the expected period of future benefits but not over a period of more than five years.

1.12 Taxes on Income

Current tax is determined based on the liability computed in accordance with the relevant tax rates and tax laws.

Deferred tax is recognised for timing differences arising between the taxable income and accounting income computed using the tax rates and the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as of the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry

forward of losses under tax laws, are recognised if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise such Deferred tax assets. Other Deferred tax assets are recognised if there is a reasonable certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise such Deferred tax assets.

1.13 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognised only when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and when a reasonable estimate of the amount of obligation can be made. Contingent liability is disclosed for (i) possible obligation which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the company or (ii) present obligations arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made. Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

1.14 Segment reporting

a. The generally accepted accounting principles used in the preparation of the financial statements are applied to record revenue and expenditure in individual segments.

b. Segment revenue and segment results include transfers between business segments. Such transfers are accounted for at the agreed transaction value and such transfers are eliminated in the consolidation of the segments.

c. Expenses that are directly identifiable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. Expenses which relate to the company as a whole and are not allocable to segments are included under unallocated corporate expenses.

d. Segments assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments. Unallocated corporate assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

1.15 Impairment of Assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognised wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use.

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