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Accounting Policies of Excel Industries Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

(a) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(b) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and provision for impairment, if any, except for the following :

(i) Land, Buildings, Plant and Machinery and Electrical Installations situated at Roha have been revalued as on September 30, 2001 on the basis of valuation report of Government approved valuers at their depreciated replacement value and stated at their revalued amounts.

(ii) Assets at Mumbai installed up to March 31, 2002 are stated at cost as estimated by an approved valuer.

Cost comprises the purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalisation criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

(c) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

(i) Leasehold Land (at cost or revalued as the case may be) is amortised over the period of 69 years and 95 years for Roha and Lote Parashuram sites respectively.

(ii) Other Fixed Assets:

(1) In the case of following assets (which have been revalued) at Roha, depreciation has been provided on straight line (sL) basis over the balance useful life of the assets as estimated by the approved valuer. These lives are lower than those indicated in schedule II.

Effective from April 1, 2014, the Company has provided depreciation with reference to the useful lives of tangible assets as specified in schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. Accordingly, the carrying amount, net of residual value, as on that date has been depreciated over the revised remaining useful lives of the assets. The Company has also rationalised the depreciation policy and has decided to provide 100% depreciation on additions to assets costing Rs. 25,000/- or less. As a result, the charge for depreciation is higher by Rs. 254.55 lacs for the year ended 31st March, 2015.

(d) Intangible assets and Amortisation

(i) Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation.

(ii) Amortisation:

(a) Computer software is amortised on a straight-line basis proportionately over a period of four years.

(b) Trademarks are amortised on a straight-line basis proportionately over a period of five years.

(c) Product Registration expenses are amortised on a straight-line basis over a period of four years.

(d) The amortisation period and the amortisation method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from previous estimates, the amortisation period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the amortisation method is changed to reflect the changed pattern. such changes are accounted for in accordance with AS 5 Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

(e) Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

(e) Research and development costs research costs (other than cost of Fixed Assets acquired) are charged as an expense in the year in which they are incurred and are reflected under the appropriate heads of accounts. Development expenditure incurred on an individual project is carried forward when its future recoverability can reasonably be regarded as assured. Any expenditure carried forward is amortised over the period of expected future sales from the related project, not exceeding ten years. The carrying value of development costs is reviewed for impairment annually when the asset is not yet in use, and otherwise when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.

(f) Leases

Where the company is lessee

finance leases, which effectively transfer to the company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the inception of the lease term at the lower of the fair value of the leased property and present value of minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs of lease are capitalized.

A leased asset is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, the capitalized asset is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight- line basis over the lease term.

Where the company is the lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the assets are classified as operating lease.

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income on an operating lease is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognised as an expenses in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

(g) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest and amortisation of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of the borrowings. borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

(h) Impairment of tangible and intangible assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset's recoverable amount. An asset's recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's or cash-generating unit's (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the Company's cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.

I mpairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss, except for previously revalued tangible fixed assets, where the revaluation was taken to revaluation reserve. In this case, the impairment is also recognised in the revaluation reserve up to the amount of any previous revaluation. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognised impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset's or cash-generating unit's recoverable amount. A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset's recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase.

(i) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that (i) the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them, and (ii) the grant/subsidy will be received.

When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognised as income on a systematic basis in the statement of profit and loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate. Where the grant relates to an asset, it is recognised as deferred income and released to income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.

Where the Company receives non-monetary grants, the asset is accounted for on the basis of its acquisition cost. In case a non-monetary asset is given free of cost, it is recognised at a nominal value.

Government Grants of the nature of promoters' contribution are credited to Capital Reserve and treated as a part of Shareholders' Fund.

(j) Investments

I nvestments, which are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

On initial recognition all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties. Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

(k) Inventories

Raw materials, containers (packing materials), stores and spares (including fuel) are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, containers and stores and spares is determined on a moving weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost is determined on absorption costing basis at actuals.

Traded Goods are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on a moving weighted average basis.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(l) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognised:

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer usually on delivery of the goods. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

Income from services

revenues from service contracts are recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered. The Company collects service tax on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.

Interest

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head "other income" in the statement of profit and loss.

EXPORT BENEFITS

Duty free imports of raw materials under Advance License for Imports as per the export and Import Policy are matched with the exports made against the said licenses and the net benefit/obligation is accounted by making suitable adjustments in raw material consumption.

The benefit accrued under the duty drawback scheme as per the export and Import Policy in respect of exports made under the said scheme is included under the note "other operating revenue" as 'exports incentives'.

DIVIDEND

Dividend income is recognised when the Company's right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.

Royalties

Revenue is recognised on an accrual basis in accordance with the terms of the relevant agreement.

Other Income

Certain items of income such as insurance claims, overdue interest from customers etc. are recongnised to the extent there is certainty of it's realisation.

(m) Foreign currency translation

Foreign currency transactions and balances

(i) Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

(iii) Exchange Differences

Exchange Differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting monetary items of Company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

(iv) Forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset/liability.

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortised and recognised as an expense/ income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts, except the contracts which are long-term foreign currency monetary items, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognised as income or as expense for the period.

(n) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognises contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. The contributions to the provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the year when the contributions are due.

Retirement benefits in the form of superannuation fund is a defined contribution scheme. There are no obligations other than the contribution payable to the superannuation fund Trust. The Company recognises contribution payable to the superannuation fund as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. The contribution is charged to the statement of profit and loss of the year when the contribution accrues. The scheme is funded with insurance Companies in the form of qualifying insurance policies. Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year. The scheme is funded with insurance Companies in the form of qualifying insurance policies.

Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains/losses are recognised immediately to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred. The Company presents the leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date. expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to the statement of profit and loss immediately.

(o) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India and tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where the Company operates. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. deferred income tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority. Minimum alternative tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The Company recognises MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognises MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under the Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The Company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

(p) Segment reporting

Identification of segments

The Company's operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Inter-segment transfers

The Company generally accounts for intersegment sales and transfers at cost plus appropriate margins.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(q) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(r) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Warranty provisions

Provisions for warranty related costs are recognised when the product is sold or service provided. Provision is based on historical experience. The estimate of such warranty related costs is revised annually.

(s) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognise a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(t) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(u) Measurement of EBITDA

The Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. The Company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit from continuing operations. In its measurement, the Company does not include depreciation and amortisation expense, finance costs and tax expense.


Mar 31, 2014

(a) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(b) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and provision for impairment, if any, except for the following:

(i) Land, Buildings, Plant and Machinery and Electrical Installations situated at Roha have been revalued as on September 30, 2001 on the basis of valuation report of Government approved valuers at their depreciated replacement value and stated at their revalued amounts.

(ii) Assets at Mumbai installed up to March 31, 2002 are stated at cost as estimated by an approved valuer.

Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

(c) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

(i) Leasehold Land (at cost or revalued as the case may be) is amortised over the period of 69 Years and 95 Years for Roha and Lote Parashuram site respectively.

(ii) Other Fixed Assets:

(1) In the case of following assets (which have been revalued) at Roha, depreciation has been provided on straight line (SL) basis over the balance.

2.1 SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Contd.)

useful life of the assets as estimated by the approved valuer or at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, whichever are higher.

Description of Tangible Asset. *Rates (SL Method) Schedule XIV Rates (Range) (SL Method)

Buildings 1.63%-19.00% 1.63%

Plant and Machinery 5.28%-47.50% 5.28%

Electrical Installations 5.28%-31.67% 5.28%

* Depreciation Rates on SL Method for the balance useful life as estimated by the valuer.

(2) In respect of Buildings, Plant and Machinery and Electrical Installations, except additions to the aforesaid Fixed Assets at Mumbai upto September 30, 1981, on straight line basis in accordance with Section 205(2)(b) of the Companies Act, 1956, at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

(3) In respect of all other Fixed Assets, on written down value basis in accordance with Section 205(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 1956, at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

(4) Individual assets acquired for less than Rs. 5,000 are entirely depreciated in the year of acquisition.

(d) Intangible assets and Amortisation

(i) Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation.

(ii) Amortisation:

(a) Computer software is amortised on a straight line basis proportionately over a period of four years.

(b) Trademarks are amortised on a straight line basis proportionately over a period of five years.

(c) Product Registration expenses are amortised on a straight line basis over a period of four years.

(d) The amortisation period and the amortisation method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from previous estimates, the amortisation period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the amortisation method is changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted for in accordance with AS 5 Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

(e) Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

(e) Research and development costs

Research costs (other than cost of Fixed Assets acquired) are charged as an expense in the year in which they are incurred and are reflected under the appropriate heads of accounts. Development expenditure incurred on an individual project is carried forward when its future recoverability can reasonably be regarded as assured. Any expenditure carried forward is amortised over the period of expected future sales from the related project, not exceeding ten years. The carrying value of development costs is reviewed for impairment annually when the asset is not yet in use, and otherwise when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.

(f) Leases

Where the company is lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight- line basis over the lease term.

Finance Leases

Assets acquired under finance leases which effectively transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized and a corresponding loan liability is recognized. The lease rentals paid are bifurcated into principal and interest component by applying an implicit rate of return. The interest is charged as a period cost and the principal amount is adjusted against the liability recognized in respect of assets taken on financial lease.

Where the company is the lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the assets are classified as operating lease.

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expenses in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

(g) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest and amortisations of ancillary costs incurred in connections with the arrangement of the borrowings.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur. Interest and other costs incurred for acquisition and construction of qualifying assets, upto the date of commissioning/installation, are capitalised as part of the cost of the said assets.

(h) Impairment of tangible and intangible assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating unit''s (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the Company''s cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.

I mpairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss, except for previously revalued tangible fixed assets, where the revaluation was taken to revaluation reserve. In this case, the impairment is also recognised in the revaluation reserve up to the amount of any previous revaluation.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognised impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset''s or cash-generating unit''s recoverable amount. A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase.

(i) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that (i) the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them, and

(ii) the grant/subsidy will be received.

When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognised as income on a systematic basis in the statement of profit and loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate. Where the grant relates to an asset, it is recognised as deferred income and released to income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.

Where the Company receives non-monetary grants, the asset is accounted for on the basis of its acquisition cost. In case a non-monetary asset is given free of cost, it is recognised at a nominal value.

Government Capital Grants of the nature of promoters'' contribution are credited to Capital Reserve and treated as part of Shareholders'' Fund.

(j) Investments

Investments, which are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

On initial recognition all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties. Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of an investment the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

(k) Inventories

Raw materials, containers, (packing materials) stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, containers and stores and spares is determined on a moving weighted average basis. Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost is determined on absorption costing basis at actuals.

Traded Goods Lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes cost of purchases and other cost incurred in bringing the inventory to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on a moving weighted average basis.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(l) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer usually on delivery of the goods. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

Income from services

Revenues from service contracts are recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered. The Company collects service tax on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.

Interest

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head "other income" in the statement of profit and loss.

Export Benefits

Duty free imports of raw materials under Advance License for Imports as per the Export and Import Policy are matched with the exports made against the said licenses and the net benefit/obligation is accounted by making suitable adjustments in raw material consumption.

The benefit accrued under the Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme or Duty Drawback Scheme as per the Export and Import Policy in respect of exports made under the said Scheme is included under the note "Other Operating Revenue" as ''Exports incentives''.

Dividends

Dividend income is recognised when the Company''s right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.

Royalties

Revenue is recognised on an accrual basis in accordance with the terms of the relevant agreement.

Other Income

Certain items of income such as insurance claims, overdue interest from customers etc. are considered to the extent the amount is ascertainable/accepted by the parties.

(m) Foreign currency translation

Foreign currency transactions and balances

(i) Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

(iii) Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting monetary items of Company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

(iv) Forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset/ liability.

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortised and recognised as an expense/ income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts, except the contracts which are long-term foreign currency monetary items, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognised as income or as expense for the period.

(n) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognises contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. The contributions to the provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the year when the contributions are due.

Retirement benefits in the form of Superannuation Fund is a defined contribution scheme. There are no obligations other than the contribution payable to the Superannuation Fund Trust. The Company recognises contribution payable to the Superannuation Fund as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. The contribution is charged to the statement of profit and loss of the year when the contribution accrues. The scheme is funded with an insurance Company in the form of a qualifying insurance policy.

Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year. The scheme is funded with insurance Company in the form of qualifying insurance policies.

Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains/losses are recognised immediately to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred. Expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to the statement of profit and loss immediately.

(o) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India and tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where the Company operates. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Minimum alternative tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The Company recognises MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognises MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under the Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The Company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

(p) Segment reporting

Identification of segments

The Company''s operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Inter-segment transfers

The Company generally accounts for intersegment sales and transfers at cost plus appropriate margins.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(q) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(r) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(s) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognise a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(t) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(u) Measurement of EBITDA

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. In its measurement, the Company does not include depreciation and amortisation expense, interest income, finance costs and tax expense.


Mar 31, 2013

(a) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(b) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and provision for impairment, if any, except for the following :

(i) Land, Buildings, Plant and Machinery and Electrical Installations situated at Roha have been revalued as on September 30,2001 on the basis of valuation report of Government approved valuers at their depreciated replacement value and stated at their revalued amounts.

(ii) Assets at Mumbai installed up to March 31,2002 are stated at cost as estimated by an approved valuer.

Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

(c) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

(i) Leasehold Land (at cost or revalued as the case may be) is amortised over the period of 69 Years and 95 Years for Roha and Lote Parashuram site respectively.

(ii) Other Fixed Assets:

(1) In the case of following assets (which have been revalued) at Roha, depreciation has been provided on straight line (SL) basis over the balance useful life of the assets as estimated by the approved valuer or at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, whichever are higher.

Description of Tangible Asset. ''Rates (SL Method) Schedule XIV Rates

(Range) (SL Method)

Buildings 1.63%-19.00% 1.63%

Plant and Machinery 5.28%-47.50% 5.28%

Electricallnstallations 5.28%-31.67% 5.28%

* Depreciation Rates on SL Method for the balance useful life as estimated by the valuer.

(2) In respect of Buildings, Plant and Machinery and Electrical Installations, except additions to the aforesaid Fixed Assets at Mumbai upto 30 September 1981, on straight line basis in accordance with Section 205(2)(b) of the Companies Act, 1956, at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

(3) In respect of all other Fixed Assets, on written down value basis in accordance with Section 205(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 1956, at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

(4) Individual assets acquired for less than Rs. 5,000 are entirely depreciated in the year of acquisition.

(d) Intangible assets and Amortisation

(i) Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation. (ii) Amortisation:

(a) Computer software is amortised on a straight line basis proportionately over a period of four years.

(b) Trademarks are amortised on a straight line basis proportionately over a period of five years.

(c) Product Registration expenses are amortised on a straight line basis over a period of four years.

(d) The amortisation period and the amortisation method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from previous estimates, the amortisation period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the amortisation method is changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted for in accordance with AS 5 Net Profit or Loss lor the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

(e) Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

(e) Research and development costs

Research costs (other than cost of Fixed Assets acquired) are charged as an expense in the year in which they are incurred and are reflected under the appropriate heads of accounts. Development expenditure incurredon an individual project is carried forward when its future recoverability can reasonably be regarded as assured. Any expenditure carried forward is amortised over the period of expected future sales from the related project, not exceeding ten years. The carrying value of development costs is reviewed for impairment annually when the asset is not yet in use, and otherwise when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.

(f) Leases

Where the company is lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight- line basis over the lease term.

Where the company is the lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the assets are classified as operating lease.

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expenses in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

(g) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest and amortisations of ancillary costs in connection with the arrangement of the borrowings.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur. Interest and other costs incurred for acquisition and construction of qualifying assets, upto the date of commissioning/installation, are capitalised as part of the cost of the said assets.

(h) Impairment of tangible and intangible assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating unit''s (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the Company''s cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.

Impairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss, except for previously revalued tangible fixed assets, where the revaluation was taken to revaluation reserve. In this case, the impairment is also recognised in the revaluation reserve up to the amount of any previous revaluation.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognised impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset''s or cash-generating unit''s recoverable amount. A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase.

(i) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies, from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that (i) the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them, and

(ii) the grant/subsidy will be received.

When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognised as income on a systematic basis in the statement of profit and loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs/which they are intended to compensate. Where the grant relates to an asset, it is recognised as deferred income and released to income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset. Where the Company receives non-monetary grants, the asset is accounted for on the basis of its acquisition cost. In case a non-monetary asset is given free of cost, it is recognised at a nominal value.

Government Capital Grants of the nature of promoters'' contribution are credited to Capital

Reserve and treated as part of Shareholders'' Fund.

(j) Investments

Investments, which are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. On initial recognition all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties. Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments. On disposal of an investment the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

(k) Inventories

Raw materials, containers (packing materials), stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, containers and stores and spares is determined on a moving weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost is determined on absorption costing basis at actuals.

Traded Goods are valued at-Lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes cost of purchases and other cost incurred in bringing the inventory to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on a moving weighted average basis.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(I) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer usually on delivery of the goods. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

Income from services

Revenues from service contracts are recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered. The Company collects service tax on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.

Interest

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head "other income" in the statement of profit and loss.

Export Benefits

Duty free imports of raw materials under Advance License for Imports as per the Export and Import Policy are matched with the exports made against the said licenses and the net benefit/obligation is accounted by making suitable adjustments in raw material consumption.

The benefit accrued under the Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme or Duty Drawback Scheme as per the Export and Import Policy in respect of exports made under the said Scheme is included under the note "Other Operating Revenue" as ''Export incentives''.

Dividends

Dividend income is recognised when the Company''s right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.

Royalties

Revenue is recognised on an accrual basis in accordance with the terms of the relevant agreement.

Other Income

Certain items of income such as insurance claims, commission income, overdue interest from customers, etc. are considered to the extent the amount is ascertainable/accepted by the parties.

(m) Foreign currency translation

Foreign currency transactions and balances

(i) Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

(iii) Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting monetary items of Company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

(iv) Forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset/liability.

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortised and recognised as an expense/income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts, except the contracts which are long-term foreign currency monetary items, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognised as income or as expense for the period.

(n) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognises contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. The contributions to the provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the year when the contributions are due.

Retirement benefits in the form of Superannuation Fund is a defined contribution scheme. There are no obligations other than the contribution payable to the Superannuation Fund Trust. The Company recognises contribution payable to the Superannuation Fund as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service.The contribution is charged to the statement of profit and loss of the year when the contribution accrues. The scheme is funded with insurance Company in the form of qualifying insurance policies.

Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year. The scheme is funded with insurance Company in the form of qualifying insurance policy.

Short-term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long-term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains/losses are recognised immediately to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

Expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to the statement of profit and loss immediately.

(o) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India and tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where the Company operates. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits,

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The Company recognises MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognises MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under the Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The Company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

(p) Segment reporting

Identification of segments

The Company''s operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Inter-segment transfers

The Company generally accounts for intersegment sales and transfers at cost plus appropriate margins.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according''to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(q) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to eguity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(r) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(s) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognise a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(t) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(u) Measurement of EBITDA

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. In its measurement, the Company does not include depreciation and amortisation expense, interest income, finance costs and tax expense.


Mar 31, 2012

(a) Change in accounting policy

Presentation and disclosure of financial statements

During the year ended 31 March 2012, the revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act 1956, has become applicable to the Company, for preparation and presentation of its financial statements. The adoption of revised Schedule VI does not impact recognition and measurement principles followed for preparation of financial statements. However, it has significant impact on presentation and disclosures made in the financial statements. The Company has also reclassified the previous year figures in accordance with the requirements applicable in the current year.

(b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(c) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and provision for impairment, if any, except for the following:

(i) Land, Buildings, Plant and Machinery and Electrical Installations situated at Roha have been revalued as on 30 September, 2001 on the basis of valuation report of Government approved valuers at their depreciated replacement value and stated at their revalued amounts.

2.1 SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Contd.)

(ii) Assets at Mumbai installed up to 31 March 2002 are stated at cost as estimated by an approved valuer.

Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

(d) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

(i) Leasehold Land (at cost or revalued as the case may be) is amortised over the period of 69 Years and 95 Years for Roha and Lote Parashuram site respectively.

(ii) Other Fixed Assets:

(1) In the case of following assets (which have been revalued) at Roha, depreciation has been provided on straight line (SL) basis over the balance useful life of the assets as estimated by the approved valuer or at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, whichever are higher.

(2) I n respect of Buildings, Plant and Machinery and Electrical Installations, except additions to the aforesaid Fixed Assets at Mumbai upto 30 September 1981, on straight line basis in accordance with Section 205(2) (b) of the Companies Act, 1956, at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

(3) In respect of all other Fixed Assets, on written down value basis in accordance with Section 205(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 1956, at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

(4) Individual assets acquired for less than Rs 5,000 are entirely depreciated in the year of acquisition.

(e) Intangible assets and Amortisation

(i) Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation.

(ii) Amortisation:

(a) Computer software is amortised on a straight line basis proportionately over a period of four years.

(b) Trademarks are amortised on a straight line basis proportionately over a period of five years.

(c) Product Registration expenses are amortised on a straight line basis over a period of four years.

(f) Research and development costs

Research costs (other than cost of Fixed Assets acquired) are charged as an expense in the year in which they are incurred and are reflected under the appropriate heads of accounts. Development expenditure incurred on an individual project is carried forward when its future recoverability can reasonably be regarded as assured. Any expenditure carried forward is amortised over the period of expected future sales from the related project, not exceeding ten years. The carrying value of development costs is reviewed for impairment annually when the asset is not yet in use, and otherwise when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.

(g) Leases

Where the company is lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight- line basis over the lease term.

Where the company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expenses in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

(h) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur. Interest and other costs incurred for acquisition and construction of qualifying assets, upto the date of commissioning/installation, are capitalised as part of the cost of the said assets.

(i) Impairment of tangible and intangible assets

(i) The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed for impairment at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

(ii) After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

(iii) A previously recognised impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

(j) Government grants and subsidies

Government Capital Grants of the nature of promoters' contribution are credited to Capital Reserve and treated as part of Shareholders' Funds.

(k) Investments

I nvestments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

(l) Inventories

Raw materials, containers, (packing materials) stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, containers and stores and spares is determined on a moving weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on absorption costing basis at actuals.

Traded Goods Lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is determined on a moving weighted average basis.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(m) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer. Gross turnover includes Excise Duty but does not include Sales Tax and VAT.

Income from services

Revenues from service contracts are recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered and are net of service tax.

Interest

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head "other income" in the statement of profit and loss.

Export Benefits

Duty free imports of raw materials under Advance License for Imports as per the Export and Import Policy are matched with the exports made against the said licenses and the net benefit/obligation is accounted by making suitable adjustments in raw material consumption.

The benefit accrued under the Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme or Duty Drawback Scheme as per the Export and Import Policy in respect of exports made under the said Scheme is included under the note "Other Operating Revenue" as 'Exports incentives'. Dividends

Dividend income is recognised when the Company's right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.

Royalties

Revenue is recognised on an accrual basis in accordance with the terms of the relevant agreement.

Other Income

Certain items of income such as insurance claims, commission income, overdue interest from customers, etc. are considered to the extent the amount is ascertainable/accepted by the parties.

(n) Foreign currency translation

Foreign currency transactions and balances

(i) Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

(iii) Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting monetary items of Company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

(iv) Forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset/liability.

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortised and recognised as an expense/income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts, except the contracts which are long-term foreign currency monetary items, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognised as income or as expense for the period.

(o) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The contributions to the provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the year when the contributions are due.

Retirement benefits in the form of Superannuation Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contribution is charged to the statement of profit and loss of the year when the contribution accrues. There are no obligations other than the contribution payable to the Superannuation Fund Trust. The scheme is funded with insurance Company in the form of a qualifying insurance policies.

Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year. The scheme is funded with insurance Company in the form of a qualifying insurance policies.

Short-term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long-term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains/losses are recognised immediately to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

Expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to the statement of profit and loss immediately.

(p) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the taxes on income levied by same governing taxation laws. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

At each reporting date the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Wealth Tax is provided in accordance with the provisions of the Wealth Tax Act, 1957.

MAT credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each reporting date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

(q) Segment reporting

Identification of segments

The Company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Inter-segment transfers

The Company generally accounts for intersegment sales and transfers at cost plus appropriate margins.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(r) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(s) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(t) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognise a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(u) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(v) Measurement of EBITDA

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. In its measurement, the Company does not include depreciation and amortisation expense, finance costs and tax expense.

(b) Terms/rights attached to equity shares

The Company has only one class of equity shares having a par value of Rs 5/- per share. Each holder of equity share carries one vote and is entitled to dividend that may be declared by the Board of Directors, which is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the Annual General Meeting.

During the year ended March 31, 2012, the amount of per share dividend recognised as distributions to equity shareholders was Rs 2/- (Previous year: Rs 3.75/-)

In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the Company, after distribution of all preferential amounts. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.

(a) Term loan under vehicle finance from bank amounting to Rs Nil (Previous Year: Rs 0.46 lac) is secured by hypothecation of the vehicles acquired by utilising the said loans and is repayable in equated monthly installments till November 7, 2011, the loan carries the interest @ 14% p.a.

(b) Term loan under vehicle finance from financial institution amounting to Rs 40.01 lacs (Previous Year: Rs 41.24 lacs) carrying interest rate ranging from 12% to 14 %, repayable in equated monthly installments and secured by hypothecation of the vehicles acquired by utilising the said loans.

(c) Deposit from shareholders are repayable after two and three years from the respective dates of deposits and carry the interest @ 9.5% p.a. and @ 10% p.a. respectively.

(d) Deposit from public are repayable after two and three years from the respective dates of deposits and carry the interest @ 9.5% p.a. and @ 10% p.a. respectively.

The Company has recognised deferred tax asset since the management believes that the reversal of the timing difference on account of depreciation would result in sufficient future taxable income against which the said deferred tax asset can be realised.

Cash credit, packing credit and working capital demand loan from bank are secured by hypothecation of all tangible movable assets both present and future including stock of raw materials, finished goods, goods in process, stores and trade receivables etc and is further secured by a second charge on the fixed assets at Roha and Lote Parshuram. The cash credit, packing credit and working capital demand loan is repayable on demand and carries interest rates @ 9% to 14% p.a.

Outstanding foreign currency buyer's credit loans are unsecured and carry an interest rate ranging from libor plus 282 bps to 350 bps.


Mar 31, 2011

(a) Basis of Preparation:

The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the Accounting Standards notified by Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis except in case of assets for which revaluation is carried out. The accounting policies have been consistently applied by the Company are consistent with those used in the previous year.

(b) Use of estimates:

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon managements best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

(c) Fixed Assets and Depreciation:

(i) Fixed Assets:

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and provision for impairment, if any, except for the following:

(a) Land, Buildings, Plant and Machinery and Electrical Installations situated at Roha have been revalued as on 30 September, 2001 on the basis of valuation report of Government approved valuers at their depreciated replacement value and stated at their revalued amounts.

(b) Assets at Mumbai installed up to 31 March, 2002 are stated at cost as estimated by an approved valuer.

Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

(ii) Depreciation and Amortisation:

(a) Leasehold Land (at cost or revalued as the case may be) is amortised over the period of 69 Years and 95 Years for Roha and Lote Parashuram site respectively.

(b) Other Fixed Assets:

1. In the case of following assets (which have been revalued) at Roha, depreciation has been provided on straight line (SL) basis over the balance useful life of the assets as estimated by the approved valuer or at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, whichever are higher.

* Depreciation Rates on SL Method for the balance useful life as estimated by the valuer.

2. In respect of Buildings, Plant and Machinery and Electrical Installations, except additions to the aforesaid Fixed Assets at Mumbai upto 30 September 1981, on straight line basis in accordance with Section 205(2)(b) of the Companies Act, 1956, at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

3. In respect of all other Fixed Assets, on written down value basis in accordance with Section 205(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 1956, at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

4. Individual assets acquired for less than Rs. 5,000 are entirely depreciated in the year of acquisition.

(d) Impairment:

(i) The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed for impairment at each Balance Sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre- tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

(ii) After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

(iii) A previously recognised impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

(e) Intangible Assets and Amortisation:

(i) Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation.

(ii) Amortisation:

(a) Computer software is amortised on a straight line basis proportionately over a period of four years.

(b) Trademarks are amortised on a straight line basis proportionately over a period of five years.

(c) Product Registration expenses are amortised on a straight line basis over a period of four years.

(f) Inventories:

(i) Raw materials, containers, stores and spares

Lower of cost and net realisable value. However,"materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on a moving weighted average basis.

(ii) Finished goods and Work-in-progress

Lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials, labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost is determined on absorption costing basis at actuals.

(iii) Traded Goods

Lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is determined on a moving weighted average basis.

(iv) Work-in-progress in respect of Turnkey Projects is valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(g) Investments:

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost of acquisition. However, the carrying amount is reduced to recognise a decline, other than temporary, in the value of long-term investments by a charge to the Profit and Loss Account.

(h) Export Benefits:

Duty free imports of raw materials under Advance License for Imports as per the Export and Import Policy are matched with the exports made against the said licenses and the net benefit / obligation is accounted by making suitable adjustments in raw material consumption.

The benefit accrued under the Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme as per the Export and Import Policy in respect of exports made under the said Scheme is included under the head "Other Income from Operation" as Incentives on Exports.

(i) Retirement Benefits:

(i) Retirement benefits in the form of Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Profit and Loss Account of the year when the contribution to the fund is due. There are no obligations other than the contribution payable to the Provident Fund Trust.

(ii) Retirement benefits in the form of Superannuation Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contribution is charged to the Profit and Loss account of the year when the contribution accrues. There are no obligations other than the contribution payable to the Superannuation Fund Trust. The scheme is funded with insurance Company in the form of a qualifying insurance policies.

(iii) Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.The scheme is funded with insurance Company in the form of a qualifying insurance policies.

(iv) Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

(v) Actuarial gains / losses are recognised immediately to the Profit and Loss Account and are not deferred.

(vi) Payments made under the Voluntary Retirement Scheme are charged to the Profit and Loss Account immediately.

(j) Foreign currency translations:

Foreign currency transactions:

(i) Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing exchange rate on the Balance Sheet date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

(iii) Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting monetary items of Company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

(iv) Forward Exchange Contracts not intended for trading or speculation purpose: The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any Profit or Loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognised as income or as expense for the year.

(k) Research Costs:

Research costs (other than cost of Fixed Assets acquired) are charged as an expense in the year in which they are incurred and are reflected under the appropriate heads of accounts. Development expenditure incurred on an individual project is carried forward when its future recoverability can reasonably be regarded as assured. Any expenditure carried forward is amortised over the period of expected future sales from the related project, not exceeding ten years. The carrying value of development costs is reviewed for impairment annually when the asset is not yet in use, and otherwise when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.

(l) Leases:

(a) Where the Company is the lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

(b) Where the Company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expenses in the Profit and Loss Account. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss Account.

(m) Borrowing Costs:

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur. Interest and other costs incurred for acquisition and construction of qualifying assets, upto the date of commissioning/installation, are capitalised as part of the cost of the said assets.

(n) Government Grants:

Government Capital Grants of the nature of promoters contribution are credited to Capital Reserve and treated as part of Shareholders Funds.

(o) Accounting for Turnkey Projects:

Income in respect of Turnkey Projects is accounted on the completion of the said projects.

(p) Revenue recognition:

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of Goods

Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer. Gross turnover includes Excise Duty but does not include Sales Tax and VAT.

Income from Services

Revenues from service contracts are recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered and are net of service tax.

Interest

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

Dividend

Revenue is recognized when the shareholders right to receive payment is established by the Balance Sheet date.

Royalties

Revenue is recognised on an accrual basis in accordance with the terms of the relevant agreement.

Other Income

Certain items of income such as insurance claims, commission income, overdue interest from customers etc. are considered to the extent the amount is ascertainable/ accepted by the parties.

(q) Cash and Cash equivalents:

Cash and cash equivalents in the Cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(r) Provisions and contingent liabilities:

A provision is recognised when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed when the Company has a possible obligation and it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation.

(s) Earnings Per Share:

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net Profit or Loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net Profit or Loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(t) Segment Reporting Policies: Identification of segments

The Companys operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Inter segment Transfers:

The Company generally accounts for intersegment sales and transfers as if the sales or transfers were to third parties at current market prices.

Unallocated items

Includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment Policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole. Common allocable costs are allocated to cash segment according to the relative contribution of each segment.

(u) Taxation:

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income- tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the taxes on income levied by same governing taxation laws. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

At each Balance Sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may toe that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Wealth Tax is provided in accordance with the provisions of the Wealth Tax Act, 1957.

MAT credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the Minimum Alternative tax (MAT) credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the Profit and Loss Account and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each Balance Sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.


Mar 31, 2010

(a) Basis of Preparation:

The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the Accounting Standards notified by Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis except in case of assets for which revaluation is carried out. The accounting policies have been consistently applied by the Company are consistent with those used in the previous year.

(b) Use of estimates:

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon managements best knowledge of current events and actions, actuai results could differ from these estimates.

(c) Fixed Assets and Depreciation:

(i) Fixed Assets:

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and provision for impairment, if any, except for the following:

(a) Land, Buildings, Plant and Machinery and Electrical Installations situated at Roha are stated at their revalued amounts.

(b) Assets at Mumbai installed up to 31 March, 2002 are stated at cost as estimated by an approved valuer.

Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

(ii) Depreciation and Amortisation:

(a) Leasehold Land (at cost or revalued as the case may be) is amortised over the period of 69 Years and 95 Years for Roha and Lote Parshuram site respectively.

2. In respect of Buildings, Plant and Machinery and Electrical Installations, except additions to the aforesaid Fixed Assets at Mumbai upto 30 September 1981, on straight line basis in accordance with Section 205(2)(b) of the Companies Act, 1956, at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

3. In respect of all other Fixed Assets, on written down value basis in accordance with Section 205(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 1956, at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

4. Individual assets acquired for less than Rs. 5,000 are entirely depreciated in the year of acquisition.

(d) Impairment:

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed for impairment at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital.

(e) Intangible Assets and Amortisation:

(i) Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation. (ii) Amortisation:

(a) Computer software is amortised on a straight line basis proportionately over a period of four years.

(b) Trademarks are amortised on a straight line basis proportionately over a period of five years.

(f) Inventories:

(i) Raw materials, containers, stores and spares

Lower of cost and net realisable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on a moving weighted average basis.

(ii) Finished goods and Work-in-progress

Lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials, labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost is determined on absorption costing basis at actuals.

(iii) Traded Goods

Lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined on a moving weighted average basis.

(iv) Work-in-progress in respect of Turnkey Projects is valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(g) Investments:

Long-term investments are carried at cost of acquisition. However, the carrying amount is reduced to recognise a decline, other than temporary, in the value of long-term investments by a charge to the Pro/it and Loss Account. (h) Export Benefits:

Duty free imports of raw materials under Advance License for Imports as per the Export and Import Policy are matched with the exports made against the said licenses and the net benefit/obligation is accounted by making suitable adjustments in raw material consumption.

The benefit accrued under the Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme as per the Export and Import Policy in respect of exports made under the said Scheme is included under the head "Other Income from Operation" as Incentives on Exports.

(i) Retirement Benefits:

(i) Retirement benefits in the form of Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Profit and Loss Account of the year when the contribution to the fund is due. There are no obligations other than the contribution payable to the Provident Fund Trust.

(ii) Retirement benefits in the form of Superannuation Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contribution is charged to the Profit and Loss Account of the year when the contribution accrues. There are no obligations other than the contribution payable to the Superannuation Fund Trust.

(iii) Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

(iv) Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

(v) Actuarial gains/losses are recognised immediately to the Profit and Loss Account and are not deferred.

(vi) Payments made under the Voluntary Retirement Scheme are charged to the Profit and Loss Account immediately.

(j) Foreign currency translations:

Foreign currency transactions:

(i) Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing exchange rate on the Balance Sheet date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

(iii) Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting monetary items of Company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

(iv) Forward Exchange Contracts

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognised as income or as expense for the year.

(k) Research Costs:

Research costs (other than cost of fixed assets acguired) are charged as an expense in the year in which they are incurred and are reflected under the appropriate heads of account.

(l) Leases:

(a) Where the Company is the lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

(b) Where the Company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets, Lease income is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expenses in the Profit and Loss Account. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss Account.

(m) Borrowing Costs:

Interest and other costs incurred for acquisition of qualifying assets, up to the date of commissioning/installation, are capitalised as part of the cost of the said assets.

(n) Government Grants:

Government Capital Grants of the nature of promoters contribution are credited to Capital Reserve and treated as part of Shareholders Funds.

(o) Accounting for Turnkey Projects:

Income in respect of Turnkey Projects is accounted on the completion of the said projects.

(p) Revenue recognition:

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of Goods

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer. Gross turnover includes Excise Duty but does not include Sales Tax and VAT.

Income from Services

Revenues from service contracts are recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered and are net of service tax.

Interest

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

Dividend

Revenue is recognised when the shareholders right to receive payment is established by the Balance Sheet date.

Royalties

Revenue is recognised on an accrual basis in accordance with the terms of the relevant agreement.

Other Income

Certain items of income such as insurance claims, overdue interest from customers etc. are considered to the extent the amount is ascertainable/accepted by the parties.

(q) Cash and Cash equivalents:

Cash and cash equivalents in the Balance Sheet comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity ot three months or less.

(r) Provisions and contingent liabilities:

A provision is recognised when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed when the Company has a possible obligation and it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation.

(s) Earnings Per Share:

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(t) Segment Reporting Policies:

Identification of segments

The Companys operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Unallocated items

Includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment Policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(u) Taxation:

Tax expense comprises of current, deferred and fringe benefit tax. Current income tax and fringe benefit tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Fringe Benefit Tax is provided in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and Wealth Tax is provided in accordance with the provisions of the Wealth Tax Act, 1957.

MAT credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.



 
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