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Accounting Policies of Firstsource Solutions Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

1.1 Basis of preparation

These financial statements of Firstsource Solutions Limited, are prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), under the historical cost convention, on the accrual basis, except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair values, comply with Accounting Standards prescribed in the Companies (Accounting standards) Rules, 2006 which continued to apply under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (''the Act''), read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and other relevant provisions of the Act to the extent applicable. The Company early adopted Accounting Standard 30, ''Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement'' (''AS 30'') read with Accounting Standard 31 - ''Financial Instruments: Presentation'' (''AS 31'') issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, effective 1 April 2008. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded off to the nearest millions except per share data.

In the opinion of the management, all the adjustments which are necessary for a fair presentation have been included. All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out under the Act.

2.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (''GAAP'') in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of income and expenses for the period. Management believes that the estimates made in the preparation of financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

2.3 Revenue recognition

Revenue from contact centre and transaction processing services comprises from both time / unit price and fixed fee based service contracts. Revenue from time / unit price based contracts is recognised as services are rendered and is billed in accordance with the contractual terms specified in the customer contracts. Revenue from fixed fee based service contracts is recognised on achievement of performance milestones specified in the customer contracts. Unbilled receivables represent costs incurred and revenues recognised on contracts to be billed in subsequent periods as per the terms of the contract. Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive dividend is established. Interest income is recognised using the time proportion method, based on the underlying interest rates.

2.4 Fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. Cost includes freight, duties, taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition and installation of the fixed assets. Depreciation on fixed assets is provided pro rata to the period of use based on management''s best estimate of useful lives of the assets as summarized below:

* For these class of assets, based on internal assessment and independent technical evaluation carried out by external valuers, the management believes that the useful lives as given above best represent the period over which management expects to use these assets. Hence the useful lives for these assets are different from the useful lives as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II to the Companies Act 2013.

Software purchased together with the related hardware is capitalised and depreciated at the rates applicable to related assets. Intangible assets other than above mentioned software are amortised over the best estimate of the useful life from the date the assets are available for use. Further, the useful life is reviewed at the end of each reporting period for any changes in the estimates of useful life and accordingly the asset is amortised over the remaining useful life.

Individual assets costing upto Rupees five thousand are depreciated in full in the period of purchase.

Software product development costs are expensed as incurred during the research phase until technological feasibility is established. Software development costs incurred subsequent to the achievement of technological feasibility are capitalised and amortised over the estimated useful life of the products as determined by the management. This capitalisation is done only if there is an intention and ability to complete the product, the product is likely to generate future economic benefits, adequate resources to complete the product are available and such expenses can be accurately measured. Such software development costs comprise expenditure that can be directly attributed, or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis, to the development of the product.

The amortisation of software development costs is allocated on a systematic basis over the best estimate of its useful life after the product is ready for use. The factors considered for identifying the basis include obsolescence, product life cycle and actions of competitors.

The amortisation period and the amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period. If the expected useful life of the product is shorter from previous estimates, the amortisation period is changed accordingly.

Borrowing costs are interest and other costs (including exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent that they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs) incurred by the Company in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of those fixed assets which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

2.5 Impairment of assets

a. Financial assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the amount of impairment loss. The amount of loss for short-term receivables is measured as the difference between the assets'' carrying amount and undiscounted amount of future cash flows. Reduction, if any, is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is any indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recognised impairment loss is reversed, subject to maximum of initial carrying amount of the short-term receivable.

b. Non-financial assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that a non-financial asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost.

2.6 Employee Benefits

a) Post employment benefits Gratuity

The gratuity scheme with insurer is a defined benefit plan. The net obligation in respect of the gratuity benefit scheme is calculated by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods; that benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any plan

assets is deducted. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on actuarial valuation by an independent actuary using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rates used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plan are based on the market yields on Government securities as at the balance sheet date. When the calculation results in a benefit to the Company, the recognised asset is limited to the net total of any unrecognised actuarial losses and past service costs and the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Defined contribution plans

All employees of the company receive benefits from Government approved provident fund scheme, which is a defined contribution retirement plan in which both, the Company and the employees, contribute at a determined rate. Monthly contributions payable to the provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss as incurred.

b) Other long term employee benefits

Compensated absences

Provision for compensated absences cost has been made based on actuarial valuation by an independent actuary at balance sheet date.

Where employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences, the employees can carry-forward a portion of the unutilized accrued compensated absence and utilise it in future periods or receive cash compensation at termination of employment for the unutilised accrued compensated absence. The Company records an obligation for compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increase this entitlement. The Company measures the expected cost of compensated absences as the additional amount that the Company expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date.

2.7 Investments

Non-current investments are carried at cost and provision is made when in the management''s opinion there is a decline, other than temporary, in the carrying value of such investments. Current investments are valued at the lower of cost and market value.

2.8 Taxation

Income tax expense comprises current tax expense and deferred tax expense or credit.

Current taxes

Provision for current income-tax is recognised in accordance with the provisions of Indian Income-tax Act, 1961 and is made annually based on the tax liability after taking credit for tax allowances and exemptions. In case of matter under appeal, full provision is made in the financial statements when the Company accepts liability.

Deferred taxes

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for the future tax consequences attributable to timing differences that result from differences between the profits offered for income taxes and the profits as per the financial statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities and the corresponding deferred tax credit or charge are measured using the tax rates and the tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognised in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realized in the future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reassessed for the appropriateness of their respective carrying values at each balance sheet date. The Company has operations in Special Economic Zones (SEZ). Income from SEZ is eligible for 100% deduction for the first five years, 50% deduction for next five years and 50% deduction for another five years, subject to fulfilling certain conditions. In this regard, the Company recognises deferred taxes in respect of those originating timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period resulting in tax consequences. Timing differences which

originate and reverse within the tax holiday period do not result in tax consequence and, therefore, no deferred taxes are recognised in respect of the same.

2.9 Leases

Finance lease

Assets acquired on finance leases, including assets acquired under sale and lease back transactions, have been recognised as an asset and a liability at the inception of the lease and have been recorded at an amount equal to the lower of the fair value of the leased asset and the present value of the future minimum lease payments. Such leased assets are depreciated over the lease term or its estimated useful life, whichever is shorter. Further, the installments of minimum lease payments have been apportioned between finance charge / expense and principal repayment.

Assets given out on finance lease are shown as amounts recoverable from the lessee. The rentals received on such leases are apportioned between the finance charge / (income) and principal amount using the implicit rate of return. The finance charge / (income) is recognised as income, and principal received is reduced from the amount receivable. All initial direct costs incurred are included in the cost of the asset.

Operating lease

Lease rentals in respect of assets acquired under operating lease are charged off to the statement of profit and loss as incurred on a straight line basis.

2.10 Foreign currency transactions, derivative instruments and hedge accounting

a. Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Net exchange gain or loss resulting in respect of foreign exchange transactions settled during the period is recognised in the statement of profit and loss for the period. Foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities other than fixed assets are translated at the period end exchange rates and the resulting net gain or loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

The Company is exposed to foreign currency fluctuations on net investments in foreign operations and forecasted cash flows denominated in foreign currencies. The Company limits the effects of foreign exchange rate fluctuations by following established risk management policies including the use of derivatives. The Company enters into derivative financial instruments, where the counterparty is a bank.

The use of foreign currency forward contracts is governed by the Company''s policies approved by the Board of Directors, which provides written principles on the use of such financial derivatives consistent with the Company''s risk management strategy. The Company does not use derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts and currency options to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to certain forecasted transactions. The Company designates these as cash flow hedges.

Foreign currency derivative instruments are initially measured at fair value, and are re-measured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognized directly in shareholder''s funds and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss. Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they arise.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time for forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in shareholders'' funds is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs.

If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in shareholders'' funds is transferred to the statement of profit and loss for the period.

The impact of adoption of AS 30 has been described in note 34 to the financial statements.

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity. Financial assets of the Company include cash and bank balances, trade receivables, unbilled revenues, finance lease receivables, employee travel and other advances, other loans and advances and derivative financial instruments with a positive fair value. Financial liabilities of the Company comprise secured and unsecured loans, trade payables, accrued expenses and derivative financial instruments with a negative fair value. Financial assets / liabilities are recognised on the balance sheet when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Financial assets are derecognised when all of risks and rewards of the ownership have been transferred. The transfer of risks and rewards is evaluated by comparing the exposure, before and after the transfer, with the variability in the amounts and timing of the net cash flows of the transferred assets.

Short-term receivables with no stated interest rates are measured at original invoice amount, if the effect of discounting is immaterial. Non-interest-bearing deposits are discounted to their present value.

The Company also designates financial instruments as hedges of net investments in non-integral foreign operations. The portion of changes in fair value of financial instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge is recognised in statement of profit and loss together with the translation of the related investment. Changes in fair value relating to the ineffective portion of hedges are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they arise.

The Company measures the financial liabilities, except for derivative financial liabilities, at amortised cost using the effective interest method. The Company measures the short-term payables with no stated rate of interest at original invoice amount, if the effect of discounting is immaterial.

2.11 Foreign currency translation

The financial statements are reported in Indian rupees. The translation of the local currency of each integral foreign oprerations into Indian rupees is performed in respect of assets and liabilities other than fixed assets, using the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date and for

revenue and expense items other than the depreciation costs, using average exchange rate during the reporting period. Fixed assets of integral foreign operations are translated at exchange rates on the date of the transaction and depreciation on fixed assets is translated at exchange rates used for translation of the underlying fixed assets.

In respect of non-integral entity, assets and liabilities including fixed assets are translated at exchange rates prevailing at the date of the balance sheet. The items in the statement of profit and loss are translated at the average exchange rate during the period. The difference arising out of the translations are transferred to Exchange difference on consolidation of non-integral entities under Reserves and surplus.

2.12 Earnings per share

The basic earnings per equity share are computed by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to the equity shareholders for the period by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The number of shares used in computing diluted earnings per share comprises the weighted average number of shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share, and also the weighted average number of equity shares which may be issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential shares, unless the results would be anti-dilutive.

2.13 Provisions and contingencies

The Company creates a provision when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Provisions are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate. If it is no longer probable that an outflow of resources would be required to settle the obligation, the provision is reversed.

Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an economic benefit will arise, the asset and related income are recognised in the period in which the change occurs.

2.14 Onerous contracts

Provisions for onerous contracts are recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of fulfilling the contract.


Mar 31, 2014

1.1 Basis of preparation

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention (except for certain financial instruments, which are measured on fair value basis) on accrual basis of accounting, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in India in compliance with the Accounting Standards notified in the Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central Government in consultation with the National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards, the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, the Companies Act, 1956 to the extent applicable and Accounting Standard 30,''Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement'' (''AS 30'') read with Accounting Standard 31 - ''Financial Instruments: Presentation'' (AS 31) issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, effective 1 April 2008. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded off to the nearest millions except per share data.

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (''GAAP'') in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of income and expenses for the period. Management believes that the estimates made in the preparation of financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

1.3 Revenue recognition

Revenue from contact centre and transaction processing services comprises from both time / unit price and fixed fee based service contracts. Revenue from time / unit price based contracts is recognised as services are rendered and is billed in accordance with the contractual terms specified in the customer contracts. Revenue from fixed fee based service contracts is recognised on achievement of performance milestones specified in the customer contracts.

Unbilled receivables represent costs incurred and revenues recognised on contracts to be billed in subsequent periods as per the terms of the contract.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive dividend is established.

Interest income is recognised using the time proportion method, based on the underlying interest rates.

Software purchased together with the related hardware is capitalised and depreciated at the rates applicable to related assets. Intangible assets other than above mentioned software are amortised over the best estimate of the useful life from the date the assets are available for use. Further, the useful life is reviewed at the end of each reporting period for any changes in the estimates of useful life and accordingly the asset is amortised over the remaining useful life.

Individual assets costing upto Rupees five thousand are depreciated in full in the period of purchase.

Software product development costs are expensed as incurred during the research phase until technological feasibility is established. Software development costs incurred subsequent to the achievement of technological feasibility are capitalised and amortised over the estimated useful life of the products as determined by the management. This capitalisation is done only if there is an intention and ability to complete the product, the product is likely to generate future economic benefits, adequate resources to complete the product are available and such expenses can be accurately measured. Such software development costs comprise expenditure that can be directly attributed, or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis, to the development of the product.

The amortisation of software development costs is allocated on a systematic basis over the best estimate of its useful life after the product is ready for use. The factors considered for identifying the basis include obsolescence, product life cycle and actions of competitors.

The amortisation period and the amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period. If the expected useful life of the product is shorter from previous estimates, the amortisation period is changed accordingly.

Borrowing costs are interest and other costs (including exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent that they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs) incurred by the Company in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of those tangible fixed assets which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

1.5 Impairment of assets

a. Financial assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the amount of impairment loss. The amount of loss for short-term receivables is measured as the difference between the assets'' carrying amount and undiscounted amount of future cash flows. Reduction, if any, is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is any indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recognised impairment loss is reversed, subject to maximum of initial carrying amount of the short-term receivable.

b. Non-financial assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that a non-financial asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost.

1.6 Employee Benefits

Gratuity

The gratuity scheme with insurer is a defined benefit plan. The net obligation in respect of the gratuity benefit scheme is calculated by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods; that benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any plan assets is deducted. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on actuarial valuation by an independent actuary using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rates used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plan are based on the market yields on Government securities as at the balance sheet date. When the calculation results in a benefit to the Company, the recognised asset is limited to the net total of any unrecognised actuarial losses and past service costs and the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Compensated absences

Provision for compensated absences cost has been made based on actuarial valuation by an independent actuary at balance sheet date.

Where employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences, the employees can carry- forward a portion of the unutilised accrued compensated absence and utilise it in future periods or receive cash compensation at termination of employment for the unutilised accrued compensated absence. The Company records an obligation for compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increase this entitlement. The Company measures the expected cost of compensated absences as the additional amount that the Company expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date.

Provident fund

All employees of the Company receive benefits from Government approved provident fund scheme, which is a defined contribution retirement plan in which both, the Company and the employees, contribute at a determined rate. Monthly contributions payable to the provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss as incurred.

1.7 Investments

Non-current investments are carried at cost and provision is made when in the management''s opinion there is a decline, other than temporary, in the carrying value of such investments. Current investments are valued at the lower of cost and market value.

1.8 Taxation

Income tax expense comprises current tax expense and deferred tax expense or credit.

Current taxes

Provision for current income-tax is recognised in accordance with the provisions of Indian Income-tax Act, 1961 and is made annually based on the tax liability after taking credit for tax allowances and exemptions. In case of matter under appeal, full provision is made in the financial statements when the Company accepts liability.

Deferred taxes

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for the future tax consequences attributable to timing differences that result from differences between the profits offered for income taxes and the profits as per the financial statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities and the corresponding deferred tax credit or charge are measured using the tax rates and the tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognised in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in the future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reassessed for the appropriateness of their respective carrying values at each balance sheet date.

The Company has operations in Special Economic Zones (SEZ). Income from SEZ is eligible for 100% deduction for the first five years, 50% deduction for next five years and 50% deduction for another five years, subject to fulfilling certain conditions. In this regard, the Company recognises deferred taxes in respect of those originating timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period resulting in tax consequences. Timing differences which originate and reverse within the tax holiday period do not result in tax consequence and, therefore, no deferred taxes are recognised in respect of the same.

1.9 Leases

Finance lease

Assets acquired on finance leases, including assets acquired under sale and lease back transactions, have been recognised as an asset and a liability at the inception of the lease and have been recorded at an amount equal to the lower of the fair value of the leased asset and the present value of the future minimum lease payments. Such leased assets are depreciated over the lease term or its estimated useful life, whichever is shorter. Further, the instalments of minimum lease payments have been apportioned between finance charge / expense and principal repayment.

Assets given out on finance lease are shown as amounts recoverable from the lessee. The rentals received on such leases are apportioned between the finance charge / (income) and principal amount using the implicit rate of return. The finance charge / (income) is recognised as income, and principal received is reduced from the amount receivable. All initial direct costs incurred are included in the cost of the asset.

Operating lease

Lease rentals in respect of assets acquired under operating lease are charged off to the statement of profit and loss as incurred on a straight line basis.

1.10 Foreign currency transactions, derivative instruments and hedge accounting

a. Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Net exchange gain or loss resulting in respect of foreign exchange transactions settled during the period is recognised in the statement of profit and loss for the year. Foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities other than fixed assets are translated at the year end exchange rates and the resulting net gain or loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

b. Derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Company is exposed to foreign currency fluctuations on net investments in foreign operations and forecasted cash flows denominated in foreign currencies. The Company limits the effects of foreign exchange rate fluctuations by following established risk management policies including the use of derivatives. The Company enters into derivative financial instruments, where the counterparty is a bank.

The use of foreign currency forward contracts is governed by the Company''s policies approved by the Board of Directors, which provides written principles on the use of such financial derivatives consistent with the Company''s risk management strategy. The Company does not use derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts and currency options to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to certain forecasted transactions. The Company designates these as cash flow hedges.

Foreign currency derivative instruments are initially measured at fair value, and are re-measured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in shareholder''s funds and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss. Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they arise.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time for forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in shareholder''s funds is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs.

If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in shareholders'' funds is transferred to the statement of profit and loss for the period.

The impact of adoption of AS 30 has been described in note 36 to the financial statements.

c. Non-derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity. Financial assets of the Company include cash and bank balances, trade receivables, unbilled revenues, finance lease receivables, employee travel and other advances, other loans and advances and derivative financial instruments with a positive fair value. Financial liabilities of the Company comprise secured and unsecured loans, trade payables, accrued expenses and derivative financial instruments with a negative fair value. Financial assets / liabilities are recognised on the balance sheet when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Financial assets are derecognised when all of risks and rewards of the ownership have been transferred. The transfer of risks and rewards is evaluated by comparing the exposure, before and after the transfer, with the variability in the amounts and timing of the net cash flows of the transferred assets.

Short-term receivables with no stated interest rates are measured at original invoice amount, if the effect of discounting is immaterial. Non-interest-bearing deposits are discounted to their present value.

The Company also designates financial instruments as hedges of net investments in non-integral foreign operations. The portion of changes in fair value of financial instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge is recognised in statement of profit and loss together with the translation of the related investment. Changes in fair value relating to the ineffective portion of hedges are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they arise.

The Company measures the financial liabilities, except for Derivative financial liabilities, at amortised cost using the effective interest method. The Company measures the short-term payables with no stated rate of interest at original invoice amount, if the effect of discounting is immaterial.

1.11 Foreign currency translation

The financial statements are reported in Indian rupees. The translation of the local currency of each integral foreign entity into Indian rupees is performed in respect of assets and liabilities other than fixed assets, using the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date and for revenue and expense items other than the depreciation costs, using average exchange rate during the reporting period. Fixed assets of integral foreign operations are translated at exchange rates on the date of the transaction and depreciation on fixed assets is translated at exchange rates used for translation of the underlying fixed assets.

In respect of non-integral entity, assets and liabilities including fixed assets are translated at exchange rates prevailing at the date of the balance sheet. The items in the statement of profit and loss are translated at the average exchange rate during the year. The difference arising out of the translations are transferred to Exchange difference on consolidation of non-integral entities under Reserves and surplus.

1.12 Earnings per share

The basic earnings per equity share are computed by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to the equity shareholders for the year by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The number of shares used in computing diluted earnings per share comprises the weighted average number of shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share, and also the weighted average number of equity shares which may be issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential shares, unless the results would be anti-dilutive.

1.13 Provisions and contingencies

The Company creates a provision when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Provisions are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate. If it is no longer probable that an outflow of resources would be required to settle the obligation, the provision is reversed.

Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an economic benefit will arise, the asset and related income are recognised in the period in which the change occurs.

1.14 Onerous contracts

Provisions for onerous contracts are recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of fulfilling the contract.


Mar 31, 2013

1.1 Basis of preparation

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention (except for certain financial instruments, which are measured on fair value basis) on accrual basis of accounting, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in India, in compliance with the Accounting Standards notified in the Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central Government in consultation with the National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards and with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, to the extent applicable and Accounting Standard 30, ''Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement'' (''AS 30'') read with Accounting Standard 31 - ''Financial Instruments: Presentation'' (AS 31) issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, effective 1 April 2008. All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the revised Schedule VI to the Act. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded off to the nearest millions except per share data.

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (''GAAP'') in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of income and expenses for the period. Management believes that the estimates made in the preparation of financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

1.3 Revenue recognition

Revenue from contact center and transaction processing services comprises from both time/unit price and fixed fee based service contracts. Revenue from time/unit price based contracts is recognised as services are rendered and is billed in accordance with the contractual terms specified in the customer contracts. Revenue from fixed fee based service contracts is recognised on achievement of performance milestones specified in the customer contracts.

Unbilled receivables represent costs incurred and revenues recognised on contracts to be billed in subsequent periods as per the terms of the contract.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive dividend is established.

Interest income is recognised using the time proportion method, based on the underlying interest rates.

1.4 Fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. Cost includes freight, duties, taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition and installation of the fixed assets. Depreciation on fixed assets is provided pro rata to the period of use based on management''s best estimate of useful lives of the assets (which are shorter than those prescribed under the Companies Act, 1956) as summarized below:

Software purchased together with the related hardware is capitalised and depreciated at the rates applicable to related assets. Intangible assets other than above mentioned software are amortised over the best estimate of the useful life from the date the assets are available for use. Further, the useful life is reviewed at the end of each reporting period for any changes in the estimates of useful life and accordingly the asset is amortised over the remaining useful life.

Individual assets costing upto Rupees five thousand are depreciated in full in the period of purchase.

Software product development costs are expensed as incurred during the research phase until technological feasibility is established. Software development costs incurred subsequent to the achievement of technological feasibility are capitalised and amortised over the estimated useful life of the products as determined by the management. This capitalisation is done only if there is an intention and ability to complete the product, the product is likely to generate future economic benefits, adequate resources to complete the product are available and such expenses can be accurately measured. Such software development costs comprise expenditure that can be directly attributed, or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis, to the development of the product.

The amortisation of software development costs is allocated on a systematic basis over the best estimate of its useful life after the product is ready for use. The factors considered for identifying the basis include obsolescence, product life cycle and actions of competitors.

The amortisation period and the amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period. If the expected useful life of the product is shorter from previous estimates, the amortisation period is changed accordingly.

Borrowing costs are interest and other costs (including exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent that they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs) incurred by the Company in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of those tangible fixed assets which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

1.5 Impairment of assets

a. Financial assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the amount of impairment loss. The amount of loss for short-term receivables is measured as the difference between the assets'' carrying amount and undiscounted amount of future cash flows. Reduction, if any, is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is any indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recognised impairment loss is reversed, subject to maximum of initial carrying amount of the short-term receivable.

b. Non-financial assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that a non-financial asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost.

1.6 Employee Benefits Gratuity

The gratuity scheme with insurer is a defined benefit plan. The net obligation in respect of the gratuity benefit scheme is calculated by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods; that benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any plan assets is deducted. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on actuarial valuation by an independent actuary using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rates used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plan are based on the market yields on Government securities as at the balance sheet date. When the calculation results in a benefit to the Company, the recognised asset is limited to the net total of any unrecognised actuarial losses and past service costs and the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Compensated absences

Provision for compensated absences cost has been made based on actuarial valuation by an independent actuary at balance sheet date.

Where employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences, the employees can carry-forward a portion of the unutilized accrued compensated absence and utilise it in future periods or receive cash compensation at termination of employment for the unutilised accrued compensated absence. The Company records an obligation for compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increase this entitlement. The Company measures the expected cost of compensated absences as the additional amount that the Company expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date.

Provident fund

All employees of the Company receive benefits from Government approved provident fund scheme, which is a defined contribution retirement plan in which both, the Company and the employees, contribute at a determined rate. Monthly contributions payable to the provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss as incurred.

1.7 Investments

Non-current investments are carried at cost and provision is made when in the management''s opinion there is a decline, other than temporary, in the carrying value of such investments. Current investments are valued at the lower of cost and market value.

1.8 Taxation

Income tax expense comprises current tax expense and deferred tax expense or credit.

Current taxes

Provision for current income-tax is recognised in accordance with the provisions of Indian Income-tax Act, 1961 and is made annually based on the tax liability after taking credit for tax allowances and exemptions. In case of matter under appeal, full provision is made in the financial statements when the Company accepts liability.

Deferred taxes

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for the future tax consequences attributable to timing differences that result from differences between the profits offered for income taxes and the profits as per the financial statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities and the corresponding deferred tax credit or charge are measured using the tax rates and the tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognised in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realized in the future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reassessed for the appropriateness of their respective carrying values at each balance sheet date.

The Company has operations in Special Economic Zones (SEZ). Income from SEZ is eligible for 100% deduction for the first five years, 50% deduction for next five years and 50% deduction for another five years, subject to fulfilling certain conditions. In this regard, the Company recognises deferred taxes in respect of those originating timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period resulting in tax consequences. Timing differences which originate and reverse within the tax holiday period do not result in tax consequence and, therefore, no deferred taxes are recognised in respect of the same.

1.9 Leases Finance lease

Assets acquired on finance leases, including assets acquired under sale and lease back transactions, have been recognised as an asset and a liability at the inception of the lease and have been recorded at an amount equal to the lower of the fair value of the leased asset or the present value of the future minimum lease payments. Such leased assets are depreciated over the lease term or its estimated useful life, whichever is shorter. Further, the payments of minimum lease payments have been apportioned between finance charge/expense and principal repayment.

Assets given out on finance lease are shown as amounts recoverable from the lessee. The rentals received on such leases are apportioned between the finance charge (income) and principal amount using the implicit rate of return. The finance charge (income) is recognised as income, and principal received is reduced from the amount receivable. All initial direct costs incurred are included in the cost of the asset.

Operating lease

Lease rentals in respect of assets acquired under operating lease are charged off to the statement of profit and loss as incurred on a straight line basis.

1.10 Foreign currency transactions, derivative instruments and hedge accounting

a. Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Net exchange gain or loss resulting in respect of foreign exchange transactions settled during the period is recognised in the statement of profit and loss for the year. Foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities other than fixed assets, at the year end exchange rates and the resulting net gain or loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss

b. Derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Company is exposed to foreign currency fluctuations on net investments in foreign operations and forecasted cash flows denominated in foreign currencies. The Company limits the effects of foreign exchange rate fluctuations by following established risk management policies including the use of derivatives. The Company enters into derivative financial instruments, where the counterparty is a bank.

The use of foreign currency forward contracts is governed by the Company''s policies approved by the Board of Directors, which provides written principles on the use of such financial derivatives consistent with the Company''s risk management strategy. The Company does not use derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts and currency options to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to certain forecasted transactions. The Company designates these as cash flow hedges.

Foreign currency derivative instruments are initially measured at fair value, and are re-measured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value ofthese derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in shareholder''s funds and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they arise.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time for forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in shareholder''s funds is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in shareholders'' funds is transferred to the statement of profit and loss for the period.

The impact of adoption of AS 30 has been described in Note 37 to the financial statements.

c. Non-derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity. Financial assets of the Company include cash and bank balances, trade receivables, unbilled revenues, finance lease receivables, employee travel and other advances, other loans and advances and derivative financial instruments with a positive fair value. Financial liabilities of the Company comprise secured and unsecured loans, trade payables, accrued expenses and derivative financial instruments with a negative fair value. Financial assets/ liabilities are recognised on the balance sheet when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Financial assets are derecognised when all of risks and rewards of the ownership have been transferred. The transfer of risks and rewards is evaluated by comparing the exposure, before and after the transfer, with the variability in the amounts and timing of the net cash flows of the transferred assets.

Short-term receivables with no stated interest rates are measured at original invoice amount, if the effect of discounting is immaterial. Non-interest-bearing deposits are discounted to their present value.

The Company also designates financial instruments as hedges of net investments in non-integral foreign operations. The portion of changes in fair value of financial instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge is recognised in statement of profit and loss together with the translation of the related investment. Changes in fair value relating to the ineffective portion of hedges are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they arise.

The Company measures the financial liabilities, except for derivative financial liabilities, at amortised cost using the effective interest method. The Company measures the short-term payables with no stated rate of interest at original invoice amount, if the effect of discounting is immaterial.

1.11 Earnings per share

The basic earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to the equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the reporting period. The number of shares used in computing diluted earnings per share comprises the weighted average number of shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share, and also the weighted average number of equity shares which may be issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential shares, unless the results would be anti-dilutive.

1.12 Provisions and contingencies

The Company creates a provision when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Provisions are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate. If it is no longer probable that an outflow of resources would be required to settle the obligation, the provision is reversed.

Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an economic benefit will arise, the asset and related income are recognised in the period in which the change occurs.

1.13 Onerous contracts

Provisions for onerous contracts are recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of fulfilling the contract.

1.14 Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCB)

a) Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds are considered monetary in nature where these are designated as hedging instrument to hedge forward exchange contract and net investment in non-integral foreign operation. Any gain or loss resulting from restatement of this liability at period end rates is accounted through statement of profit and loss (refer Notes 35 and 37).

b) Premium payable on redemption of FCCB is amortised on pro-rata basis at implicit rate of return over the period of the bonds and charged to the securities premium account periodically (refer Note 35).


Mar 31, 2012

1.1. Basis of preparation

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention (except for certain financial instruments, which are measured on fair value basis) on accrual basis of accounting, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in India and comply with the Accounting Standards notified in the Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central government in consultation with the National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards and with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, to the extent applicable and Accounting Standard 30,'Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement' ('AS 30') read with Accounting Standard 31 - 'Financial Instruments: Presentation' (AS 31) issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. From 1 July 2008 effective 1 April 2008, the Company has early adopted AS 30 read with AS 31 issued by ICAI. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded off to the nearest millions.

1.2. Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles ('GAAP') in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of income and expenses for the year. Management believes that the estimates made in the preparation of financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates are recognized prospectively in current and future periods.

1.3. Revenue recognition

Revenue from contact centre and transaction processing services comprises from both time/unit price and fixed fee based service contracts. Revenue from time/ unit price based contracts is recognized on completion of the related services and is billed in accordance with the contractual terms specified in the customer contracts. Revenue from fixed fee based service contracts is recognized on achievement of performance milestones specified in the customer contracts.

Unbilled receivables represent costs incurred and revenues recognized on contracts to be billed in subsequent periods as per the terms of the contract.

Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive dividend is established.

Interest income is recognized using the time proportion method, based on the underlying interest rates.

1.4. Fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. Cost includes freight, duties, taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition and installation of the fixed assets. Depreciation on fixed assets is provided pro rata to the period of use based on management's best estimate of useful lives of the assets (which are shorter than those prescribed under the Companies Act, 1956) as summarized below:

Software purchased together with the related hardware is capitalized and depreciated at the rates applicable to related assets. Intangible assets other than above mentioned software are amortized over the best estimate of the useful life from the date the assets are available for use. Further, the useful life is reviewed at the end of each reporting period for any changes in the estimates of useful life and accordingly the asset is amortized over the remaining useful life.

Individual assets costing up to rupees five thousand are depreciated in full in the period of purchase.

Impairment of assets

a. Financial assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the amount of impairment loss. The amount of loss for short-term receivables is measured as the difference between the assets carrying amount and undiscounted amount of future cash flows. Reduction, if any, is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is any indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recognized impairment loss is reversed, subject to maximum of initial carrying amount of the short-term receivable.

b. Non-financial assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that a non-financial asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost.

1.5. Employee Benefits

Gratuity and leave encashment

The Company's gratuity scheme with insurer is a defined benefit plan. The Company's net obligation in respect of the gratuity benefit scheme is calculated by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods; that benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any plan assets is deducted. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on actuarial valuation by an independent actuary using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rates used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plan are based on the market yields on Government securities as at the Balance Sheet date. When the calculation results in a benefit to the Company, the recognized asset is limited to the net total of any unrecognized actuarial losses and past service costs and the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Provision for leave encashment cost has been made based on actuarial valuation by an independent actuary at balance sheet date.

The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absence. The employees can carry-forward a portion of the unutilized accrued compensated absence and utilize it in future periods or receive cash compensation at termination of employment for the unutilized accrued compensated absence. The Company records an obligation for compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increase this entitlement. The Company measures the expected cost of compensated absence as the additional amount that the Company expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date.

Provident fund

All employees of the Company receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined contribution retirement plan in which both, the Company and the employees, contribute at a determined rate. Monthly contributions payable to the provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss as incurred.

1.6. Investments

Non-current investments are carried at cost and provision is made when in the management's opinion there is a decline, other than temporary, in the carrying value of such investments. Current investments are valued at the lower of cost and market value.

1.7. Taxation

Income tax expense comprises current tax expense and deferred tax expense or credit.

Current taxes

Provision for current income-tax is recognized in accordance with the provisions of Indian Income-tax Act, 1961 and is made annually based on the tax liability after taking credit for tax allowances and exemptions. In case of matter under appeal, full provision is made in the financial statements when the Company accepts liability.

Deferred taxes

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to timing differences that result from differences between the profits offered for income taxes and the profits as per the financial statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and the tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realized in the future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty of recognition of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reassessed for the appropriateness of their respective carrying values at each balance sheet date.

The Company has operations in Special Economic Zones (SEZ). Income from SEZ are eligible for 100% deduction for the first five years, 50% deduction for next five years and 50% deduction for another five years, subject to fulfilling certain conditions. In this regard, the Company recognizes deferred taxes in respect of those originating timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period resulting in tax consequences. Timing differences which originate and reverse within the tax holiday period do not result in tax consequence and, therefore, no deferred taxes are recognized in respect of the same.

1.8. Leases Finance Lease

Assets acquired on finance leases, including assets acquired under sale and lease back transactions, have been recognized as an asset and a liability at the inception of the lease and have been recorded at an amount equal to the lower of the fair value of the leased asset or the present value of the future minimum lease payments. Such leased assets are depreciated over the lease term or its estimated useful life, whichever is shorter. Further, the payment of minimum lease payments have been apportioned between finance charge / (expense) and principal repayment.

Assets given out on finance lease are shown as amounts recoverable from the lessee. The rentals received on such leases are apportioned between the financial charge/ (income) and principal amount using the implicit rate of return. The finance charge/ (income) is recognized as income, and principal received is reduced from the amount receivable. All initial direct costs incurred are included in the cost of the asset. Operating lease

Lease rentals in respect of assets acquired under operating lease are charged off to the statement of profit and loss as incurred on a straight line basis.

1.9. Foreign currency transactions, derivative instruments and hedge accounting

a. Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Net exchange gain or loss resulting in respect of foreign exchange transactions settled during the year is recognized in the statement of profit and loss for the year. Foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities other than fixed assets, at period end are translated at the period end exchange rates and the resulting net gain or loss is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

b. Derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Company is exposed to foreign currency fluctuations on net investments in foreign operations and forecasted cash flows denominated in foreign currencies. The Company limits the effects of foreign exchange rate fluctuations by following established risk management policies including the use of derivatives. The Company enters into derivative financial instruments, where the counterparty is a bank.

The use of foreign currency forward contracts is governed by the Company's policies approved by the Board of Directors, which provides written principles on the use of such financial derivatives consistent with the Company's risk management strategy. The Company does not use derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts and currency options to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to certain forecasted transactions. The Company designates these as cash flow hedges.

Foreign currency derivative instruments are initially measured at fair value, and are re-measured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognized in shareholder's funds and the ineffective portion is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognized in the statement of profit and loss as they arise.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time for forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognized in shareholder's funds is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognized in shareholders' funds is transferred to the statement of profit and loss for the period.

The impact of adoption of AS 30 has been described in note 37 and 38 to the financial statements.

c. Non-derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting Financial assets of the Company include cash and bank balances, sundry debtors, unbilled revenues, finance lease receivables, employee travel and other advances, other loans and advances and derivative financial instruments with a positive fair value. Financial liabilities of the Company comprise secured and unsecured loans, sundry creditors, accrued expenses and derivative financial instruments with a negative fair value. Financial assets / liabilities are recognized on the balance sheet when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Financial assets are derecognized when all of risks and rewards of the ownership have been transferred. The transfer of risks and rewards is evaluated by comparing the exposure, before and after the transfer, with the variability in the amounts and timing of the net cash flows of the transferred assets.

Short-term receivables with no stated interest rates are measured at original invoice amount, if the effect of discounting is immaterial. Non- interest-bearing deposits are discounted to their present value.

The Company also designates financial instruments as hedges of net investments in non-integral foreign operations. The portion of changes in fair value of financial instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge is recognized in statement of profit and loss together with the translation of the related investment. Changes in fair value relating to the ineffective portion of hedges are recognized in the statement of profit and loss as they arise.

The Company measures the financial liabilities, except for derivative financial liabilities, at amortized cost using the effective interest method. The Company measures the short-term payables with no stated rate of interest at original invoice amount, if the effect of discounting is immaterial.

1.10 Earnings per share

The basic earnings per equity share are computed by dividing the net profit or loss attributable to the equity shareholders for the period by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the reporting period. The number of shares used in computing diluted earnings per share comprises the weighted average number of shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share, and also the weighted average number of equity shares which may be issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential shares, unless the results would be anti-dilutive.

1.11 Provisions and contingencies

The Company creates a provision when there is present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Provisions are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate. If it is no longer probable that an outflow of resources would be required to settle the obligation, the provision is reversed.

Contingent assets are not recognized in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an economic benefit will arise, the asset and related income are recognized in the period in which the change occurs.

1.12 Onerous contracts

Provisions for onerous contracts are recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of fulfilling the contract.

1.13 Foreign currency convertible bonds (FCCB)

a) Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds are considered monetary in nature. These are designated as hedging instrument to hedge the net investment in non-integral foreign operation. Net gain or loss resulting from restatement of this liability at period end rates is accounted through Statement of profit and loss (refer note 35 and 37).

b) Premium payable on redemption of FCCB is amortized on pro-rata basis at implicit rate of return over the period of the bonds and charged to the Securities Premium account periodically (refer note 37).

c. Shares reserved for issue under options

a. 54,046,595 (31 March 2011: 53,089,095) number of shares are reserved for issue under the employee stock options plan (ESOP) amounting to Rs 540.47 (31 March 2011: Rs 530.89). For terms of ESOP, refer note 27.

b. For details of shares reserved for issue on conversion of FCCB, refer note 35.1.

 
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