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Accounting Policies of Global Vectra Helicorp Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2014

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to the periods presented in these financial statements

1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

These financial statements are prepared and presented under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which were revalued (at fair value) during the year ended 31 March 2009, on the accrual basis of accounting, and in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 (''the Act'') read with the General Circular 15/2013 dated 13 September 2013 of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs and the accounting principles generally accepted in India and comply with the Accounting Standards (AS) prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central Government, in consultation with the National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards (''NACAS'') and relevant pronouncements of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (''ICAI'') to the extent applicable. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees.

1.2 Going concern

The Company''s net worth (excluding revaluation reserve) is significantly eroded as at 31 March 2014. However, the financial statements have been prepared on a going-concern basis based on a letter of support from its major shareholders stating that they will continue to provide such financial support to the Company as is necessary to maintain the Company as a going concern for the foreseeable future and to meet its debts and liabilities, both present as well as in the future, as and when they fall due for payment in the normal course of business, and the business plans reviewed by the management.

Accordingly, these financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded assets, or to amounts and classification of liabilities that may be necessary if the entity is unable to continue as a going concern.

1.3 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The estimates and assumptions used in the accompanying financial statements are based upon management''s evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the financial statements.

Actual results could differ from those estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognized prospectively in current and future periods.

1.4 Current-non-current classification

All assets and liabilities are classified into current and non-current.

Assets

An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a) it is expected to be realised in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the company''s normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is expected to be realised within 12 months after the reporting date; or

d) it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.

Current assets include the current portion of non-current financial assets.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

Liabilities

A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a) it is expected to be settled in the company''s normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or

d) the company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

Current liabilities include current portion of non-current financial liabilities.

All other liabilities are classified as non-current.

Operating cycle

Operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash or cash equivalents.

1.5 Tangible Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or revalued amounts, as the case may be, less accumulated depreciation/ amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an item of tangible fixed asset comprises its purchase price, including import duties and other non-refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use; any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Expenditure incurred on acquisition/ construction of fixed assets which are not ready for their intended use at each balance sheet date are disclosed under capital work in progress.

Depreciation on fixed assets except leasehold improvements is provided on straight line basis at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Act which in management''s opinion reflects the estimated useful economic lives of fixed assets. Leasehold improvements in the nature of hangar and administrative building are amortised over the primary lease period or the useful life of the assets, whichever is shorter.

Major component parts of a helicopter which require replacement at regular intervals are identified and depreciated separately over their respective estimated remaining useful life. Accordingly, rotor heads are segregated from the helicopters and are depreciated over 5,000 hours, being their estimated useful life.

Assets individually costing up to Rs. 5,000 are depreciated fully in the year of their purchase. Provided that where the aggregate actual cost of individual items of plant and machinery costing Rs. 5,000 or less constitutes more than 10 per cent of the total actual cost of plant and machinery, rates of depreciation applicable to such items shall be the rates as specified in Item II of the Schedule.

Where depreciable assets are revalued, the additional depreciation on the revalued amount is transferred from the revaluation reserve to the statement of profit and loss.

The useful life of assets are reviewed by the management at each financial year end and revised if appropriate. In case of a revision, the unamortised depreciable amount is charged over the remaining useful life.

1.6 Impairment of assets:

Where there is an indication of impairment of the Company''s assets, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset or a group of assets. The recoverable amount of the asset (or where applicable, that of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs) is estimated as the higher of its net selling price and its value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to the present values based on an appropriate discount factor. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost.

1.7 Maintenance expenditure

Helicopter maintenance checks including overhaul and repairs and maintenance that are required to be performed at regular intervals as enforced by the Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and in accordance with the maintenance programme laid down by the manufacturers are debited to the statement of profit and loss as and when incurred.

1.8 Inventories

Inventories comprising of consumables, spares and shop supplies, are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined on the basis of weighted average method. Cost of inventory comprises of all cost of purchase and other incidental cost incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

1.9 Revenue recognition

Service income and reimbursement of expenses is recognized as and when services are rendered in accordance with the terms of the specific contracts, net of all contractual deductions. Revenue is recognised net of all taxes and levies.

Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis.

1.10 Employee benefits

(a) Short term employee benefits

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits. Benefits such as salaries, wages and short term compensated absences, etc. and the expected cost of ex-gratia are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

(b) Post employment benefits

Defined contribution plans:

The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards employee provident fund and employees'' state insurance corporation (''ESIC''). The Company''s contribution paid / payable under the scheme is recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined benefit plan:

The Company''s gratuity benefit scheme is a defined benefit plan. The Company''s net obligation in respect of the gratuity benefit scheme is calculated by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods; that benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any plan assets is deducted.

The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on actuarial valuation at the balance sheet date using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation.

The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rates used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plan, are based on the market yields on Government securities as at the balance sheet date.

Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

(c) Long term employment benefits:

The Company''s net obligation in respect of long-term employment benefits i.e. compensated absences is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods. The obligation is calculated based on actuarial valuation at the balance sheet date using the projected unit credit method and is discounted to its present value. The discount rates used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plan, are based on the market yields on Government securities as at the balance sheet date.

1 .1 1 Foreign exchange transactions

Foreign exchange transactions are recorded at the spot rates on the date of the respective transactions. Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognized in the statement of profit and loss of the year, except for exchange fluctuations arising on settlement of long term foreign currency monetary assets or liabilities.

Exchange differences arising on settlement of long term foreign currency monetary assets or liabilities are adjusted to the cost of the specifically identifiable assets as per the option available under paragraph 46A of AS 11 ''The effect of changes in exchange rates'' inserted pursuant to notification GSR 914 (E) issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs dated 29 December 2011.

Restatement at reporting date

a) Short term foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities

Short term foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are translated at the year end at the closing exchange rate and the resultant exchange differences are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

A monetary asset or liability denominated in foreign currency is designated as a short term monetary asset or liability if the original term at the time of origination of the asset or liability is less than 12 months.

b) Long term monetary items

As per the option available under paragraph 46A of AS 11 ''The effect of changes in exchange rates'' inserted pursuant to notification GSR 914 (E) issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs dated 29 December 2011 in so far as they relate to recognition of losses or gains arising on restatement of long term monetary items, the Company has availed the option of adjusting the exchange differences on restatement of long term foreign currency monetary assets or liabilities to the historical cost of the depreciable asset where specifically identifiable and depreciating the same over the remaining useful life of the asset. All long term monetary assets or liabilities denominated in foreign currency are specifically identifiable with depreciable assets and hence no accumulation of exchange differences is made in the foreign currency monetary item translation difference account.

A monetary asset or liability denominated in foreign currency is designed as a long term monetary asset or liability if the original term at the time of origination of the asset or liability is more than 12 months.

Exchange fluctuations to the extent covered under paragraph 4 (e) of AS 16 - ''Borrowing cost'' are also classified as exchange differences and disclosed accordingly (refer note 36 a)

1.12 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are treated as direct cost and are considered as part of cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

1.13 Taxation

Income-tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income- tax law) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from) the taxation authorities, using the applicable tax rates and tax laws. Deferred tax is recognised in respect of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income i.e. differences that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods.

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably/virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised.

Minimum Alternative Tax (''MAT'') under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 is recognised as current tax in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The credit available under the Act in respect of MAT paid is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the period for which the MAT credit can be carried forward for set-off against the normal tax liability. MAT credit recognised as an asset is reviewed at each balance sheet date and written down to the extent the aforesaid convincing evidence no longer exists.

1.14 Leases

Assets acquired under leases other than finance lease are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals (including scheduled rental increases) in respect of assets acquired under operating lease are charged off to the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis with reference to the lease term and other contractual consideration as incurred. Initial direct cost incurred specifically for an operating lease are deferred and charged to the statement of profit and loss over the lease term.

Leases under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance lease. Such assets acquired on or after 1 April 2001 are capitalized at fair value of the assets or present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease, whichever is lower. A corresponding amount is recorded as a lease liability. The principal amount in the lease rentals paid is adjusted against the lease liability and the balance charged to the statement of profit and loss as finance cost.

1.15 Earnings per share (''EPS'')

Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted EPS is computed using the weighted average number of equity and dilutive equity equivalent shares outstanding during the year except where the result would be anti dilutive.

1.16 Provisions and contingencies

The Company creates a provision where there is present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are recognized at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. The provisions are measured on an undiscounted basis.

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible or a present obligation that may, but probably will not require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Provision in respect of loss contingencies arising from claims, litigation, assessment, fines, penalties, etc. are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated.

1.17 Derivatives

In compliance with the announcement dated 29th March, 2008 by ICAI regarding Accounting for Derivatives, the loss arising out of marking each class of derivative contracts to market price is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Income, if any, arising out of marking each class of derivative contracts to market price is not recognised in the statement of profit and loss.


Mar 31, 2012

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to the period presented in these financial statements

1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

These financial statements are prepared and presented under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which were revalued (at fair value) during the year ended 31 March 2009, on the accrual basis of accounting, and in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 ('the Act') and the accounting principles generally accepted in India and comply with the Accounting Standards (AS) prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central Government, in consultation with the National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards ('NACAS') and relevant pronouncements of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ('ICAI') to the extent applicable. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees.

This is the first year of application of the revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 for the preparation of the financial statements of the Company. The revised Schedule VI introduces some significant conceptual changes as well as new disclosures. These include classification of all assets and liabilities into current and non-current. The previous year figures have also undergone a major reclassification to comply with the requirements of the revised Schedule VI.

1.2 Going concern

The Company's net worth (excluding revaluation reserve) stands partially eroded as at 31 March 2012. However, the financial statements have been prepared on a going-concern basis based on a letter of support from its major shareholders stating that they will continue to provide such financial support to the Company as is necessary to maintain the Company as a going concern for the foreseeable future and to meet its debts and liabilities, both present as well as in the future, as and when they fall due for payment in the normal course of business, and the business plans reviewed by the management.

Accordingly, these financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded assets, or to amounts and classification of liabilities that may be necessary if the entity is unable to continue as a going concern.

1.3 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues expenses during the reporting period. The estimates and assumptions used in the accompanying financial statements are based upon management's evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the financial statement. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognized prospectively in current and future periods.

1.4 Current-non-current classification

All assets and liabilities are classified into current and non-current.

Assets

An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a) it is expected to be realised in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the company's normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is expected to be realised within 12 months after the reporting date; or

d) it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.

Current assets include the current portion of non-current financial assets.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

Liabilities

A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria;

a) it is expected to be settled in the company's normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or

d) the company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

Current liabilities include current portion of non-current financial liabilities.

All other liabilities are classified as non-current.

Operating cycle

Operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash on cash equivalents.

1.5 Tangible Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or revalued amounts, as the case may be, less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an item of tangible fixed asset comprises its purchase price, including import duties and other non-refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset in its working condition for its intended use; any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Expenditure incurred on acquisition/construction of fixed assets which are not ready for their intended use at each balance sheet date are disclosed under capital work in progress.

Depreciation on fixed assets except leasehold improvements is provided on straight line basis at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Act which in management's opinion, reflects the estimated useful economic lives of fixed assets. Leasehold improvements in the nature of hangar and administrative building are amortised over the primary lease period or the useful life of the assets, whichever is shorter.

Major component parts of a helicopter which require replacement at regular intervals are identified and depreciated separately over their respective estimated remaining useful life. Accordingly, rotor heads are segregated from the helicopters are depreciated over 5,000 hours, being their estimated useful life.

Assets individually costing up to Rs. 5,000 are depreciated fully in the year of their purchase. If the aggregate of such item of plant and equipment constitute more than ten percent of the total actual cost of plant and equipment, the depreciation rate applicable to such items are applied.

Where depreciable assets are revalued, the additional depreciation on the revalued amount is transferred from the revaluation reserve to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The useful life of asset are reviewed by the management at each financial year end and revised if appropriate. In case of a revision, the unamortised depreciable amount is charged over the remaining useful life

1.6 Impairment of assets:

Where there is an indication of impairment of the Company's assets, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of tne asset or a group of assets. The recoverable amount of the asset (or where applicable, that of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs) is estimated as the higher of its net selling price and its value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to the present values based on an appropriate discount factor, ii such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost.

1.7 Maintenance expenditure

Helicopter maintenance checks including overhaul and repairs and maintenance that are required to be performed at regular intervals as enforced by the Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and in accordance with the maintenance programme laid down by the manufacturers are debited to the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when incurred.

1.8 Inventories

Inventories comprising of consumables, spare and shop supplies, are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined on the basis of weighted average method. Co*t of inventory comprises of all cost of purchase and other incidental cost incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

1.9 Revenue recognition

Service income, including income from operation and maintenance contracts and reimbursement of expenses is recognized as and when services are rendered in accordance with the terms of the specific contracts, net of all contractual deductions. Revenue is recognised net of all taxes and levies. Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis.

1.10 Employee benefits

(a) Short term employee benefits

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits. Benefits such as salaries, wages and short term compensated absences, etc. and the expected cost of ex-gratia are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

(b) Post employment benefits

Defined contribution plans:

The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards employee provident fund and employees' state insurance corporation ('ESIC'). The Company's contribution paid/payable under the scheme is recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined benefit plan:

The Company's gratuity benefit scheme is a defined benefit plan. The Company's net obligation in respect of the gratuity benefit scheme is calculated by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods; that benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any plan assets is deducted.

The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on actuarial valuation at the balance sheet date using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation.

The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rates used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plan, are based on the market yields on Government securities as at the balance sheet date.

Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(c) Long term employment benefits:

The Company's net obligation in respect of long-term employment benefits is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods. The obligation is calculated using the projected unit credit method and is discounted to its present value and the fair value of any related assets is deducted. The discount rates used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plan, are based on the market yields on Government securities as at the balance sheet date.

1.11 Foreign exchange transactions

Foreign exchange transactions are recorded at the spot rates on the date of the respective transactions. Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year, except for exchange fluctuations arising on settlement of long term foreign currency monetary assets or liabilities.

Exchange differences arising on settlement of long term foreign currency monetary assets or liabilities are adjusted to the cost of the specifically identifiable assets as per the option available under paragraph 46 of AS 11 'The effect of changes in exchange rates' inserted pursuant to notification GSR 225 (E) issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs dated 31 March 2009.

Restatement at reporting date

a) Short term foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities

Short term foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are translated at the year end at the closing exchange rate and the resultant exchange differences are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

A monetary asset or liability denominated in foreign currency is designated as a short term monetary asset or liability if the original term at the time of origination of the asset or liability is less than 12 months.

b) Long term monetary assets and liabilities

As per the option available under paragraph 46 of AS 11 'The effect of changes in exchange rates' inserted pursuant to notification GSR 225 (E) issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs dated 31 March 2009 in so far as they relate to recognition of losses or gains arising on restatement of long term monetary items, the Company has availed the option of adjusting the exchange differences on restatement of long term foreign currency monetary assets or liabilities to the historical cost of the depreciable asset where specifically identifiable and depreciating the same over the remaining useful life of the asset. All long term monetary assets or liabilities denominated in foreign currency are specifically identifiable with depreciable assets and hence no accumulation of exchange differences is made in the foreign currency monetary item translation difference account.

A monetary asset or liability denominated in foreign currency is designed as a long term monetary asset or liability if the original term at the time of origination of the asset or liability is more than 12 months.

1.12 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are treated as direct cost and are considered as part of cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. Exchange fluctuations to the extent covered under paragraph 4 (e) of AS 16 - 'Borrowing cost' are classified as borrowing cost and disclosed accordingly.

1.13 Taxation

Income-tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income-tax law) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period). Income-tax expense is recognised in profit or loss except that tax expense related to items recognised directly in reserves is also recognized in those reserves.

Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from) the taxation authorities, using the applicable tax rates and tax laws. Deferred tax is recognised in respect of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income i.e. differences that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods.

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably/virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised.

Minimum Alternative Tax ('MAT') under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 is recognised as current tax in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The credit available under the Act in respect of MAT paid is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the period for which the MAT credit can be carried forward for set-off against the normal tax liability. MAT credit recognised as an asset is reviewed at each balance sheet date and written down to the extent the aforesaid convincing evidence no longer exists.

1.14 Leases

Asset acquired under leases other than finance lease are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals (including scheduled rental increases) in respect of assets acquired under operating lease are charged off to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis with reference to the lease term and other contractual consideration as incurred. Initial direct cost incurred specifically for an operating lease are deferred and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the lease term.

Leases under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance lease. Such assets acquired on or after 1st April, 2001 are capitalized at fair value of the assets or present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease, whichever is lower. A corresponding amount is recorded as a lease liability. The principal amount in the lease rentals paid is adjusted against the lease liability and the balance charged to the profit and loss account as finance cost.

1.15 Earnings per share ('EPS')

Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted EPS is computed using the weighted average number of equity and dilutive equity equivalent shares outstanding during the year except where the result would be anti dilutive.

1.16 Provisions and contingencies

The Company creates a provision where there is present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are recognized at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. The provision are measured on an undiscounted basis.

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible or a present obligation that may, but probably will not require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Provision in respect of loss contingencies arising from claims, litigation, assessment, fines, penalties, etc. are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated.

1.17 Derivatives

In compliance with the announcement dated 29th March, 2008 by ICAI regarding Accounting for Derivatives, the loss arising out of marking each class of derivative contracts to market price is recognised in the statement of Profit and Loss. Income, if any, arising out of marking each class of derivative contracts to market price is not recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

 
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