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Accounting Policies of Greaves Cotton Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2014

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The Company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles [GAAP] except for the revaluation of certain fixed assets, in compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 including the Accounting Standards specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006. However, certain escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable /acknowledged by customers, are accounted on receipt basis.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the Company make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful lives of tangible and intangible fixed assets, provision for doubtful debts / advances, future obligations in respect of retirement Benefit plans, provision for inventory obsolescence, impairment of investments, etc. Difference, if any, between the actual results and estimates is recognized in the period in which the results are known.

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current and non-current as per normal operating cycle of the Company and other criteria set out in the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956. Based on nature of products / services, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

1.2 Inventories

Inventories are valued, after providing for obsolescence, as under:

a) Raw materials, stores, spares, packing materials, loose tools and traded goods at weighted average cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower.

b) Work-in-progress at lower of weighted average cost including conversion cost or net realisable value.

c) Finished goods at lower of weighted average cost including conversion cost and excise duty paid / payable on such goods or net realisable value.

1.3 Depreciation and Amortisation

a) Tangible assets:

i) Depreciation on revalued fixed assets is provided on the re-valued amount derived based on valuation carried out by independent valuers. The depreciation on re-valued portion of the fixed assets is transferred from revaluation reserve to the statement of profit and loss.

ii) Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on straight line method at the rates and in the manner prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

iii) In the case of fixed assets where the technological progress and upgradation is faster, the Company has provided accelerated depreciation at rates higher than the rates specified in schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. Accordingly, the useful life of such assets has been recomputed and depreciation has been provided at the following rates with effect from 1st July, 2003:

iv) Extra shift depreciation is provided on location basis.

v) Leasehold land is amortised over the primary period of the lease.

vi) Leasehold Building is depreciated at rates prescribed for buildings under schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 or rates derived based on lease term for the leasehold building, whichever is higher. Leasehold building improvements are written of over the period of lease or their estimated useful life, whichever is earlier, on a straight line basis.

b) Intangible assets:

i) a) Technical know-how acquired prior to the year 2001 is amortised as per the rates applicable to plant and equipment prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

b) Technical know-how acquired during and after the year 2001 is amortised over a period of five years.

ii) Computer software is amortised over a period of four years.

1.4 Research and Development

Revenue expenditure on research and development is charged under respective heads of expenditure in the statement of profit and loss. Capital expenditure on research and development is included as part of fixed assets and depreciated on the same basis as other fixed assets.

1.5 Revenue Recognition

a) i) Revenue from sale of products is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the products are passed on to the customers, which is generally on despatch of goods.

ii) Revenue in respect of services is recognised when services are performed in accordance with the terms of contract with customers.

b) Sales include excise duty but exclude Value Added Tax (VAT) and Service Tax.

c) Revenue from royalty is accrued and recognised, when the specified goods of the supplier are sold by the Company''s dealers in accordance with the terms of agreement.

d) Export incentives are recognised when the right to receive the Benefit is established.

1.6 Fixed assets (including capital work in progress)

a) Tangible assets:

Tangible fixed assets are stated at original cost net of Cenvat availed less accumulated depreciation except in case of certain fireehold land and buildings which are stated at re-valued amounts as at 31st May 1987, based on valuation carried out by independent valuers, less accumulated depreciation. Own manufactured assets are capitalised at factory cost. Cost includes inward firelight, taxes and expenses incidental to acquisition and installation, up to the point the asset is ready for its intended use. Certain project related direct expenses, incurred at site for the period upto the date of commencement of commercial production are capitalised. (Also refer to accounting policy on borrowing costs infra).

b) Intangible assets:

Intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition less amortisation.

c) Capital work in progress:

Capital work in progress includes cost of equipments and other expenses incidental to its acquisition which are not yet ready for use.

1.7 Foreign currency transactions

a) The reporting currency of the Company is Indian Rupee.

b) Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the date of the transaction.

c) Monetary assets and Monetary liabilities denominated in foreign currencies (other than those relating to foreign branch) are converted at rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the balance sheet.

d) Exchange Differences on settlement/conversion are included in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise.

e) Foreign exchange Differences arising on marking forward contracts to market rates are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise and the premium paid/received is accounted as expense/income over the period of the contract.

f) Translations relating to foreign branch are recorded as under:

i) Monetary assets and Monetary liabilities are converted at period-end rates as applicable.

ii) Revenue items are translated at the average rate for the period.

iii) All Differences arising on translation of foreign currency balances are included in the statement of profit and loss.

1.8 Investments

Long term investments are carried at cost after providing for any diminution in value, if such diminution is of a permanent nature.

Current Investments are carried at lower of cost or market value.

1.9 Employee Benefits

a) Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee Benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee Benefits. The Benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences, expected cost of bonus, ex- gratia etc. are recognised on undiscounted basis in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post-employment Benefits:

i) Defined contribution plans: The Company''s contribution to the state-administered provident fund and employees'' pension scheme and the employees'' superannuation scheme are defined contribution plans. The contribution paid/ payable under the schemes based on a fixed percentage of the eligible employees'' salary is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company has no further obligation beyond these contributions.

ii) Defined Benefit plans: The employees'' gratuity fund schemes managed by Trusts are the Company''s defined Benefit plans. The present value of the obligation is determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee Benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss. In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation, to recognise the obligation on a net basis.

iii) Long-term employee Benefits: The obligation for long term compensated absences is recognised in the same manner as in the case of defined Benefit plans as mentioned in (b) (ii) above.

1.10 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets till such time the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

1.11 Segment accounting and reporting

a) Segment accounting and reporting which is done in accordance with the accounting policies of the Company and the guidelines prescribed by Accounting Standard 17, Segment Reporting, as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 is as follows:

i) Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly Identifiiable with/ allocable to the segment including inter-segment revenue.

ii) Expenses that are directly Identifiiable with/ allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. The expenses, which relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments, are included under "unallowable expenditure".

iii) Income which relates to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in "unallowable income".

iv) Segment assets and liabilities include those directly Identifiiable with respective segments. Unallowable assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

b) Inter-segment transfer pricing

Segment revenue resulting from transactions with other business segments is accounted on the basis of transfer price agreed between the segments.

1.12 Leases

Assets acquired on lease where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals are charged to the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis.

1.13 Taxes on income

Tax on income for the current period is determined on the basis of taxable income and tax credits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and based on the expected outcome of assessments / appeals. The provision for tax is adjusted for Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in earlier years.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing Differences between the accounting income and the taxable income for the period and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted on the balance sheet date. Where there are unabsorbed business losses and/or unabsorbed depreciation, deferred tax assets are recognised and carried forward only to the extent that management is virtually certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is a reasonable certainty of realisation in future. Such assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to reassess realisation.

1.14 Impairment of assets

The carrying amount of assets, other than inventories is reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the assets is estimated.

An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or a cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of the asset''s net selling price and value in use determined based on the present value of estimated future cash flows. All impairment losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

A previously recognised impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

1.15 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

a) Provisions are recognised for liabilities that can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation, if

i) the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event,

ii) a probable outflow of resources is expected to settle the obligation and

iii) the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.

b) Reimbursement expected in respect of expenditure required to settle a liability is recognised only when it is virtually certain that the reimbursement will be received.

c) Contingent liability is disclosed in the case of

i) a present obligation arising from a past event, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation

ii) a present obligation when no reliable estimate is possible, and

iii) a possible obligation, arising from past events where the probability of outflow of resources is remote.

d) Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed.

e) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date and updated / recognised as appropriate.


Mar 31, 2013

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The Company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles [GAAP] except for the revaluation of certain fixed assets, in compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 including the Accounting Standards specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006. However, certain escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable /acknowledged by customers, are accounted on receipt basis.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the Company make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful lives of tangible and intangible fixed assets, provision for doubtful debts / advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans, provision for inventory obsolescence, impairment of investments, etc. Difference, if any, between the actual results and estimates is recognised in the period in which the results are known.

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current and non-current as per normal operating cycle of the Company and other criteria set out in the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956. Based on nature of products / services, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

1.2 Inventories

Inventories are valued, after providing for obsolescence, as under:

a) Raw materials, stores, spares, packing materials, loose tools and traded goods at weighted average cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower.

b) Work-in-progress at lower of weighted average cost including conversion cost or net realisable value.

c) Finished goods at lower of weighted average cost including conversion cost and excise duty paid / payable on such goods or net realisable value.

1.3 Depreciation Amortisation

a) Tangible assets:

i) Depreciation on revalued fixed assets is provided on the re-valued amount derived based on valuation carried out by independent valuers. The depreciation on re-valued portion of the fixed assets is transferred from revaluation reserve to the Statement of profit and loss.

ii) Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on straight line method at the rates and in the manner prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

iii) In the case of fixed assets where the technological progress and upgradation is faster, the Company has provided accelerated depreciation at rates higher than the rates specified in schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. Accordingly, the useful life of such assets has been recomputed and depreciation has been provided at the following rates with effect from 1st July, 2003:

iv) Extra shift depreciation is provided on location basis.

v) Leasehold land is amortised over the primary period of the lease.

vi) Leasehold Building is depreciated at rates prescribed for buildings under schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 or rates derived based on lease term for the leasehold building, whichever is higher. Leasehold building improvements are written off over the period of lease or their estimated useful life, whichever is earlier, on a straight line basis.

b) Intangible assets:

i) a) Technical know-how acquired prior to the year 2001 is amortised as per the rates applicable to plant and equipment prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. b) Technical know-how acquired during and after the year 2001 is amortised over a period of five years.

ii) Computer software is amortised over a period of four years.

1.4 Research and Development

Revenue expenditure on research and development is charged under respective heads of expenditure in the Statement of profit and loss. Capital expenditure on research and development is included as part of fixed assets and depreciated on the same basis as other fixed assets.

1.5 Revenue Recognition

a) i) Revenue from sale of products is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the products are passed on to the customers, which is generally on despatch of goods.

ii) Revenue in respect of services is recognised when services are performed in accordance with the terms of contract with customers.

b) Sales include excise duty but exclude Value Added Tax (VAT) and Service Tax.

c) Revenue from royalty is accrued and recognised, when the specified goods of the supplier are sold by the Company''s dealers in accordance with the terms of agreement.

1.6 Fixed assets (including capital work in progress)

a) Tangible assets:

Tangible fixed assets are stated at original cost net of Cenvat availed less accumulated depreciation except in case of certain freehold land and buildings which are stated at re-valued amounts as at 31st May 1987, based on valuation carried out by independent valuers, less accumulated depreciation. Own manufactured assets are capitalised at factory cost. Cost includes inward freight, taxes and expenses incidental to acquisition and installation, up to the point the asset is ready for its intended use. Certain project related direct expenses, incurred at site for the period upto the date of commencement of commercial production are capitalised. (Also refer to accounting policy on borrowing costs infra).

b) Intangible assets:

Intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition less amortisation.

c) Capital work in progress:

Capital work in progress includes cost of equipments and other expenses incidental to its acquisition which are not yet ready for use.

1.7 Foreign currency transactions

a) The reporting currency of the Company is Indian Rupee.

b) Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the date of the transaction.

c) Monetary assets and Monetary liabilities denominated in foreign currencies (other than those relating to foreign branch) are converted at rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the balance sheet.

d) Exchange differences on settlement/conversion are included in the Statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise.

e) Foreign exchange differences arising on marking forward contracts to market rates are recognised in the Statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise and the premium paid/received is accounted as expense/income over the period of the contract.

f) Translations relating to foreign branch are recorded as under:

i) Monetary assets and Monetary liabilities are converted at period-end rates as applicable.

ii) Revenue items are translated at the average rate for the period.

iii) All differences arising on translation of foreign currency balances are included in the Statement of profit and loss.

1.8 Investments

Long term investments are carried at cost after providing for any diminution in value, if such diminution is of a permanent nature.

Current Investments are carried at lower of cost or market value.

1.9 Employee benefits

a) Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences, expected cost of bonus, ex- gratia etc. are recognised on undiscounted basis in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post-employment benefits:

i) Defined contribution plans: The Company''s contribution to the state-administered provident fund and employees'' pension scheme and the employees'' superannuation scheme are defined contribution plans. The contribution paid/payable under the schemes based on a fixed percentage of the eligible employees'' salary is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company has no further obligation beyond these contributions.

ii) Defined benefit plans: The employees'' gratuity fund schemes managed by Trusts are the Company''s defined benefit plans. The present value of the obligation is determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Statement of profit and loss. In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation, to recognise the obligation on a net basis.

iii) Long-term employee benefits: The obligation for long term compensated absences is recognised in the same manner as in the case of defined benefit plans as mentioned in (b) (ii) above.

1.10 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets till such time the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

1.11 Segment accounting and reporting

a) Segment accounting and reporting which is done in accordance with the accounting policies of the Company and the guidelines prescribed by Accounting Standard 17, Segment Reporting, as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 is as follows:

i) Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly identifiable with/ allocable to the segment including inter-segment revenue.

ii) Expenses that are directly identifiable with/ allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. The expenses, which relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments, are included under "unallocable expenditure".

iii) Income which relates to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in "unallocable income".

iv) Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with respective segments. Unallocable assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

b) Inter-segment transfer pricing

Segment revenue resulting from transactions with other business segments is accounted on the basis of transfer price agreed between the segments.

1.12 Leases

Assets acquired on lease where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals are charged to the Statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis.

1.13 Taxes on income

Tax on income for the current period is determined on the basis of taxable income and tax credits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and based on the expected outcome of assessments / appeals. The provision for tax is adjusted for Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in earlier years.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences between the accounting income and the taxable income for the period and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets which arise on account of unabsorbed business losses and unabsorbed depreciation are recognised and carried forward only to the extent that management is virtually certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Other deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is a reasonable certainty of realisation in future. Such assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to reassess realisation.

1.14 Impairment of assets

The carrying amount of assets, other than inventories is reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the assets is estimated.

An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or a cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of the asset''s net selling price and value in use determined based on the present value of estimated future cash flows. All impairment losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

A previously recognised impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

1.15 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

a) Provisions are recognised for liabilities that can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation, if

i) the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event,

ii) a probable outflow of resources is expected to settle the obligation and

iii) the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.

b) Reimbursement expected in respect of expenditure required to settle a liability is recognised only when it is virtually certain that the reimbursement will be received.

c) Contingent liability is disclosed in the case of

i) a present obligation arising from a past event, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation

ii) a present obligation when no reliable estimate is possible, and

iii) a possible obligation, arising from past events where the probability of outflow of resources is remote.

d) Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed.

e) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date and updated / recognised as appropriate.


Mar 31, 2012

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The Company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles [GAAP] except for the revaluation of certain fixed assets, in compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 including the Accounting Standards specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006. However, certain escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable /acknowledged by customers, are accounted on receipt basis.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the Company make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful lives of tangible and intangible fixed assets, provision for doubtful debts / advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans, provision for inventory obsolescence, impairment of investments, etc. Difference, if any, between the actual results and estimates is recognised in the period in which the results are known.

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current and non-current as per normal operating cycle of the Company and other criteria set out in the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956. Based on nature of products / services, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

1.2 Inventories

Inventories are valued, after providing for obsolescence, as under:

a) Raw materials, stores, spares, packing materials, loose tools and traded goods at weighted average cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower.

b) Work-in-progress at lower of weighted average cost including conversion cost or net realisable value.

c) Finished goods at lower of weighted average cost including conversion cost and excise duty paid / payable on such goods or net realisable value.

1.3 Depreciation and Amortisation

a) Tangible assets:

i) Depreciation on re-valued fixed assets is provided on the re-valued amount derived based on valuation carried out by independent valuers. The depreciation on re-valued portion of the fixed assets is transferred from revaluation reserve to the statement of profit and loss.

ii) Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on straight line method at the rates and in the manner prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

iii) In the case of fixed assets where the technological progress and upgradation is faster, the Company has provided accelerated depreciation at rates higher than the rates specified in schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. Accordingly, the useful life of such assets has been recomputed and depreciation has been provided at the following rates with effect from 1st July 2003:

iv) Extra shift depreciation is provided on location basis.

v) Leasehold land is amortised over the primary period of the lease.

vi) Leasehold Building is depreciated at rates prescribed for buildings under schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 or rates derived based on lease term for the leasehold building, whichever is higher. Leasehold building improvements are written off over the period of lease or their estimated useful life, whichever is earlier, on a straight line basis. b) Intangible assets:

i) a) Technical know-how acquired prior to the year 2001 is amortised as per the rates applicable to plant and machinery prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. b) Technical know-how acquired during and after the year 2001 is amortised over a period of five years.

ii) Computer software is amortised over a period of four years.

1.4 Research and Development

Revenue expenditure on research and development is charged under respective heads of expenditure in the statement of profit and loss. Capital expenditure on research and development is included as part of fixed assets and depreciated on the same basis as other fixed assets.

1.5 Revenue Recognition

a) i) Revenue from sale of products is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the products are passed on to the customers, which is generally on despatch of goods.

b) ii) Revenue in respect of services is recognised when services are performed in accordance with the terms of contract with customers.

c) Sales include excise duty but exclude Value Added Tax (VAT) and Service Tax.

d) Revenue from royalty is accrued and recognised, when the specified goods of the supplier are sold by the Company's dealers in accordance with the terms of agreement.

1.6 Fixed assets (including capital work in progress)

a) Tangible assets:

Tangible fixed assets are stated at original cost net of Cenvat availed less accumulated depreciation except in case of certain freehold land and buildings which are stated at revalued amounts as at 31st May 1987, based on valuation carried out by independent valuers, less accumulated depreciation. Own manufactured assets are capitalised at factory cost. Cost includes inward freight, taxes and expenses incidental to acquisition and installation, up to the point the asset is ready for its intended use. Certain project related direct expenses, incurred at site for the period upto the date of commencement of commercial production are capitalised. (Also refer to accounting policy on borrowing costs infra).

b) Intangible assets:

Intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition less amortisation.

c) Capital work in progress:

Capital work in progress includes cost of equipments and other expenses incidental to its acquisition which are not yet ready for use.

1.7 Foreign currency transactions

a) The reporting currency of the Company is Indian Rupee.

b) Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the date of the transaction.

c) Monetary assets and Monetary liabilities denominated in foreign currencies (other than those relating to foreign branch) are converted at rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the balance sheet.

d) Exchange differences on settlement/conversion are included in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise.

e) Foreign exchange differences arising on marking forward contracts to market rates are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise and the premium paid/received is accounted as expense/income over the period of the contract.

f) Translations relating to foreign branch are recorded as under:

i) Monetary assets and Monetary liabilities are converted at period-end rates as applicable.

ii) Revenue items are translated at the average rate for the period.

iii) All differences arising on translation of foreign currency balances are included in the statement of profit and loss.

1.8 Investments

Long term investments are carried at cost after providing for any diminution in value, if such diminution is of a permanent nature.

Current Investments are carried at lower of cost or market value.

1.9 Employee benefits

a) Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences, expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia etc. are recognised on undiscounted basis in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post-employment benefits:

i) Defined contribution plans: The Company's contribution to the state-administered provident fund and employees' pension scheme and the employees' superannuation scheme are defined contribution plans. The contribution paid/ payable under the schemes based on a fixed percentage of the eligible employees' salary is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company has no further obligation beyond these contributions.

ii) Defined benefit plans: The employees' gratuity fund schemes managed by Trusts are the Company's defined benefit plans. The present value of the obligation is determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss. In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation, to recognise the obligation on a net basis.

iii) Long-term employee benefits: The obligation for long term compensated absences is recognised in the same manner as in the case of defined benefit plans as mentioned in (b) (ii) above.

1.10 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets till such time the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

1.11 Segment accounting and reporting

a) Segment accounting and reporting which is done in accordance with the accounting policies of the Company and the guidelines prescribed by Accounting Standard 17, Segment Reporting, as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 is as follows:

i) Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly identifiable with/ allocable to the segment including inter-segment revenue.

ii) Expenses that are directly identifiable with/ allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. The expenses, which relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments, are included under "unallocable expenditure".

iii) Income which relates to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in "unallocable income"

iv) Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with respective segments. Unallocable assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

b) Inter-segment transfer pricing

Segment revenue resulting from transactions with other business segments is accounted on the basis of transfer price agreed between the segments.

1.12 Leases

Assets acquired on lease where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals are charged to the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis.

1.13 Taxes on income

Tax on income for the current period is determined on the basis of taxable income and tax credits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and based on the expected outcome of assessments / appeals. The provision for tax is adjusted for Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in earlier years.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences between the accounting income and the taxable income for the period and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets which arise on account of unabsorbed business losses and unabsorbed depreciation are recognised and carried forward only to the extent that management is virtually certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Other deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is a reasonable certainty of realisation in future. Such assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to reassess realisation.

1.14 Impairment of assets

The carrying amount of assets, other than inventories is reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the assets is estimated.

An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or a cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of the asset's net selling price and value in use determined based on the present value of estimated future cash flows. All impairment losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

A previously recognised impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

1.15 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

a) Provisions are recognised for liabilities that can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation, if

i) the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event,

ii) a probable outflow of resources is expected to settle the obligation and

iii) the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.

b) Reimbursement expected in respect of expenditure required to settle a liability is recognised only when it is virtually certain that the reimbursement will be received.

c) Contingent liability is disclosed in the case of

i) a present obligation arising from a past event, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation

ii) a present obligation when no reliable estimate is possible, and

iii) a possible obligation, arising from past events where the probability of outflow of resources is remote.

d) Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed.

e) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date and updated / recognised as appropriate.


Mar 31, 2011

1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The Company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles [GAAP] except for the revaluation of certain fixed assets, in compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 including the Accounting Standards specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 prescribed by the Central Government. However, certain escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable / acknowledged by customers, are accounted on receipt basis.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the Company makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful lives of tangible and intangible fixed assets, provision for doubtful debts / advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans, provision for inventory obsolescence, etc. Difference, if any, between the actual results and estimates is recognised in the period in which the results are known.

2 Inventories

Inventories are valued, after providing for obsolescence, as under:

a) Raw materials, stores, spares, packing materials, loose tools and traded goods at weighted average cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower.

b) Work-in-progress at lower of weighted average cost including conversion cost or net realisable value.

c) Finished goods at lower of weighted average cost including conversion cost and excise duty paid / payable on such goods or net realisable value.

3 Depreciation and Amortisation

a) Tangible assets:

i) Depreciation on revalued fixed assets is provided on the revalued amount derived based on valuation carried out by independent valuers. The depreciation on revalued portion of the fixed assets is transferred from revaluation reserve to Profit and Loss Account.

ii) Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on straight line method at the rates and in the manner prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

iii) In the case of fixed assets where the technological progress and upgradation is faster, the Company has provided accelerated depreciation at rates higher than the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. Accordingly, the useful life of such assets has been recomputed and depreciation has been provided at the following rates with effect from 1st July, 2003:

iv) Extra shift depreciation is provided on location basis.

v) Leasehold land is amortised over the primary period of the lease.

vi) Leasehold Building is depreciated at rates prescribed for buildings under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 or rates derived based on lease term for the leasehold building, whichever is higher. Leasehold building improvements are written off over the period of lease or their estimated useful life, whichever is earlier, on a straight line basis.

b) Intangible assets:

i) a) Technical Know-how acquired prior to the year 2001 is amortised as per the rates applicable to plant and machinery prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

b) Technical Know-how acquired during and after the year 2001 is amortised over a period of five years.

ii) Computer software is amortised over a period of four years.

4 Research and Development

Revenue expenditure on research and development is charged under respective heads of expenditure in the Profit and Loss Account. Capital expenditure on research and development is included as part of fixed assets and depreciated on the same basis as other fixed assets.

5 Revenue Recognition

a) i) Revenue from sale of products is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the products are passed on to the customers, which is generally on despatch of goods.

ii) Revenue in respect of services is recognised when services are performed in accordance with the terms of contract with customers.

b) Sales include excise duty and direct sales compensation but exclude Value Added Tax (VAT) and Service Tax.

6 Fixed assets (including Capital Work-In-Progress)

a) Tangible assets:

Tangible fixed assets are stated at original cost net of Cenvat availed less accumulated depreciation except in case of certain freehold land and buildings which are stated at revalued amounts as at 31st May, 1987, based on valuation carried out by independent valuers, less accumulated depreciation. Own manufactured assets are capitalised at factory cost. Cost includes inward freight, taxes and expenses incidental to acquisition and installation, up to the point the asset is ready for its intended use. Certain project related direct expenses, incurred at site for the period upto the date of commencement of commercial production are capitalised. (Also refer to accounting policy on borrowing costs infra).

b) Intangible assets:

Intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition less amortisation.

c) Capital Work-in-Progress:

Capital Advances in respect of Capital Work-in-Progress or towards procurement of fixed assets and assets acquired but not ready for use are classified as Capital Work-in-Progress.

7 Foreign currency transactions

a) The reporting currency of the Company is Indian Rupee.

b) Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the date of the transaction.

c) Monetary assets and Monetary liabilities denominated in foreign currencies (other than those relating to foreign branch) are converted at rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the Balance Sheet.

d) Exchange differences on settlement/conversion are included in the Profit and Loss Account in the period in which they arise.

e) Foreign exchange differences arising on marking forward contracts to market rates are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account in the period in which they arise and the premium paid/received is accounted as expense/income over the period of the contract.

f) Translations relating to foreign branch are recorded as under:

i) Monetary assets and Monetary liabilities are converted at period-end rates as applicable.

ii) Revenue items are translated at the average rate for the period.

iii) All differences arising on translation of foreign currency balances are included in the Profit and Loss Account.

8 Investments

Long term investments are carried at cost after providing for any diminution in value, if such diminution is of a permanent nature.

Current Investments are carried at lower of cost or market value.

9 Employee benefits

a) Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences, expected cost of bonus, ex- gratia etc. are recognised on undiscounted basis in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post-employment benefits:

i) Defined contribution plans: The Companys contribution to the state-administered provident fund and employees pension scheme and the employees superannuation scheme are defined contribution plans. The contribution paid/payable under the schemes based on a fixed percentage of the eligible employees salary is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company has no further obligation beyond these contributions.

ii) Defined benefit plans: The employees gratuity fund schemes managed by Trusts are the Companys defined benefit plans. The present value of the obligation is determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss Account. In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation, to recognise the obligation on a net basis.

iii) Long-term employee benefits: The obligation for long term compensated absences is recognised in the same manner as in the case of defined benefit plans as mentioned in (b) (ii) above.

10 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets till such time the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

11 Segment accounting and reporting

a) Segment accounting and reporting which is done in accordance with the accounting policies of the Company and the guidelines prescribed by Accounting Standard 17, Segment Reporting, as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 is reported as follows:

i) Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly identifiable with/ allocable to the segment including inter-segment revenue.

ii) Expenses that are directly identifiable with / allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. The expenses, which relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments, are included under "unallocable expenditure".

iii) Income which relates to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in "unallocable income".

iv) Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with respective segments. Unallocable assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

b) Inter-segment transfer pricing

Segment revenue resulting from transactions with other business segments is accounted on the basis of transfer price agreed between the segments.

12 Leases

Assets acquired on lease where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals are charged to the Profit and Loss Account on a straight line basis.

13 Taxes on income

Tax on income for the current period is determined on the basis of taxable income and tax credits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and based on the expected outcome of assessments / appeals. The provision for tax is adjusted for Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in earlier years.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences between the accounting income and the taxable income for the period and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets which arise on account of unabsorbed business losses and unabsorbed depreciation are recognised and carried forward only to the extent that management is virtually certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Other deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is a reasonable certainty of realisation in future. Such assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to reassess realisation.

14 Impairment of assets

The carrying amount of assets, other than inventories is reviewed at each Balance Sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the assets is estimated.

An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or a cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of the assets net selling price and value in use determined based on the present value of estimated future cash flows. All impairment losses are recognised in the profit and loss account.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

A previously recognised impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

15 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

a) Provisions are recognised for liabilities that can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation, if

i) the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event,

ii) a probable outflow of resources is expected to settle the obligation and

iii) the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.

b) Reimbursement expected in respect of expenditure required to settle a liability is recognised only when it is virtually certain that the reimbursement will be received.

c) Contingent liability is disclosed in the case of

i) a present obligation arising from a past event, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation

ii) a present obligation when no reliable estimate is possible, and

iii) a possible obligation, arising from past events where the probability of outflow of resources is remote.

d) Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed.

e) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and updated as appropriate.




Jun 30, 2010

1 Basis of accounting

The Company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles [GAAP] except for the revaluation of certain fixed assets, in compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and the Accounting Standards as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 prescribed by the central government. However, certain escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable/acknowledged by customers, are not taken into account.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the Company makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful lives of tangible and intangible fixed assets, provision for doubtful debts/advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans etc. Difference, if any, between the actual results and estimates is recognised in the period in which the results are known.

2 Inventories

Inventories are valued, after providing for obsolescence, as under:

a) Raw materials, stores, supplies and loose tools at weighted average cost or net realisable value.

b) Work-in-progress at lower of weighted average cost including appropriate overheads or net realisable value.

c) Finished goods at lower of weighted average cost including appropriate overheads and excise duty paid/payable on such goods or net realisable value.

3 Depreciation and Amortisation

a) Tangible assets:

i) Depreciation on revalued fixed assets is provided at the rates given by the valuers. The difference between depreciation on buildings based on revaluation and that on the original cost is transferred from revaluation reserve to profit and loss account.

ii) Depreciation on assets is provided on straight line method at the rates and in the manner prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

iii) The Company has provided accelerated depreciation which are higher than the rates specified in schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 where the technological progress and upgradation is faster and accordingly the life of the assets has been recomputed in the case of following assets and the depreciation has been accordingly provided with effect from 1st July, 2003.

iv) Extra shift depreciation is provided on location basis.

b) Intangible assets:

i) Leasehold land is amortised over the primary period of the lease.

ii) Leasehold Building is depreciated as prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

iii) a) Technical know-how acquired prior to 2001 is depreciated as per the rates applicable to plant and machinery prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

b) Technical know-how acquired after 2001 is depreciated over a period of five years.

iv) Computer software is amortised over a period of four years.

4 Research and Development

Revenue expenditure on research and development is charged under respective heads of account. Capital expenditure on research and development is included as part of fixed assets and depreciated on the same basis as other fixed assets.

5 Revenue Recognition

a) i) Revenue from sale of product is recognised when all the significant risk and reward of ownership of the products are passed on to the customers, which is generally on despatch of goods.

ii) Revenue in respect of services is recognised in terms of the contract with the customers.

b) Sales include excise duty and direct sales compensation but exclude VAT and Service Tax.

6 Fixed assets

a) Tangible assets:

Fixed assets are stated at original cost net of Cenvat availed less accumulated depreciation except in case of certain freehold land and buildings which are stated at revalued amounts as at 31st May, 1987, less depreciation at the rates given by the valuers. Own manufactured assets are capitalised at factory cost. Certain project related direct expenses, incurred at site for the period upto the date of commencement of commercial production are capitalised. (Also refer to policy on borrowing costs infra).

b) Intangible assets:

Intangible assets are stated at cost less amortisation.

7 Foreign currency transactions

a) The reporting currency of the company is Indian Rupee.

b) Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency using the exchange rates at the date of the transaction.

c) Monetary assets and Monetary liabilities denominated in foreign currencies (other than those relating to foreign branch) are converted at year-end rates as applicable.

d) Exchange difference on settlement/conversion are adjusted to profit and loss account.

e) Foreign exchange difference arising on forward contracts are recognised in the period in which they arise and the premium paid/received is accounted as expense/income over the period of the contract.

f) Translations relating to foreign branch are as under:

i) Monetary assets and Monetary liabilities are converted at year-end rates as applicable. ii) Revenue items at the average rate for the year.

8 Investments

Long term investments are carried at cost after providing for any diminution in value if such diminution is of a permanent nature.

Current Investments are carried at lower of cost or market value.

9 Employee benefits

a) Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences, the expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia etc. are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post-employment benefits:

i) Defined contribution plans: The Companys contribution to the state-administered provident fund and employees pension scheme and the employees superannuation scheme are defined contribution plans. The contribution paid/ payable under the schemes is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

ii) Defined benefit plans: The employees gratuity fund schemes managed by Trusts are the Companys defined benefit plans. The present value of the obligation is determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in profit and loss account.

In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation, to recognise the obligation on a net basis.

iii) Long-term employee benefits: The obligation for compensated absences is recognised in the same manner as in the case of defined benefit plans as mentioned in (b) (ii) above.

10 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets till such time as the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

11 Segment accounting

a) Segment accounting is done in line with the accounting policies of the Company and is reported as follows:

i) Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly identifiable with/allocable to the segment including inter-segment revenue.

ii) Expenses that are directly identifiable with/allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. The expenses, which relates to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments, are included under "unallocable expenditure".

iii) Income which relates to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in "unallocable income".

iv) Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with respective segments. Unallocable assets and liabilities represents the assets and liabilities that relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

b) Inter-segment transfer pricing

Segment revenue resulting from transactions with other business segments is accounted on basis of transfer price agreed between the segments.

12 Leases

Assets acquired on lease where a significant portion of the risk and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals are charged to profit and loss account on accrual basis.

13 Taxes on income

Tax on income for the current year is determined on the basis of taxable income and tax credits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and based on the expected outcome of assessments /appeals. The provision for tax is adjusted for Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in earlier years.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences between the accounting income and the taxable income for the year and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted on the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax assets which arise mainly on account of unabsorbed business loss and unabsorbed depreciation are recognised and carried forward only to the extent that management is virtually certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realised.

14 Impairment of assets

The carrying amount of assets, other than inventories is reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the assets is estimated.

An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset a cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use which is determined based on the present value of estimated future cash flow. All impairment losses are recognised in the accounts.

An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount.

15 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

a) Provisions are recognised for liabilities that can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation, if

i) the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event,

ii) a probable outflow of resources is expected to settle the obligation and

iii) the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.

b) Reimbursement expected in respect of expenditure required to settle a provision is recognised only when it is virtually certain that the reimbursement will be received.

c) Contingent liability is disclosed in the case of

i) a present obligation arising from a past event, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation

ii) a present obligation when no reliable estimate is possible, and

iii) a possible obligation, arising from past events where the probability of outflow of resources is remote.

d) Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed.

e) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date.

 
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