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Accounting Policies of Greenlam Industries Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015


1.01.01 Nature of Operation

Company is engaged in the business of manufacturing laminates, decorative veneers and allied products through its factories at various locations and branches and dealers'' network spread all over the country. It has two wholly owned subsidiary companies operating in overseas countries and one in India. It imports raw materials for manufacturing. Manufactured goods are sold both in domestic and overseas markets. The Overseas subsidiaries of the Company are mainly engaged in marketing and distribution of Company''s products.

1.01.02 Accounting Concepts & Basis of Presentation

The financial Statements are prepared in accordance with the Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards as specified in the Company (Accounting Standards) Rules 2006 read with Rule 7(1) of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. The Company''s management evaluates all recently issued or revised accounting standards on an on-going basis.

The Normal Operating Cycle for the Company has been assumed to be of twelve months for classification of its various assets and liabilities into "Current" and "Non-current".

Where changes are made in presentation, the comparative figures of the previous year are regrouped and re-arranged accordingly.

1.01.03 Use of Estimates:

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.


1.02.01 Stock of Raw Materials, Stores and spare parts are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value; and of those in transit related to these items are valued at lower of cost to date or net realisable value.

1.02.02 Goods-in-process is valued at lower of cost or net realisable value.

1.02.03 Stock of Finished goods is valued at lower of cost or net realisable value.

1.02.04 Stock-in-trade is valued at lower of cost or net realisable value.

1.02.05 Waste and scraps are accounted at estimated realisable value.

1.02.06 Cost of inventories is ascertained on the ''weighted average'' basis. Goods-in-process and finished goods are valued on absorption cost basis.

1.02.07 The self-generated Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) are recognized as asset on certification by UNFCCC and are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value.


Cash flows are reported using indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flow from regular revenue generating, financing and investing activities of the Company is segregated. Cash and cash equivalents in the balance sheet comprise cash at bank, cash/cheques in hand and short term investments (excluding pledged term deposits) with an original maturity of three months or less.


Disclosure of contingencies as required by the accounting standard is furnished in the Notes on accounts.


1.05.01 Tangible assets are depreciated and/or amortised on the basis of their useful lives as notified in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. Depreciation in respect of additions to assets has been charged on pro rata basis with reference to the period when the assets are ready for use. The provision for depreciation for multiple shifts has been made in respect of eligible assets on the basis of operation of respective units. Where the historical cost of a depreciable asset undergoes a change due to increase or decrease in long term liability on account of exchange fluctuations, the depreciation on the revised unamortised depreciable amount is provided prospectively over the residual useful life of the asset.

1.05.02 Leasehold lands are amortised over the period of lease.

1.05.03 Intangible assets are amortised on straight-line method as follows :

Trademarks - 10 years

Computer Software - 5 years

Technical Know-how - 2 years


Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

1.06.01 Sale of Goods: Revenue from sales of goods is recognised on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership to the customers. Gross sales shown in the Statement of Profit & Loss are inclusive of Excise Duty but excludes Trade discounts, CST and VAT. Net sales are shown after deducting Excise duty which is disclosed at appropriate places.

1.06.02 Interest: Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and rate applicable.

1.06.03 Dividends: Dividend from investment is recognized when the Company in which they are held declares the dividend and when the right to receive the same is established.

1.06.04 Insurance Claims: Insurance Claims are accounted for on acceptance and when there is a reasonable certainty of receiving the same, on grounds of prudence.

1.06.05 Export Incentives: Benefit on account of entitlement to import goods free of duty under the Advance License Scheme, "Duty Entitlement Pass Book under Duty Exemption Scheme (DEPB)", Duty Free Import Authorisation (DFIA) Scheme, and Focus Market Scheme (FMS), are accounted for on accrual basis at estimated realisable value, as and when exports are made i.e., in the year of export. Profit or loss arising on utilisation of the same and/or sale thereof are accounted for in the year in which either the imports are made against the said Advance License, DEPB, DFIA, FMS and/or the same are sold.


1.07.01 Tangible assets are stated at original cost (net of tax/duty credit availed) less accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses except freehold land which is carried at cost. Cost includes cost of acquisition, construction and installation, taxes, duties, freight, other incidental expenses related to the acquisition, trial run expenses (net of revenue) and pre-operative expenses including attributable borrowing costs incurred during pre-operational period.

1.07.02 Tangible assets which are not ready for their intended use on reporting date are carried as capital work-in-progress at cost, comprising direct cost and related incidental expenses.

1.07.03 The Company has exercised the option available to it under Rule 46A of the Companies (Accounting Standards) (Second Amendment) Rules, 2011 in respect of accounting for fluctuations in foreign exchange relating to "Long Term Foreign Currency Monetary Items".


1.08.01 Initial Recognition: Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are normally recorded at the exchange rates prevailing at the time of the transactions.

1.08.02 Conversion: Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

1.08.03 Exchange Differences: Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or expenses in the year in which they arise.

1.08.04 Forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset/liability:

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is recognized as an expense/income on the date of transaction. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or expense for the period. However, in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, the income or expense on account of exchange difference is adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.


Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as Current investments. All other investments are classified as Non-Current/Long-term Investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and market value on individual investment basis. Non-Current/Long term Investments are considered at cost, unless there is an "other than temporary" decline in value, in which case adequate provision is made for the diminution in the value of Investments.


1.10.01 Short-term employee benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the related service is rendered.

1.10.02 Post employment and other long term employee benefits are charged off in the year in which the employee has rendered services. The amount charged off is recognized at the present value of the amounts payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of past employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.


Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that takes necessarily substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue.


1.12.01 Identification of Segments:

Primary Segment

Business Segment:

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The identified segments are Manufacturing and Sale of (a) Laminate & Allied products; and (b) Veneered & Allied products.

Secondary Segment

Geographical Segment:

The analysis of geographical segment is based on the geographical location of the customers.

The geographical segments considered for disclosure are as follows:

* Sales within India include sales to customers located within India.

* Sales outside India include sales to customers located outside India.

1.12.02 Allocation of Common costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the ratio of their respective turnover to the total turnover.

1.12.03 Unallocated items:

The Unallocated Segment includes general corporate income and expense items, which are not allocated to any business segment.


Disclosure of related parties as required by the accounting standard is furnished in the Notes on accounts.

1.14 LEASES (AS - 19):

In accordance with Accounting Standard 19 "Accounting for leases", lease arrangements, where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vests with the lessor, are recognized as operating leases. Lease payments under operating leases are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.


Basic earnings (loss) per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.


1.16.01 Tax expenses comprise of current tax and deferred tax including applicable surcharge and cess.

1.16.02 Current Income tax is computed using the tax effect accounting method, where taxes are accrued in the same period in which the related revenue and expenses arise. A provision is made for income tax annually, based on the tax liability computed, after considering tax allowances and exemptions. Provisions are recorded when it is estimated that a liability due to disallowances or other matters is probable.

1.16.03 The differences that result between the profit considered for income taxes and the profit as per the financial statements are identified, and thereafter a deferred tax asset or deferred tax liability is recorded for timing differences, namely the differences that originate in one accounting period and reverse in another, based on the tax effect of the aggregate amount being considered. The tax effect is calculated on the accumulated timing differences at the end of an accounting period based on prevailing enacted or substantially enacted regulations. Deferred Tax Assets and Deferred Tax Liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the Deferred Tax Assets and Deferred Tax Liabilities relate to taxes on income levied by same governing taxation laws. Deferred Tax Assets are recognized only if there is reasonable certainty that they will be realized and are reviewed for the appropriateness of their respective carrying values at each balance sheet date.

1.16.04 MAT (Minimum Alternate Tax) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the Statement of Profit and Loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.


1.17.01 Internally generated intangible asset under development stage is recognized when it is demonstrated that it is technically feasible to use the same and the cost incurred for developing the same is ascertained. Technical Know-how so developed internally is amortised on a straight- line basis over its estimated useful life.

1.17.02 Intangible assets acquired by payment e.g., Trademarks, Computer Software and Technical Know-how are disclosed at cost less amortization on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life.


At each balance sheet date, the Company reviews the carrying amount of tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication of impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the assets is estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment loss. The recoverable amount is higher of the net selling price and the value in use, determined by discounting the estimated future cash flows expected from the continuing use of the asset to their present value.


1.19.01 Provisions are made when (a) the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events; (b) it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; and (c) a reliable estimate is made of the amount of the obligation.

1.19.02 Contingent liabilities are not provided for but are disclosed by way of Notes on Accounts.

1.19.03 Contingent assets are neither accounted for nor disclosed by way of Notes on Accounts.


Excise Duty on finished goods stock lying at the factories is accounted for at the point of manufacture of goods and accordingly, is considered for valuation of finished goods lying in the factories as on the Balance Sheet date. Similarly, Custom Duty on imported material in transit/lying in bonded warehouse is accounted for at the time of import/bonding of materials.


The costs of Raw Materials, Stores and spare parts etc., consumed consist of purchase price including duties and taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable by the enterprise from the taxing authorities), freight inwards and other expenditure directly attributable to the procurement.


Various expenses are accounted for after deducting the input tax credit available in respect of Service Tax, Education Cess and Secondary & Higher Education Cess.


In case of CSR activities undertaken by the Company, if any expenditure of revenue nature is incurred on any of the activities mentioned in Schedule VII to the Companies Act, 2013, the same is charged as an expense to its Statement of Profit and Loss. In case, the expenditure incurred by the Company is of such a nature which gives rise to an asset, such an asset is recognised where the Company retains the control of the asset and any future economic benefit accrues to it. A liability incurred by entering into a contractual obligation is recognised to the extent to which CSR activity is completed during the year.


Expenses related to Scheme of Arrangement, Fee for increase in Authorised Share Capital and Preliminary Expenses are written off in five equal annual installments in accordance with the provisions of Section 35DD of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

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