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Accounting Policies of HDFC Bank Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

A BACKGROUND

HDFC Bank Limited (''HDFC Bank'' or ''the Bank''), incorporated in Mumbai, India is a publicly held banking company engaged in providing a range of banking and financial services including commercial banking and treasury operations. The Bank is governed by the Banking Regulation Act, 1949. The Bank has overseas branch operations in Bahrain, Hong Kong and Dubai.

B BASIS OF PREPARATION

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention and accrual basis of accounting, unless otherwise stated and are in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (''GAAP''), statutory requirements prescribed under the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, circulars and guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India (''RBI'') from time to time, Accounting Standards (''AS'') specified under the Companies Act, 1956 (which are deemed to be applicable as per section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read with Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014) and current practices prevailing within the banking industry in India.

Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) as of the date of the financial statements and the reported income and expenses for the reporting period. Management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revision in the accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

C PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

1 Investments

Classification:

In accordance with the RBI guidelines on investment classification and valuation, investments are classified on the date of purchase into "Held for Trading" (''HFT''), "Available for Sale" (''AFS'') and "Held to Maturity" (''HTM'') categories (hereinafter called "categories"). Subsequent shifting amongst the categories is done in accordance with the RBI guidelines. Under each of these categories, investments are further classified under six groups (hereinafter called "groups") - Government Securities, Other Approved Securities, Shares, Debentures and Bonds, Investments in Subsidiaries / Joint Ventures and Other Investments.

Recording purchase and sale transactions in securities is done following ''Settlement Date'' accounting, except in the case of equity shares where ''Trade Date'' accounting is followed.

Basis of classification:

Investments that are held principally for resale within 90 days from the date of purchase are classified under HFT category. Investments which the Bank intends to hold till maturity are classified as HTM securities. Investments in the equity of subsidiaries / joint ventures are categorised as HTM in accordance with the RBI guidelines. Investments which are not classified in the above categories are classified under AFS category.

Acquisition cost:

In determining acquisition cost of an investment:

- Brokerage, commission, etc. paid at the time of acquisition are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

- Broken period interest on debt instruments is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

- Cost of investments is based on the weighted average cost method.

Disposal of investments:

Profit / Loss on sale of investments under the aforesaid three categories is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The profit from sale of investment under HTM category, net of taxes and transfer to statutory reserve is appropriated from Statement of Profit and Loss to "Capital Reserve" in accordance with the RBI Guidelines.

Short sale:

The Bank undertakes short sale transactions in Central Government dated securities in accordance with RBI guidelines. The short position is reflected as the amount received on sale and is classified under ''Other Liabilities''. The short position is marked to market and loss, if any, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss while gain, if any, is ignored. Profit / Loss on settlement of the short position is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Valuation:

Investments classified under AFS and HFT categories are marked to market as per the RBI guidelines.

Traded investments are valued based on the trades / quotes on the recognised stock exchanges, price list of RBI or prices declared by Primary Dealers Association of India (''PDAI'') jointly with Fixed Income Money Market and Derivatives Association (''FIMMDA''), periodically.

The market value of unquoted government securities which qualify for determining the Statutory Liquidity Ratio (''SLR'') included in the AFS and HFT categories is computed as per the Yield-to-Maturity (''YTM'') rates published by FIMMDA.

The valuation of other unquoted fixed income securities (viz. state government securities, other approved securities, bonds and debentures) and preference shares, wherever linked to the YTM rates, is done with a mark-up (reflecting associated credit and liquidity risk) over the YTM rates for government securities published by FIMMDA.

Special bonds such as oil bonds, fertilizer bonds etc. which are directly issued by Government of India (''GOI'') that do not qualify for SLR are also valued by applying the mark up above the corresponding yield on GOI securities.

Unquoted equity shares are valued at the break-up value, if the latest balance sheet is available or at Rs. 1 as per the RBI guidelines.

Units of mutual funds are valued at the latest repurchase price / net asset value declared by the mutual fund.

Treasury bills, commercial papers and certificate of deposits being discounted instruments, are valued at carrying cost and stated at acquisition cost.

Security receipts are valued as per the net asset value provided by the issuing Asset Reconstruction Company from time to time.

Net depreciation in the value, if any, compared to the acquisition cost, in any of the six groups, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. The net appreciation, if any, in any of the six groups is not recognised except to the extent of depreciation already provided. The valuation of investments includes securities under repo transactions. The book value of individual securities is not changed after the valuation of investments.

Investments classified under HTM category are carried at their acquisition cost and not marked to market. Any premium on acquisition is amortised over the remaining maturity period of the security on a constant yield to maturity basis. Such amortisation of premium is adjusted against interest income under the head "Income from investments" as per the RBI guidelines. Any diminution, other than temporary, in the value of investments in subsidiaries / joint ventures is provided for.

Non-performing investments are identified and depreciation / provision is made thereon based on the RBI guidelines. The depreciation / provision is not set off against the appreciation in respect of other performing securities. Interest on non-performing investments is not recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss until received.

Repo and reverse repo transactions:

In accordance with the RBI guidelines repo and reverse repo transactions in government securities and corporate debt securities (excluding transactions conducted under Liquidity Adjustment Facility (''LAF'') and Marginal Standby Facility (''MSF'') with RBI) are reflected as borrowing and lending transactions respectively. Borrowing cost on repo transactions is accounted for as interest expense and revenue on reverse repo transactions is accounted for as interest income.

In respect of repo transactions under LAF and MSF with RBI, amount borrowed from RBI is credited to investment account and reversed on maturity of the transaction. Costs thereon are accounted for as interest expense. In respect of reverse repo transactions under LAF, amount lent to RBI is debited to investment account and reversed on maturity of the transaction. Revenues thereon are accounted for as interest income.

2 Advances

Classification:

Advances are classified as performing and non-performing based on the RBI guidelines and are stated net of bills rediscounted, specific provisions, interest in suspense for non-performing advances, claims received from Export Credit Guarantee Corporation, provisions for funded interest term loan classified as non-performing advances and provisions in lieu of diminution in the fair value of restructured assets. Interest on non-performing advances is transferred to an interest suspense account and not recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss until received.

Provisioning:

Specific loan loss provisions in respect of non-performing advances are made based on management''s assessment of the degree of impairment of wholesale and retail advances, subject to the minimum provisioning level prescribed by the RBI.

The specific provision levels for retail non-performing assets are also based on the nature of product and delinquency levels. Specific loan loss provisions in respect of non-performing advances are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss and included under Provisions and Contingencies. In accordance with RBI guidelines, accelerated provision is made on non-performing advances which were not earlier reported by the Bank as Special Mention Account under "SMA-2" category to Central Repository of Information on Large Credits (CRILC). Accelerated provision is also made on non-performing advances which are erstwhile SMA-2 accounts with Aggregate Exposure (AE) Rs.1,000 million or above and Joint Lenders'' Forum (JLF) is not formed or they fail to agree upon a common Corrective Action Plan (CAP) within the stipulated time frame.

Recoveries from bad debts written-off are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss and included under other income.

In relation to non-performing derivative contracts, as per the extant RBI guidelines, the Bank makes provision for the entire amount of overdue and future receivables relating to positive marked to market value of the said derivative contracts.

The Bank maintains general provision for standard assets including credit exposures computed as per the current marked to market values of interest rate and foreign exchange derivative contracts, and gold in accordance with the guidelines and at levels stipulated by RBI from time to time. In the case of overseas branches, general provision on standard advances is maintained at the higher of the levels stipulated by the respective overseas regulator or RBI. Provision for standard assets is included under other liabilities.

Provisions made in excess of the Bank''s policy for specific loan loss provisions for non-performing assets and regulatory general provisions are categorised as floating provisions. Creation of floating provisions is considered by the Bank up to a level approved by the Board of Directors. In accordance with the RBI guidelines floating provisions are used up to a level approved by the Board only for contingencies under extraordinary circumstances for making specific provisions for impaired accounts. Floating provisions have been included under other liabilities.

Further to the provisions required to be held according to the asset classification status, provisions are held for individual country exposures (other than for home country exposure). Countries are categorised into risk categories as per Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd. (''ECGC'') guidelines and provisioning is done in respect of that country where the net funded exposure is one percent or more of the Bank''s total assets.

In addition to the above, the Bank on a prudential basis makes provisions on advances or exposures which are not NPAs, but has reasons to believe on the basis of the extant environment or specific information, the possible slippage of a specific advance or a group of advances or exposures or potential exposures. These are classified as contingent provisions and included under other liabilities.

The Bank considers a restructured account as one where the Bank, for economic or legal reasons relating to the borrower''s financial difficulty, grants to the borrower concessions that the Bank would not otherwise consider. Restructuring would normally involve modification of terms of the advance / securities, which would generally include, among others, alteration of repayment period / repayable amount / the amount of installments / rate of interest (due to reasons other than competitive reasons). Restructured accounts are classified as such by the Bank only upon approval and implementation of the restructuring package. Necessary provision for diminution in the fair value of a restructured account is made. Restructuring of an account is done at a borrower level.

3 Securitisation and transfer of assets

The Bank securitises out its receivables, subject to the Minimum Holding Period (''MHP'') criteria and the Minimum Retention Requirements (''MRR'') of RBI, to Special Purpose Vehicles (''SPVs'') in securitisation transactions. Such securitised-out receivables are de-recognised in the balance sheet when they are sold (true sale criteria being fully met with) and consideration is received by the Bank. Sales / Transfers that do not meet these criteria for surrender of control are accounted for as secured borrowings. In respect of receivable pools securitised-out, the Bank provides liquidity and credit enhancements, as specified by the rating agencies, in the form of cash collaterals / guarantees and / or by subordination of cash flows, not exceeding 20% of the total securitised instruments, in line with RBI guidelines. The Bank also acts as a servicing agent for receivable pools securitised-out.

The Bank also enters into transactions for transfer of standard assets through the direct assignment of cash flows, which are similar to asset-backed securitisation transactions through the SPV route, except that such portfolios of receivables are assigned directly to the purchaser and are not represented by Pass Through Certificates (''PTCs''), subject to the RBI prescribed MHP criteria and the MRR. The RBI issued addendum guidelines on securitisation of standard assets vide its circular dated May 7, 2012. Accordingly, the Bank does not provide liquidity or credit enhancements on the direct assignment transactions undertaken subsequent to these guidelines.

Pursuant to these guidelines, the Bank amortises any profit received in cash for every individual securitisation or direct assignment transaction at the end of every financial year. This amortisation is calculated as the maximum of either of the three parameters stated below:

- the losses incurred on the portfolio, including marked to market losses in case of securitisation transactions, specific provisions, if any, and direct write-offs made on the MRR and any other exposures to the securitisation transaction (other than credit enhancing interest only strip); or

- the amount of unamortised cash profit at the beginning of the year multiplied by the amount of principal amortised during the year as a proportion to the amount of unamortised principal at the beginning of the year; or

- the amount of unamortised cash profit at the beginning of the year divided by residual maturity of the securitisation or the direct assignment transaction.

In relation to securitisation transactions undertaken prior to the aforementioned RBI guidelines, including those undertaken through the direct assignment route, the Bank continues to amortise the profit / premium that arose on account of sale of receivables over the life of the securities sold, in accordance with the RBI guidelines on securitisation of standard assets issued vide its circular dated February 1, 2006.

Any loss arising on account of sale of receivables is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period in which the sale occurs in accordance with the said RBI guidelines.

The Bank transfers advances through inter-bank participation with and without risk. In accordance with the RBI guidelines, in the case of participation with risk, the aggregate amount of the participation issued by the Bank is reduced from advances and where the Bank is participating, the aggregate amount of the participation is classified under advances. In the case of participation without risk, the aggregate amount of participation issued by the Bank is classified under borrowings and where the Bank is participating, the aggregate amount of participation is shown as due from banks under advances.

In accordance with RBI guidelines on sale of non-performing advances, if the sale is at a price below the net book value (i.e., book value less provisions held), the shortfall is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the sale is for a value higher than the net book value, the excess provision is not reversed but is utilised to meet the shortfall / loss on account of sale of other non-performing advances. The RBI issued new guidelines on sale of non-performing advances on February 26, 2014. In accordance with these guidelines, if the sale of non-performing advances is at a price below the net book value, the shortfall is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss spread over a period of two years. If the sale is for a value higher than the net book value, the excess provision is credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year the amounts are received.

The Bank invests in PTCs issued by other SPVs. These are accounted for at the deal value and are classified as investments. The Bank also buys loans through the direct assignment route which are classified as advances. These are carried at acquisition cost unless it is more than the face value, in which case the premium is amortised based on Effective Interest Rate (EIR) method.

4 Fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation as adjusted for impairment, if any. Cost includes cost of purchase and all expenditure like site preparation, installation costs and professional fees incurred on the asset before it is ready to use. Subsequent expenditure incurred on assets put to use is capitalised only when it increases the future benefit / functioning capability from / of such assets.

Depreciation is charged over the estimated useful life of the fixed asset on a straight-line basis. The Bank, pursuant to the Companies Act 2013, has carried out a technical assessment of the useful life of its assets taking into account changes in environment, changes in technology, the utility and efficacy of the asset in use. The estimated useful lives of key fixed assets are given below:

- Improvements to lease hold premises are charged off over the remaining primary period of lease.

- Software and system development expenditure is depreciated over a period of 5 years.

- Point of sale terminals are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.

- For assets purchased and sold during the year, depreciation is provided on pro-rata basis by the Bank.

- Whenever there is a revision of the estimated useful life of an asset, the unamortised depreciable amount is charged over the revised remaining useful life of the said asset.

5 Impairment of assets

The Bank assesses at each Balance Sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. Impairment loss, if any, is provided in the Statement of Profit and Loss to the extent the carrying amount of assets exceeds their estimated recoverable amount.

6 Transactions involving foreign exchange

Foreign currency income and expenditure items of domestic operations are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Income and expenditure items of integral foreign operations (representative offices) are translated at the weekly average closing rates and of non-integral foreign operations (foreign branches) at the monthly average closing rates.

Foreign currency monetary items of domestic and integral foreign operations are translated at the closing exchange rates notified by Foreign Exchange Dealers'' Association of India (''FEDAI'') as at the Balance Sheet date and the resulting net valuation profit or loss arising due to a net open position in any foreign currency is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Both monetary and non-monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities of non-integral foreign operations are translated at closing exchange rates notified by FEDAI at the Balance Sheet date and the resulting profit / loss arising from exchange differences are accumulated in the Foreign Currency Translation Account until remittance or the disposal of the net investment in the non-integral foreign operations in accordance with AS - 11.

Foreign exchange spot and forward contracts outstanding as at the Balance Sheet date and held for trading, are revalued at the closing spot and forward rates respectively as notified by FEDAI and at interpolated rates for contracts of interim maturities. The USD-INR rate for valuation of contracts having longer maturities i.e. greater than one year, is implied from MIFOR and LIBOR curves. For other currency pairs, the forward points (for rates / tenors not published by FEDAI) are obtained from Reuters for valuation of the FX deals. As directed by FEDAI to consider P&L on present value basis, the forward profit or loss on the deals are discounted till the valuation date using the discounting yields. The resulting profit or loss on valuation is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Foreign exchange contracts are classified as assets when the fair value is positive (positive marked to market value) or as liabilities when the fair value is negative (negative marked to market value).

Foreign exchange forward contracts not intended for trading, that are entered into to establish the amount of reporting currency required or available at the settlement date of a transaction, and are outstanding at the Balance Sheet date, are effectively valued at the closing spot rate. The premia or discount arising at the inception of such forward exchange contract is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract.

Currency future contracts are marked to market daily using settlement price on a trading day, which is the closing price of the respective future contracts on that day. While the daily settlement price is computed on the basis of the last half an hour weighted average price of such contract, the final settlement price is taken as the RBI reference rate on the last trading day of the future contracts or as may be specified by the relevant authority from time to time. All open positions are marked to market based on the settlement price and the resultant marked to market profit / loss is daily settled with the exchange.

Contingent liabilities on account of foreign exchange contracts, currency future contracts, guarantees, letters of credit, acceptances and endorsements are reported at closing rates of exchange notified by FEDAI as at the Balance Sheet date.

7 Derivative contracts

The Bank recognises all derivative contracts (other than those designated as hedges) at fair value, on the date on which the derivative contracts are entered into and are re-measured at fair value as at the Balance Sheet or reporting dates. Derivatives are classified as assets when the fair value is positive (positive marked to market value) or as liabilities when the fair value is negative (negative marked to market value). Changes in the fair value of derivatives other than those designated as hedges are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derivative contracts designated as hedges are not marked to market unless their underlying transaction is marked to market. In respect of derivative contracts that are marked to market, changes in the market value are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the relevant period. The Bank identifies the hedged item (asset or liability) at the inception of the transaction itself. Hedge effectiveness is ascertained at the time of the inception of the hedge and periodically thereafter. Gains or losses arising from hedge ineffectiveness, if any, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Contingent liabilities on account of derivative contracts denominated in foreign currencies are reported at closing rates of exchange notified by FEDAI as at the Balance Sheet date.

8 Revenue recognition

Interest income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on an accrual basis, except in the case of non-performing assets where it is recognised upon realisation as per RBI norms.

Interest income on investments in PTCs and loans bought out through the direct assignment route is recognised at their effective interest rate.

Income on non-coupon bearing discounted instruments is recognised over the tenor of the instrument on a constant effective yield basis.

Loan processing fee is recognised as income when due. Syndication / arranger fee is recognised as income when a significant act / milestone is completed.

Gain / loss on sell down of loans is recognised in line with the extant RBI guidelines.

Dividend on equity shares, preference shares and on mutual fund units is recognised as income when the right to receive the dividend is established.

Guarantee commission, commission on letter of credit, annual locker rent fees and annual fees for credit cards are recognised on a straight line basis over the period of contract. Other fees and commission income are recognised when due, except in cases where the Bank is uncertain of ultimate collection.

9 Employee benefits

Employee Stock Option Scheme (''ESOS'')

The Employee Stock Option Scheme (''the Scheme'') provides for the grant of options to acquire equity shares of the Bank to its employees. The options granted to employees vest in a graded manner and these may be exercised by the employees within a specified period.

The Bank follows the intrinsic value method to account for its stock-based employee compensation plans. Compensation cost is measured by the excess, if any, of the market price of the underlying stock over the exercise price as determined under the option plan. The market price is the closing price on the stock exchange where there is highest trading volume on the working day immediately preceding the date of grant. Compensation cost, if any is amortised over the vesting period.

Gratuity

The Bank provides for gratuity to all employees. The benefit vests upon completion of five years of service and is in the form of lump sum payment to employees on resignation, retirement, death while in employment or on termination of employment of an amount equivalent to 15 days basic salary payable for each completed year of service. The Bank makes contributions to funds administered by trustees and managed by insurance companies for amounts notified by the said insurance companies. In respect of erstwhile Lord Krishna Bank (''eLKB'') employees, the Bank makes contribution to a fund set up by eLKB and administered by the Board of Trustees.

The defined gratuity benefit plans are valued by an independent actuary as at the Balance Sheet date using the projected unit credit method as per the requirement of AS-15 (Revised 2005), Employee Benefits, to determine the present value of the defined benefit obligation and the related service costs. Under this method, the determination is based on actuarial calculations, which include assumptions about demographics, early retirement, salary increases and interest rates. Actuarial gain or loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Superannuation

Employees of the Bank, above a prescribed grade, are entitled to receive retirement benefits under the Bank''s Superannuation Fund. The Bank contributes a sum equivalent to 13% of the employee''s eligible annual basic salary (15% for the whole time directors and for certain eligible erstwhile Centurion Bank of Punjab (''eCBoP'') staff) to insurance companies, which administer the fund. The Bank has no liability for future superannuation fund benefits other than its contribution and recognises such contributions as an expense in the year incurred, as such contribution is in the nature of defined contribution.

Provident fund

In accordance with law, all employees of the Bank are entitled to receive benefits under the provident fund. The Bank contributes an amount, on a monthly basis, at a determined rate (currently 12% of employee''s basic salary). Of this, the Bank contributes an amount equal to 8.33% of employee''s basic salary up to a maximum salary level of Rs. 6,500/- per month, to the Pension Scheme administered by the Regional Provident Fund Commissioner (''RPFC''). The balance amount is contributed to a fund set up by the Bank and administered by a Board of Trustees. In respect of eCBoP employees, employer''s and employee''s share of contribution to Provident Fund till March 2009, was administered by RPFC and from April 2009 onwards, the same is transferred to the fund set up by the Bank and administered by the Board of Trustees. In respect of eLKB employees, the Bank contributes to a fund set up by eLKB and administered by a Board of Trustees. The Bank recognises such contributions as an expense in the year in which it is incurred. Interest payable to the members of the trust shall not be lower than the statutory rate of interest declared by the Central Government under the Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952 and shortfall, if any, shall be made good by the Bank.

The guidance note on implementing AS-15 (Revised 2005), Employee Benefits, states that benefits involving employer established provident funds, which require interest shortfalls to be provided, are to be considered as defined benefit plans. Actuarial valuation of this Provident Fund interest shortfall is done as per the guidance note issued in this respect by the Actuary Society of India and provision towards this liability is made.

The overseas branches of the Bank makes contribution to the respective relevant government scheme calculated as a percentage of the employees'' salaries. The Bank''s obligations are limited to these contributions, which are expensed when due, as such contribution is in the nature of defined contribution.

Leave encashment / Compensated absences

The Bank does not have a policy of encashing unavailed leave for its employees, except for certain eLKB employees under Indian Banks'' Association (''IBA'') structure. The Bank provides for leave encashment / compensated absences based on an independent actuarial valuation at the Balance Sheet date, which includes assumptions about demographics, early retirement, salary increases, interest rates and leave utilisation.

Pension

In respect of pension payable to certain eLKB employees under IBA structure, which is a defined benefit scheme, the Bank contributes 10% of basic salary to a pension fund set up by the Bank and administered by the board of trustees and the balance amount is provided based on actuarial valuation as at the Balance Sheet date conducted by an independent actuary.

In respect of certain eLKB employees who had moved to a Cost to Company (''CTC'') driven compensation structure and had completed less than 15 years of service, the contribution which was made until then, is maintained as a fund and will be converted into annuity on separation after a lock-in-period of two years. For this category of employees, liability stands frozen and no additional provision is required except for interest as applicable to Provident Fund, which is provided for.

In respect of certain eLKB employees who moved to a CTC structure and had completed service of more than 15 years, pension would be paid on separation based on salary applicable as on the date of movement to CTC structure. Provision thereto is made based on actuarial valuation as at the Balance Sheet date conducted by an independent actuary.

10 Debit and credit cards reward points

The Bank estimates the probable redemption of debit and credit card reward points and cost per point using an actuarial method by employing an independent actuary, which includes assumptions such as mortality, redemption and spends. Provisions for the said reward points are made based on the actuarial valuation report as furnished by the said independent actuary and included in other liabilities.

11 Bullion

The Bank imports bullion including precious metal bars on a consignment basis for selling to its wholesale and retail customers. The imports are typically on a back-to-back basis and are priced to the customer based on an estimated price quoted by the supplier. The Bank earns a fee on such wholesale bullion transactions. The fee is classified under commission income.

The Bank also sells bullion to its retail customers. The difference between the sale price to customers and actual price quoted by supplier is recorded under commission income.

The Bank also deals in bullion on a borrowing and lending basis and the interest paid / received thereon is classified as interest expense / income respectively.

12 Lease accounting

Lease payments including cost escalation for assets taken on operating lease are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the lease term on a straight-line basis in accordance with the AS-19, Leases.

13 Income tax

Income tax expense comprises current tax provision (i.e. the amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961 and the rules framed there under) and the net change in the deferred tax asset or liability during the year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for the future tax consequences of timing differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss carried forward, if any. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted or substantively enacted tax rates as at the Balance Sheet date.

Current tax assets and liabilities and deferred tax assets and liabilities are off-set when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority, when the Bank has a legal right to off-set and when the Bank intends to settle on a net basis.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future. In case of unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and appropriately adjusted to reflect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain to be realised.

14 Earnings per share

The Bank reports basic and diluted earnings per equity share in accordance with AS-20, Earnings Per Share. Basic earnings per equity share has been computed by dividing net profit for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per share reflect the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue equity shares were exercised or converted to equity during the year. Diluted earnings per equity share are computed using the weighted average number of equity shares and the dilutive potential equity shares outstanding during the period except where the results are anti-dilutive.

15 Share issue expenses

Share issue expenses are adjusted from Share Premium Account in terms of Section 52 of the Companies Act, 2013.

16 Segment information

The disclosure relating to segment information is in accordance with the guidelines issued by RBI.

17 Accounting for provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

In accordance with AS-29, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, the Bank recognises provisions when it has a present obligation as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and when a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made.

Provisions are determined based on management estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date, supplemented by experience of similar transactions. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current management estimates.

A disclosure of contingent liability is made when there is:

- a possible obligation arising from a past event, the existence of which will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not within the control of the Bank; or

- a present obligation arising from a past event which is not recognised as it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made.

When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Contingent assets, if any, are not recognised in the financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may never be realised.

Onerous contracts

Provisions for onerous contracts are recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the Bank from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Bank recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

18 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, balances with RBI, balances with other banks and money at call and short notice.

19 Corporate social responsibility

Spends towards corporate social responsibility, in accordance with Companies Act, 2013 are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Amounts in notes forming part of the financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2015 are denominated in rupees crore to conform to extant RBI guidelines.

1 Capital adequacy

The Bank''s capital to risk-weighted asset ratio (''Capital Adequacy Ratio'') as on March 31, 2015 is calculated in accordance with the RBI''s guidelines on Basel III capital regulations (''Basel III'') which were effective April 1, 2013. The phasing in of the minimum capital requirement under Basel III is as follows:

The Bank has not raised any additional tier I and tier II capital during the years ended March 31, 2015 and March 31, 2014.

Subordinated debt (lower tier II capital), upper tier II capital and innovative perpetual debt instruments outstanding as at March 31, 2015 are Rs. 12,014.00 crore (previous year: Rs. 12,428.00 crore), Rs. 4,040.90 crore (previous year: Rs. 4,015.05 crore) and Rs. 200.00 crore (previous year: Rs. 200.00 crore) respectively.

In accordance with RBI guidelines, banks are required to make Pillar 3 disclosures under Basel III capital regulations. The Bank has made these disclosures which are available on its website at the following link: http://www.hdfcbank.com/ aboutus/basel_disclosures/default.htm. These Pillar 3 disclosures have not been subjected to audit.

Capital Infusion

Pursuant to the shareholder and regulatory approvals, the Bank on February 10, 2015, concluded a Qualified Institutions Placement (QIP) of 1,87,44,142 equity shares at a price of Rs. 1,067 per equity share aggregating Rs. 2,000 crore and an American Depository Receipt (ADR) offering of 2,20,00,000 ADRs (representing 6,60,00,000 equity shares) at a price of USD 57.76 per ADR, aggregating USD 1,271 million. Pursuant to these issuances, the Bank allotted 8,47,44,142 additional equity shares. Accordingly, share capital increased by Rs. 16.95 crore and share premium increased by Rs. 9,705.84 crore, net of share issue expenses of Rs. 151.03 crore.

During the year ended March 31, 2015, the Bank allotted 2,27,00,740 equity shares (previous year: 1,96,31,405 equity shares) aggregating to face value Rs. 4.54 crore (previous year: Rs. 3.93 crore) in respect of stock options exercised. Accordingly, share capital increased by Rs. 4.54 crore (previous year: Rs. 3.93 crore) and share premium increased by Rs. 990.88 crore (previous year: Rs. 741.51 crore).


Mar 31, 2013

1 Investments

Classification :

In accordance with the RBI guidelines on investment classification and valuation, Investments are classified on the date of purchase into "Held for Trading" (''HFT''), "Available for Sale" (''AFS'') and "Held to Maturity" (''HTM'') categories (hereinafter called "categories"). Subsequent shifting amongst the categories is done in accordance with the RBI guidelines. Under each of these categories, investments are further classified under six groups (hereinafter called "groups") - Government Securities, Other Approved Securities, Shares, Debentures and Bonds, Investments in Subsidiaries / Joint ventures and Other Investments.

Recording purchase and sale transactions in securities is done following ''Settlement Date'' accounting, except in the case of equity shares where ''Trade Date'' accounting is followed.

Basis of classification :

Investments that are held principally for resale within 90 days from the date of purchase are classified under HFT category.

Investments which the Bank intends to hold till maturity are classified as HTM securities. Investments in the equity of subsidiaries / joint ventures are categorised as HTM in accordance with the RBI guidelines. Investments which are not classified in the above categories are classified under AFS category.

Acquisition cost :

In determining acquisition cost of an investment :

- Brokerage, Commission, etc. paid at the time of acquisition, are charged to revenue.

- Broken period interest on debt instruments is treated as a revenue item.

- Cost of investments is based on the weighted average cost method.

Disposal of investments :

Profit / Loss on sale of investments under the aforesaid three categories is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The profit from sale of investment under HTM category, net of taxes and transfer to statutory reserve is appropriated from Statement of Profit and Loss to "Capital Reserve" in accordance with the RBI Guidelines.

Short sale :

The Bank undertakes short sale transactions in Central Government dated securities in accordance with RBI guidelines. The short position is reflected as the amount received on sale and is classified under ''Other Liabilities''. The short position is marked to market and loss, if any, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss while gain, if any, is not recognised. Profit / Loss on settlement of the short position is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Valuation :

Investments classified under AFS and HFT categories are marked to market as per the RBI guidelines.

Traded investments are valued based on the trades / quotes on the recognised stock exchanges, price list of RBI or prices declared by Primary Dealers Association of India (''PDAI'') jointly with Fixed Income Money Market and Derivatives Association (''FIMMDA''), periodically.

The market value of unquoted government securities which qualify for determining the Statutory Liquidity Ratio (''SLR'') included in the AFS and HFT categories is computed as per the Yield-to-Maturity (''YTM'') rates published by FIMMDA.

The valuation of other unquoted fixed income securities (viz. State Government securities, Other approved securities, Bonds and Debentures) and preference shares, wherever linked to the YTM rates, is done with a mark-up (reflecting associated credit and liquidity risk) over the YTM rates for government securities published by FIMMDA. Special Bonds such as Oil Bonds, Fertilizer Bonds etc. which are directly issued by Government of India (''GOI'') that do not qualify for SLR are also valued by applying the mark up above the corresponding yield on GOI securities. Unquoted equity shares are valued at the break-up value, if the latest balance sheet is available or at Rs. 1 as per the RBI guidelines. Units of mutual funds are valued at the latest repurchase price / net asset value declared by the mutual fund. Treasury Bills, Commercial Papers and Certificate of Deposits being discounted instruments, are valued at carrying cost. Security receipts are valued as per the Net Asset Value provided by the issuing Asset Reconstruction Company from time to time.

Net depreciation in the value, if any, compared to the acquisition cost, in any of the six groups, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. The net appreciation, if any, in any of the six groups is not recognised except to the extent of depreciation already provided. The valuation of investments includes securities under repo transactions. The book value of individual securities is not changed after the valuation of investments.

Investments classified under HTM category are carried at their acquisition cost and not marked to market. Any premium on acquisition is amortised over the remaining maturity period of the security on a constant yield to maturity basis. Such amortisation of premium is adjusted against interest income under the head "Income from investments" as per the RBI guidelines. Any diminution, other than temporary, in the value of investments in subsidiaries / joint ventures is provided for.

Non-performing investments are identified and depreciation / provision is made thereon based on the RBI guidelines. The depreciation / provision is not set off against the appreciation in respect of other performing securities. Interest on non- performing investments is not recognised in the Profit or Loss Account until received.

Repo and reverse repo transactions :

In accordance with the RBI guidelines Repo and Reverse Repo transactions in government securities and corporate debt securities (excluding transactions conducted under Liquidity Adjustment Facility (''LAF'') and Marginal Standby Facility (''MSF'') with RBI) are reflected as borrowing and lending transactions respectively. Borrowing cost on repo transactions is accounted as interest expense and revenue on reverse repo transactions is accounted as interest income.

In respect of repo transactions under LAF and MSF with RBI, amount borrowed from RBI is credited to investment account and reversed on maturity of the transaction. Costs thereon are accounted for as interest expense. In respect of reverse repo transactions under LAF, amount lent to RBI is debited to investment account and reversed on maturity of the transaction. Revenues thereon are accounted as interest income.

2 Advances

Classification :

Advances are classified as performing and non-performing based on the RBI guidelines and are stated net of bills rediscounted, specific provisions, interest in suspense for non-performing advances, claims received from Export Credit Guarantee Corporation, provisions for funded interest term loan classified as non-performing advances and provisions in lieu of diminution in the fair value of restructured assets. Interest on non-performing advances is transferred to an interest suspense account and not recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss until received.

Provisioning :

Specific loan loss provisions in respect of non-performing advances are made based on management''s assessment of the degree of impairment of wholesale and retail advances, subject to the minimum provisioning level prescribed by the RBI. The specific provision levels for retail non-performing assets are also based on the nature of product and delinquency levels. Specific loan loss provisions in respect of non-performing advances are charged to profit and loss and included under Provisions and Contingencies. Recoveries from bad debts written-off are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss and included under Other Income. In relation to non-performing derivative contracts, as per the extant RBI guidelines, the Bank makes provision for the entire amount of overdue and future receivables relating to positive marked to market value of the said derivative contracts.

The Bank maintains general provision for standard assets including credit exposures computed as per the current marked to market values of interest rate and foreign exchange derivative contracts, and gold at levels stipulated by RBI from time to time. Provision for standard assets held by the Bank is not reversed. In the case of overseas branches, general provision on standard advances is maintained at the higher of the levels stipulated by the respective overseas regulator or RBI. Provision for standard assets is included under Other Liabilities.

Provisions made in excess of these regulatory requirements or provisions which are not made with respect to specific non- performing assets are categorised as floating provisions. Creation of further floating provisions is considered by the Bank up to a level approved by the Board of Directors. Floating provisions are not reversed by credit to Statement of Profit and Loss and can be used only for contingencies under extraordinary circumstances for making specific provisions towards impaired accounts after obtaining Board approval and with prior permission of RBI. Floating provisions have been included under Other Liabilities.

Further to the provisions required to be held according to the asset classification status, provisions are held for individual country exposures (other than for home country exposure). Countries are categorised into risk categories as per Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd. (''ECGC'') guidelines and provisioning is done in respect of that country where the net funded exposure is one percent or more of the Bank''s total assets.

In addition to the above, the Bank on a prudential basis makes provisions on advances or exposures which are not NPAs, but has reasons to believe on the basis of the extant environment or specific information, the possible slippage of a specific advance or a group of advances or exposures or potential exposures. These are classified as contingent provisions and included under Other Liabilities.

The Bank considers a restructured account as one where the Bank, for economic or legal reasons relating to the borrower''s financial difficulty, grants to the borrower concessions that the Bank would not otherwise consider. Restructuring would normally involve modification of terms of the advance / securities, which would generally include, among others, alteration of repayment period / repayable amount / the amount of installments / rate of interest (due to reasons other than competitive reasons). Restructured accounts are classified as such by the Bank only upon approval and implementation of the restructuring package. Necessary provision for diminution in the fair value of a restructured account is made. Restructuring of an account is done at a borrower level.

3 Securitisation and transfer of assets

The Bank securitises out its receivables, subject to the minimum holding period criteria and the minimum retention requirements of RBI, to Special Purpose Vehicles (''SPVs'') in securitisation transactions. Such securitised-out receivables are de-recognised in the balance sheet when they are sold (true sale criteria being fully met with) and consideration is received by the Bank. Sales / transfers that do not meet these criteria for surrender of control are accounted for as secured borrowings. In respect of receivable pools securitised-out, the Bank provides liquidity and credit enhancements, as specified by the rating agencies, in the form of cash collaterals / guarantees and / or by subordination of cash flows, not exceeding 20% of the total securitised instruments, in line with RBI guidelines. The Bank also acts as a servicing agent for receivable pools securitised-out.

The Bank also enters into transactions for transfer of standard assets through the direct assignment of cash flows, which are similar to asset-backed securitisation transactions through the SPV route, except that such portfolios of receivables are assigned directly to the purchaser and are not represented by Pass through Certificates (''PTCs''), subject to the RBI prescribed minimum holding period criteria and the minimum retention requirements (''MRR''). The RBI issued addendum guidelines on securitisation of standard assets vide its circular dated May 7, 2012. Accordingly, the Bank does not provide liquidity or credit enhancements on the direct assignment transactions undertaken subsequent to these guidelines. Pursuant to these guidelines, the Bank amortises any profit received in cash for every individual securitisation or direct assignment transaction at the end of every financial year. This amortisation is calculated as the maximum of either of the three parameters stated below :

- the losses incurred on the portfolio, including marked-to-market losses in case of securitisation transactions, specific provisions, if any, and direct write-offs made on the MRR and any other exposures to the securitisation transaction (other than credit enhancing interest only strip); or

- the amount of unamortised cash profit at the beginning of the year multiplied by the amount of principal amortised during the year as a proportion to the amount of unamortised principal at the beginning of the year; or

- the amount of unamortised cash profit at the beginning of the year divided by residual maturity of the securitisation or the direct assignment transaction.

In relation to securitisation transactions undertaken prior to the aforementioned RBI guidelines, including those undertaken through the direct assignment route, the Bank continues to amortise the profit / premium that arose on account of sale of receivables over the life of the securities sold, in accordance with the RBI guidelines on securitisation of standard assets issued vide its circular dated February 1, 2006.

Any loss arising on account of sale of receivables is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period in which the sale occurs in accordance with the said RBI guidelines.

The Bank transfers advances through inter-bank participation with and without risk. In accordance with the RBI guidelines, in the case of participation with risk, the aggregate amount of the participation issued by the Bank is reduced from advances and where the Bank is participating, the aggregate amount of the participation is classified under advances. In the case of participation without risk, the aggregate amount of participation issued by the Bank is classified under borrowings and where the Bank is participating, the aggregate amount of participation is shown as due from banks under advances.

In accordance with RBI guidelines on sale of non-performing advances, if the sale is at a price below the net book value (i.e., book value less provisions held), the shortfall is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the sale is for a value higher than the net book value, the excess provision is not reversed but is utilised to meet the shortfall / loss on account of sale of other non-performing advances.

The Bank invests in PTCs issued by other SPVs. These are accounted for at the deal value and are classified as investments. The Bank also buys loans through the direct assignment route which are classified as advances. These are carried at acquisition cost unless it is more than the face value, in which case the premium is amortised based on effective interest rate (EIR) method.

4 Fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation as adjusted for impairment, if any. Cost includes cost of purchase and all expenditure like site preparation, installation costs and professional fees incurred on the asset before it is ready to use. Subsequent expenditure incurred on assets put to use is capitalised only when it increases the future benefit / functioning capability from / of such assets.

Depreciation is charged over the estimated useful life of the fixed asset on a straight-line basis. The rates of depreciation are not lower than the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. Depreciation rates for certain key fixed assets are given below :

- Improvements to lease hold premises are charged off over the remaining primary period of lease.

- Items (excluding staff assets) costing less than Rs. 5,000 and point of sale terminals are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.

- All other assets are depreciated as per the rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

- For assets purchased and sold during the year, depreciation is provided on pro rata basis by the Bank.

- The Bank undertakes assessment of the useful life of an asset at periodic intervals taking into account changes in environment, changes in technology, the utility and efficacy of the asset in use, etc. Whenever there is a revision of the estimated useful life of an asset, the unamortised depreciable amount is charged over the revised remaining useful life of the said asset.

5 Impairment of assets

The Bank assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. Impairment loss, if any, is provided in the Statement of Profit and Loss to the extent the carrying amount of assets exceeds their estimated recoverable amount.

6 Transactions involving foreign exchange

Foreign currency income and expenditure items of domestic operations are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Income and expenditure items of integral foreign operations (representative offices) are translated at the weekly average closing rates and of non-integral foreign operations (foreign branches) at the monthly average closing rates.

Foreign currency monetary items of domestic and integral foreign operations are translated at the closing exchange rates notified by Foreign Exchange Dealers'' Association of India (''FEDAI'') as at the balance sheet date and the resulting net valuation profit or loss arising due to a net open position in any foreign currency is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Both monetary and non-monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities of non-integral foreign operations are translated at closing exchange rates notified by FEDAI at the balance sheet date and the resulting profit / loss arising from exchange differences are accumulated in the Foreign Currency Translation Account until the disposal of the net investment in the non-integral foreign operations.

Foreign exchange spot and forward contracts outstanding as at the balance sheet date and held for trading, are revalued at the closing spot and forward rates respectively as notified by FEDAI and at interpolated rates for contracts of interim maturities. The contracts for longer maturities i.e. greater than one year are revalued using MIFOR (Mumbai Interbank Forward Offer Rate) and contracts with USD-INR currency pair are valued using USD LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate) rates. For other currency pairs, the forward points (as published by FEDAI) are extrapolated. The resulting profit or loss on valuation is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Foreign exchange forward contracts not intended for trading, that are entered into to establish the amount of reporting currency required or available at the settlement date of a transaction, and are outstanding at the balance sheet date, are effectively valued at the closing spot rate. The premia or discount arising at the inception of such forward exchange contract is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract.

Currency futures contracts are marked to market daily using settlement price on a trading day, which is the closing price of the respective futures contracts on that day. While the daily settlement price is computed on the basis of the last half an hour weighted average price of such contract, the final settlement price is taken as the RBI reference rate on the last trading day of the futures contract or as may be specified by the relevant authority from time to time. All open positions are marked to market based on the settlement price and the resultant marked to market profit / loss is daily settled with the exchange.

Contingent Liabilities on account of foreign exchange contracts, currency future contracts, guarantees, letters of credit, acceptances and endorsements are reported at closing rates of exchange notified by FEDAI as at the Balance Sheet date.

7 Derivative contracts

The Bank recognises all derivative contracts (other than those designated as hedges) at fair value, on the date on which the derivative contracts are entered into and are re-measured at fair value as at the balance sheet or reporting dates. Derivatives are classified as assets when the fair value is positive (positive marked to market value) or as liabilities when the fair value is negative (negative marked to market value). Changes in the fair value of derivatives other than those designated as hedges are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derivative contracts designated as hedges are not marked to market unless their underlying transaction is marked to market. In respect of derivative contracts that are marked to market, changes in the market value are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the relevant period. The Bank identifies the hedged item (asset or liability) at the inception of the transaction itself. Hedge effectiveness is ascertained at the time of the inception of the hedge and periodically thereafter. Gains or losses arising from hedge ineffectiveness, if any, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Contingent Liabilities on account of derivative contracts denominated in foreign currencies are reported at closing rates of exchange notified by FEDAI as at the Balance Sheet date.

8 Revenue recognition

Interest income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on an accrual basis, except in the case of non-performing assets where it is recognised upon realisation as per RBI norms.

Interest income on investments in Pass Through Certificates (''PTCs'') and loans bought out through the direct assignment route is recognised at their effective interest rate.

Income on non-coupon bearing discounted instruments is recognised over the tenor of the instrument on a constant effective yield basis.

Loan processing fee is recognised as income when due. Syndication / arranger fee is recognised as income when a significant act / milestone is completed.

Gain / loss on sell down of loans is recognised in line with the extant RBI guidelines.

Dividend on equity shares, preference shares and on mutual fund units is recognised as income when the right to receive the dividend is established.

Guarantee commission, commission on Letter of Credit, annual locker rent fees and annual fees for credit cards are recognised on a straight line basis over the period of contract. Other fees and commission income are recognised when due, except in cases where the Bank is uncertain of ultimate collection.

9 Employee benefits

Employee Stock Option Scheme (''ESOS'')

The Employee Stock Option Scheme (''the Scheme'') provides for the grant of options to acquire equity shares of the Bank to its employees. The options granted to employees vest in a graded manner and these may be exercised by the employees within a specified period.

The Bank follows the intrinsic value method to account for its stock-based employee compensation plans. Compensation cost is measured by the excess, if any, of the fair market price of the underlying stock over the exercise price as determined under the option plan. The fair market price is the closing price on the stock exchange where there is highest trading volume on the working day immediately preceding the date of grant. Compensation cost, if any is amortised over the vesting period.

Gratuity

The Bank provides for gratuity to all employees. The benefit is in the form of lump sum payment to vested employees on resignation, retirement, death while in employment or on termination of employment of an amount equivalent to 15 days basic salary payable for each completed year of service. Vesting occurs upon completion of five years of service. The Bank makes contributions to funds administered by trustees and managed by insurance companies for amounts notified by the said insurance companies. In respect of erstwhile Lord Krishna Bank (''eLKB'') employees, the Bank makes contribution to a fund set up by eLKB and administered by the board of trustees.

The defined gratuity benefit plans are valued by an independent actuary as at the balance sheet date using the projected unit credit method as per the requirement of AS-15 (Revised 2005), Employee Benefits, to determine the present value of the defined benefit obligation and the related service costs. Under this method, the determination is based on actuarial calculations, which include assumptions about demographics, early retirement, salary increases and interest rates. Actuarial gain or loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Superannuation

Employees of the Bank, above a prescribed grade, are entitled to receive retirement benefits under the Bank''s Superannuation Fund. The Bank contributes a sum equivalent to 13% of the employee''s eligible annual basic salary (15% for the Managing Director, Executive Directors and for certain eligible erstwhile Centurion Bank of Punjab (''eCBoP'') staff) to insurance companies, which administer the fund. The Bank has no liability for future superannuation fund benefits other than its contribution, and recognises such contributions as an expense in the year incurred, as such contribution is in the nature of defined contribution.

Provident fund

In accordance with law, all employees of the Bank are entitled to receive benefits under the provident fund. The Bank contributes an amount, on a monthly basis, at a determined rate (currently 12% of employee''s basic salary). Of this, the Bank contributes an amount equal to 8.33% of employee''s basic salary up to a maximum salary level of Rs. 6,500/- per month, to the Pension Scheme administered by the Regional Provident Fund Commissioner (''RPFC''). The balance amount is contributed to a fund set up by the Bank and administered by a board of trustees. In respect of eCBoP employees, employer''s and employee''s share of contribution to Provident Fund till March 2009, was administered by RPFC and from April 2009 onwards, the same is transferred to the fund set up by the Bank and administered by the board of trustees. In respect of eLKB employees, the Bank contributes to a fund set up by eLKB and administered by a board of trustees. The Bank recognises such contributions as an expense in the year in which it is incurred. Interest payable to the members of the trust shall not be lower than the statutory rate of interest declared by the Central Government under the Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952 and shortfall, if any, shall be made good by the Bank. The guidance note on implementing AS-15 (revised 2005), Employee Benefits, states that benefits involving employer established provident funds, which require interest shortfalls to be provided, are to be considered as defined benefit plans. Actuarial valuation of this Provident Fund interest shortfall is done as per the guidance note issued in this respect by the Actuary Society of India and provision towards this liability is made.

The overseas branches of the Bank make contributions to the respective relevant government scheme calculated as a percentage of the employees'' salaries. The Bank''s obligations are limited to these contributions, which are expensed when due, as such contribution is in the nature of defined contribution.

Leave encashment / compensated absences

The Bank does not have a policy of encashing unavailed leave for its employees, except for certain eLKB employees under Indian Banks'' Association (''IBA'') structure. The Bank provides for leave encashment / compensated absences based on an independent actuarial valuation at the balance sheet date, which includes assumptions about demographics, early retirement, salary increases, interest rates and leave utilisation.

Pension

In respect of pension payable to certain eLKB employees under IBA structure, which is a defined benefit scheme, the Bank contributes 10% of basic salary to a pension fund set up by the Bank and administered by the board of trustees and the balance amount is provided based on actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date conducted by an independent actuary.

In respect of certain eLKB employees who had moved to a Cost to Company (''CTC'') driven compensation structure and have completed less than 15 years of service, the contribution which was made until then, is maintained as a fund and will be converted into annuity on separation after a lock-in-period of two years. For this category of employees, liability stands frozen and no additional provision is required except for interest as applicable to Provident Fund, which is provided for.

In respect of certain eLKB employees who moved to a CTC structure and had completed service of more than 15 years, pension would be paid on separation based on salary applicable as on the date of movement to CTC structure. Provision thereto is made based on actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date conducted by an independent actuary.

10 Debit and credit cards reward points

The Bank estimates the probable redemption of debit and credit card reward points and cost per point using an actuarial method by employing an independent actuary, which includes assumptions such as mortality, redemption and spends. Provisions for the said reward points are made based on the actuarial valuation report as furnished by the said independent actuary.

11 Bullion

The Bank imports bullion including precious metal bars on a consignment basis for selling to its wholesale and retail customers. The imports are typically on a back-to-back basis and are priced to the customer based on an estimated price quoted by the supplier. The Bank earns a fee on such wholesale bullion transactions. The fee is classified under commission income.

The Bank also sells bullion to its retail customers. The difference between the sale price to customers and actual price quoted by supplier is also reflected under commission income.

The Bank also borrows and lends gold, which is treated as borrowing / lending as the case may be with the interest paid / received classified as interest expense / income.

12 Lease accounting

Lease payments including cost escalation for assets taken on operating lease are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the lease term in accordance with the AS-19, Leases.

13 Income tax

Income tax expense comprises current tax provision (i.e. the amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961 and the rules framed there under) and the net change in the deferred tax asset or liability in the year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for the future tax consequences of timing differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, and operating loss carried forward, if any. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted or substantively enacted tax rates as at the balance sheet date.

Current tax assets and liabilities and deferred tax assets and liabilities are off-set when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority, when the Bank has a legal right to off-set and when the Bank intends to settle on a net basis.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realized in future. In case of unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date and appropriately adjusted to reflect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain to be realized.

14 Earnings per share

The Bank reports basic and diluted earnings per equity share in accordance with AS-20, Earnings per Share. Basic earnings per equity share has been computed by dividing net profit for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per share reflect the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue equity shares were exercised or converted to equity during the year. Diluted earnings per equity share are computed using the weighted average number of equity shares and the dilutive potential equity shares outstanding during the period except where the results are anti-dilutive.

15 Segment information - basis of preparation

The disclosure relating to segmental classification conforms to the guidelines issued by RBI. Business Segments have been identified and reported taking into account, the target customer profile, the nature of products and services, the differing risks and returns, the organisation structure, the internal business reporting system and the guidelines prescribed by RBI. The Bank operates in the following segments :

(a) Treasury

The treasury segment primarily consists of net interest earnings from the Bank''s investment portfolio, money market borrowing and lending, gains or losses on investment operations and on account of trading in foreign exchange and derivative contracts.

(b) Retail Banking

The retail banking segment serves retail customers through a branch network and other delivery channels. This segment raises deposits from customers and provides loans and other services with the help of specialist product groups to such customers. Exposures are classified under retail banking taking into account the status of the borrower (orientation criterion), the nature of product, granularity of the exposure and the quantum thereof.

Revenues of the retail banking segment are derived from interest earned on retail loans, interest earned from other segments for surplus funds placed with those segments, subvention received from dealers and manufacturers, fees from services rendered, foreign exchange earnings on retail products etc. Expenses of this segment primarily comprise interest expense on deposits, commission paid to retail assets sales agents, infrastructure and premises expenses for operating the branch network and other delivery channels, personnel costs, other direct overheads and allocated expenses of specialist product groups, processing units and support groups.

(c) Wholesale banking

The wholesale banking segment provides loans, non-fund facilities and transaction services to large corporates, emerging corporates, public sector units, government bodies, financial institutions and medium scale enterprises. Revenues of the wholesale banking segment consist of interest earned on loans made to customers, interest / fees earned on the cash float arising from transaction services, earnings from trade services and other non-fund facilities and also earnings from foreign exchange and derivative transactions on behalf of customers. The principal expenses of the segment consist of interest expense on funds borrowed from external sources and other internal segments, premises expenses, personnel costs, other direct overheads and allocated expenses of delivery channels, specialist product groups, processing units and support groups.

(d) Other banking business

This segment includes income from para banking activities such as credit cards, debit cards, third party product distribution, primary dealership business and the associated costs.

(e) Unallocated

All items which are reckoned at an enterprise level are classified under this segment. This includes capital and reserves, debt classified as Tier I or Tier II capital and other unallocable assets and liabilities such as deferred tax, prepaid expenses, etc.

Segment revenue includes earnings from external customers plus earnings from funds transferred to other segments. Segment result includes revenue less interest expense less operating expense and provisions, if any, for that segment. Segment-wise income and expenses include certain allocations. Interest income is charged by a segment that provides funding to another segment, based on yields benchmarked to an internally approved yield curve or at a certain agreed transfer price rate. Transaction charges are levied by the retail-banking segment to the wholesale banking segment for the use by its customers of the retail banking segment''s branch network or other delivery channels. Such transaction costs are determined on a cost plus basis. Segment capital employed represents the net assets in that segment.

Geographic segments

The geographic segments of the Bank are categorized as Domestic Operations and Foreign Operations. Domestic Operations comprise branches in India and Foreign Operations comprise branches outside India.

16 Accounting for provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

In accordance with AS-29, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, the Bank recognises provisions when it has a present obligation as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and when a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made.

Provisions are determined based on management estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date, supplemented by experience of similar transactions. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current management estimates. In cases where the available information indicates that the loss on the contingency is reasonably possible but the amount of loss cannot be reasonably estimated, a disclosure is made in the financial statements.

Contingent Assets, if any, are not recognised in the financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may never be realized.

17 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, balances with RBI, balances with other banks and money at call and short notice.


Mar 31, 2012

A BACKGROUND

HDFC Bank Limited ('HDFC Bank' or 'the Bank'), incorporated in Mumbai, India is a publicly held banking company engaged in providing a wide range of banking and financial services including commercial banking and treasury operations. HDFC Bank is a banking company governed by the Banking Regulation Act, 1949. The Bank has overseas branch operations in Bahrain and Hong Kong.

B BASIS OF PREPARATION

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention and accrual basis of accounting, unless otherwise stated and are in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India ('GAAP'), statutory requirements prescribed under the Banking Regulation Act 1949, circulars and guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India ('RBI') from time to time, Accounting Standards ('AS') issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ('ICAI') and notified by the Companies Accounting Standard Rules, 2006 to the extent applicable and current practices prevailing within the banking industry in India.

Use of estimates :

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) as of the date of the financial statements and the reported income and expenses for the reporting period. Management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ from these estimates. Any revision in the accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

C PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

1 Investments

Classification :

In accordance with the RBI guidelines on investment classification and valuation, Investments are classified on the date of purchase into "Held for Trading" ('HFT'), "Available for Sale" ('AFS') and "Held to Maturity" ('HTM') categories (hereinafter called "categories"). Subsequent shifting amongst the categories is done in accordance with the RBI guidelines. Under each of these categories, investments are further classified under six groups (hereinafter called "groups") - Government Securities, Other Approved Securities, Shares, Debentures and Bonds, Investments in Subsidiaries / Joint ventures and Other Investments.

The Bank follows 'Settlement Date' accounting for recording purchase and sale of transactions in securities except in case of equity shares where 'Trade Date' accounting is followed.

Basis of classification :

Investments that are held principally for resale within 90 days from the date of purchase are classified under "Held for Trading" category.

Investments which the Bank intends to hold till maturity are classified as HTM securities. Investments in the equity of subsidiaries / joint ventures are categorised as HTM in accordance with the RBI guidelines.

Investments which are not classified in the above categories are classified under AFS category.

Acquisition cost :

In determining acquisition cost of an investment :

- Brokerage, commission, etc. paid at the time of acquisition, are charged to revenue.

- Broken period interest on debt instruments is treated as a revenue item.

- Cost of investments is based on the weighted average cost method.

Disposal of investments :

Profit / loss on sale of investments under the aforesaid three categories is taken to the Statement of Profit and Loss. The profit from sale of investment under HTM category, net of taxes and transfers to statutory reserve is appropriated from Statement of Profit and Loss to "Capital Reserve" in accordance with the RBI Guidelines.

Short sale :

In accordance with RBI guidelines, the Bank undertakes short sale transactions in central government dated securities. The short position is reflected as the amount received on sale and is classified under 'Other Liabilities'. The short position is marked to market and loss, if any, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss while gain, if any, is not recognised. Profit / loss on settlement of the short position is taken to Statement of Profit and Loss.

Valuation :

Investments classified under AFS category and HFT category are marked to market as per the RBI guidelines.

Traded investments are valued based on the trades / quotes on the recognised stock exchanges, price list of RBI or prices declared by Primary Dealers Association of India ('PDAI') jointly with Fixed Income Money Market and Derivatives Association ('FIMMDA'), periodically.

The market value of unquoted government securities which qualify for determining the Statutory Liquidity Ratio ('SLR') included in the AFS and HFT categories is computed as per the Yield-to-Maturity ('YTM') rates published by FIMMDA.

The valuation of other unquoted fixed income securities (viz. State government securities, Other approved securities, Bonds and debentures) wherever linked to the YTM rates, is computed with a mark-up (reflecting associated credit and liquidity risk) over the YTM rates for government securities published by FIMMDA. Special bonds such as Oil bonds, Fertiliser bonds etc. which are directly issued by Government of India ('GOI') that do not qualify for SLR are also valued by applying the mark up above the corresponding yield on GOI securities. Unquoted equity shares are valued at the break-up value, if the latest Balance Sheet is available or at Rs 1 as per the RBI guidelines. Units of mutual funds are valued at the latest repurchase price / net asset value declared by the mutual fund. Treasury bills, commercial papers and certificate of deposits being discounted instruments, are valued at carrying cost.

Net depreciation, if any, in any of the six groups, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. The net appreciation, if any, in any of the six groups is not recognised except to the extent of depreciation already provided. The book value of individual securities is not changed after the valuation of investments.

Investments classified under HTM category are carried at their acquisition cost and not marked to market. Any premium on acquisition is amortized over the remaining maturity period of the security on a constant yield to maturity basis. Such amortisation of premium is adjusted against interest income under the head "Income from investments" as per the RBI guidelines. Any diminution, other than temporary, in the value of investments in subsidiaries / joint ventures is provided for.

Non-performing investments are identified and depreciation / provision is made thereon based on the RBI guidelines. The depreciation / provision is not set off against the appreciation in respect of other performing securities. Interest on non-performing investments is not recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss until received.

Repo and reverse repo transactions :

In accordance with the RBI guidelines repo and reverse repo transactions in government securities and corporate debt securities (excluding transactions conducted under Liquidity Adjustment Facility ('LAF') and Marginal Standby Facility ('MSF') with RBI) are reflected as borrowing and lending transactions respectively. Borrowing cost on repo transactions is accounted as interest expense and revenue on reverse repo transactions is accounted as interest income.

In respect of repo transactions under LAF and MSF with RBI, amount borrowed from RBI is credited to investment account and reversed on maturity of the transaction. Costs thereon are accounted for as interest expense. In respect of reverse repo transactions under LAF, amount lent to RBI is debited to investment account and reversed on maturity of the transaction. Revenues thereon are accounted as interest income.

2 Advances

Classification :

Advances are classified as performing and non-performing based on the RBI guidelines and are stated net of bills rediscounted, specific provisions, interest in suspense for non-performing advances, claims received from Export Credit Guarantee Corporation, provisions for funded interest term loan classified as NPA and provisions in lieu of diminution in the fair value of restructured assets. Interest on non-performing advances is transferred to an interest suspense account and not recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss until received.

Provisioning :

Specific loan loss provisions in respect of non-performing advances are made based on management's assessment of the degree of impairment of wholesale and retail advances, subject to the minimum provisioning level prescribed by the RBI. The specific provision levels for retail non-performing assets are also based on the nature of product and delinquency levels.

The Bank maintains general provision for standard assets including credit exposures computed as per the current marked to market value of interest rate and foreign exchange derivative contracts and gold at levels stipulated by RBI from time to time. Provision for standard assets held by the Bank is not reversed. In the case of overseas branches, general provision on standard advances is maintained at the higher of the levels stipulated by the respective overseas regulator or RBI. Provision for standard assets is included under Schedule 5 - "Other Liabilities". Provisions made in excess of these regulatory requirements or provisions which are not made with respect to specific non-performing assets are categorised as floating provisions. Creation of further floating provisions is considered by the Bank up to a level approved by the Board of Directors. Floating provisions are not reversed by credit to Statement of Profit and Loss and can be used only for contingencies under extraordinary circumstances for making specific provisions towards impaired accounts after obtaining Board approval and with prior permission of RBI. Floating provisions have been included under Schedule 5 - "Other Liabilities"

In accordance with the RBI guidelines, the Bank makes provision for the entire amount of overdue and future receivables relating to positive marked to market value of non-performing derivative contracts.

Further to the provisions required to be held according to the asset classification status, provisions are held for individual country exposures (other than for home country exposure). Countries are categorised into risk categories as per Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd. ('ECGC') guidelines and provisioning is done in respect of that country where the net funded exposure is one percent or more of the Bank's total assets.

In addition to the above, the Bank on a prudential basis makes provisions on advances or exposures which are not NPAs, but has reasons to believe on the basis of the extant environment or specific information, the possible slippage of a specific advance or a group of advances or exposures or potential exposures. These are classified as contingent provisions and included under Schedule 5 - "Other Liabilities".

The Bank considers a restructured account as one where the Bank, for economic or legal reasons relating to the borrower's financial difficulty, grants to the borrower concessions that the Bank would not otherwise consider. Restructuring would normally involve modification of terms of the advance / securities, which would generally include, among others, alteration of repayment period / repayable amount / the amount of installments / rate of interest (due to reasons other than competitive reasons). Restructured accounts are classified as such by the Bank only upon approval and implementation of the restructuring package. Necessary provision for diminution in the fair value of a restructured account is made. Restructuring of an account is done at a borrower level.

3 Securitisation and transfer of assets

The Bank securitises out its receivables to Special Purpose Vehicles ('SPVs') in securitisation transactions. Such securitised-out receivables are de-recognised in the Balance Sheet when they are sold (true sale criteria being fully met with) and consideration is received by the Bank. Sales / transfers that do not meet these criteria for surrender of control are accounted for as secured borrowings.

In respect of receivable pools securitised-out, the Bank provides liquidity and credit enhancements, as specified by the rating agencies, in the form of cash collaterals / guarantees and / or by subordination of cash flows. The Bank also acts as a servicing agent for receivable pools securitised-out.

The RBI issued guidelines on securitisation of standard assets vide its circular dated February 1, 2006. Pursuant to these guidelines, the Bank amortises any profit / premium arising on account of sale of receivables over the life of the securities sold out while any loss arising on account of sale of receivables is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period in which the sale occurs.

The Bank also enters into securitised-out transactions through the direct assignment route, which are similar to asset-backed securitisation transactions through the SPV route, except that such portfolios of receivables are assigned directly to the purchaser and are not represented by Pass through Certificates ('PTCs'). The Bank amortises any profit / premium arising on account of sale of receivables through the direct assignment route over the tenure of the loans sold out while any loss arising on account of sale of receivables is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period in which the sale occurs.

The Bank transfers advances through inter-bank participation with and without risk. In accordance with the RBI guidelines, in the case of participation with risk, the aggregate amount of the participation issued by the Bank is reduced from advances and where the Bank is participating, the aggregate amount of the participation is classified under advances. In the case of participation without risk, the aggregate amount of participation issued by the Bank is classified under borrowings and where the Bank is participating, the aggregate amount of participation is shown as due from banks under advances.

In accordance with RBI guidelines on sale of non-performing advances, if the sale is at a price below the net book value (i.e., book value less provisions held), the shortfall is debited to the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the sale is for a value higher than the net book value, the excess provision is not reversed but is utilised to meet the shortfall / loss on account of sale of other non-performing advances.

The Bank also invests in PTCs and buys loans through the direct assignment route. These are accounted for at the deal value. The PTCs are classified as investments and loan assignments are classified as advances.

4 Fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation as adjusted for impairment, if any. Cost includes cost of purchase and all expenditure like site preparation, installation costs and professional fees incurred on the asset before it is ready to use. Subsequent expenditure incurred on assets put to use is capitalised only when it increases the future benefit / functioning capability from / of such assets.

Improvements to lease hold premises are charged off over the remaining primary period of lease.

Items (excluding staff assets) costing less than Rs 5,000 and point of sale terminals are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.

All other assets are depreciated as per the rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

For assets purchased and sold during the year, depreciation is provided on pro-rata basis by the Bank.

The Bank undertakes assessment of the useful life of an asset at periodic intervals taking into account changes in environment, changes in technology, the utility and efficacy of the asset in use, etc. Whenever there is a revision of the estimated useful life of an asset, the unamortized depreciable amount is charged over the revised remaining useful life of the said asset.

5 Impairment of assets

The Bank assesses at each Balance Sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. Impairment loss, if any, is provided in the Statement of Profit and Loss to the extent the carrying amount of assets exceeds their estimated recoverable amount.

6 Transactions involving foreign exchange

Foreign currency income and expenditure items of domestic operations are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Income and expenditure items of integral foreign operations (representative offices) are translated at the weekly average closing rates and of non-integral foreign operations (foreign branches) at the monthly average closing rates.

Foreign currency monetary items of domestic and integral foreign operations are translated at the closing exchange rates notified by Foreign Exchange Dealers' Association of India ('FEDAI') at the Balance Sheet date and the resulting net valuation profit or loss arising due to a net open position in any foreign currency is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Both monetary and non-monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities of non-integral foreign operations are translated at closing exchange rates notified by FEDAI at the balance sheet date and the resulting profit / loss arising from exchange differences are accumulated in the Foreign Currency Translation Account until the disposal of the net investment in the non-integral foreign operations.

Foreign exchange spot and forward contracts outstanding as at the balance sheet date and held for trading, are revalued at the closing spot and forward rates respectively as notified by FEDAI and at interpolated rates for contracts of interim maturities. The contracts for longer maturities i.e. greater than one year are revalued using Mumbai Interbank Forward Offer Rate ('MIFOR') and USD LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate) rates for USD-INR currency pair. For other currency pairs, the forward points (as published by FEDAI) are extrapolated. The resulting profit or loss on valuation is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Foreign exchange forward contracts not intended for trading, that are entered into to establish the amount of reporting currency required or available at the settlement date of a transaction, and are outstanding at the Balance Sheet date, are effectively valued at the closing spot rate. The premia or discount arising at the inception of such forward exchange contract is amortized as expense or income over the life of the contract.

Currency futures contracts are marked to market daily using settlement price on a trading day, which is the closing price of the respective futures contracts on that day. While the daily settlement price is computed on the basis of the last half an hour weighted average price of such contract, the final settlement price is taken as the RBI reference rate on the last trading day of the futures contract or as may be specified by the relevant authority from time to time. All open positions are marked to market based on the settlement price and the resultant marked to market profit / loss is daily settled with the exchange.

Contingent liabilities on account of foreign exchange contracts, currency future contracts, guarantees, letters of credit, acceptances and endorsements are reported at closing rates of exchange notified by FEDAI at the Balance Sheet date.

7 Derivative contracts

The Bank recognises all derivative contracts (other than those designated as hedges) at the fair value, on the date on which the derivative contracts are entered into and are re-measured at fair value as at the Balance Sheet or reporting dates. Derivatives are classified as assets when the fair value is positive (positive marked to market value) or as liabilities when the fair value is negative (negative marked to market value). Changes in the fair value of derivatives other than those designated as hedges are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derivative contracts designated as hedges are not marked to market unless their underlying transaction is marked to market. In respect of derivative contracts that are marked to market, changes in the market value are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the relevant period. Gains or losses arising from hedge ineffectiveness, if any, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Contingent liabilities on account of derivative contracts denominated in foreign currencies are reported at closing rates of exchange notified by FEDAI at the Balance Sheet date.

8 Revenue and expense recognition

Interest income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on an accrual basis, except in the case of non-performing assets where it is recognised upon realisation as per RBI norms.

Interest income is recognised net of commission paid to sales agents (net of non-volume based subvented income from dealers, agents and manufacturers) - (hereafter called "net commission") for originating fixed tenor retail loans. Net commission paid to sales agents for originating other retail loans is expensed in the year in which it is incurred.

Interest income on investments in PTCs and loans bought out through the direct assignment route is recognised at their effective interest rate.

Income on non-coupon bearing discounted instruments is recognised over the tenor of the instrument on a constant effective yield basis.

Loan processing fee is recognised as income when due. Syndication / arranger fee is recognised as income when a significant act / milestone is completed.

Dividend on equity shares, preference shares and on mutual fund units is recognised as income when the right to receive the dividend is established.

Guarantee commission, commission on letter of credit, annual locker rent fees and annual fees for credit cards are recognised on a straight line basis over the period of contract. Other fees and commission income are recognised when due, except in cases where the Bank is uncertain of ultimate collection.

9 Employee benefits

Employee Stock Option Scheme ('ESOS')

The Employee Stock Option Scheme ('the Scheme') provides for the grant of equity shares of the Bank to its employees. The Scheme provides that employees are granted an option to acquire equity shares of the Bank that vests in a graded manner. The options may be exercised within a specified period. The Bank follows the intrinsic value method to account for its stock-based employee compensation plans. Compensation cost is measured by the excess, if any, of the fair market price of the underlying stock over the exercise price on the grant date as determined under the option plan. The fair market price is the latest available closing price, prior to the date of grant, on the stock exchange on which the shares of the Bank are listed. Compensation cost, if any is amortised over the vesting period.

Gratuity

The Bank provides for gratuity to all employees. The benefit is in the form of lump sum payments to vested employees on resignation, retirement, death while in employment or on termination of employment of an amount equivalent to 15 days basic salary payable for each completed year of service. Vesting occurs upon completion of five years of service. The Bank makes contributions to funds administered by trustees and managed by insurance companies for amounts notified by the said insurance companies. In respect of erstwhile Lord Krishna Bank ('eLKB') employees, the Bank makes contribution to a fund set up by eLKB and administered by the board of trustees. The defined gratuity benefit plans are valued by an independent actuary as at the Balance Sheet date using the projected unit credit method as per the requirement of AS-15 (Revised 2005), Employee benefits, to determine the present value of the defined benefit obligation and the related service costs. Under this method, the determination is based on actuarial calculations, which include assumptions about demographics, early retirement, salary increases and interest rates. Actuarial gain or loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Superannuation

Employees of the Bank, above a prescribed grade, are entitled to receive retirement benefits under the Bank's Superannuation Fund. The Bank contributes a sum equivalent to 13% of the employee's eligible annual basic salary (15% for the Managing Director, Executive Directors and for certain eligible erstwhile Centurion Bank of Punjab ('eCBoP') staff) to insurance companies, which administer the fund. The Bank has no liability for future superannuation fund benefits other than its contribution, and recognises such contributions as an expense in the year incurred, as such contribution is in the nature of defined contribution.

Provident fund

In accordance with law, all employees of the Bank are entitled to receive benefits under the provident fund. The Bank contributes an amount, on a monthly basis, at a determined rate (currently 12% of employee's basic salary). Of this, the Bank contributes an amount of 8.33% of employee's basic salary upto a maximum salary level of Rs 6,500/- per month to the Pension Scheme administered by the Regional Provident Fund Commissioner ('RPFC'). The balance amount is contributed to a fund set up by the Bank and administered by a board of trustees. In respect of eCBoP employees, employer's and employee's share of contribution to Provident Fund till March 2009, was administered by RPFC and from April 2009 onwards, the same is transferred to the fund set up by the Bank and administered by a board of trustees. In respect of eLKB employees, the Bank contributes to a fund set up by eLKB and administered by the board of trustees. The Bank recognises such contributions as an expense in the year in which it is incurred. Interest payable to the members of the trust shall not be lower than the statutory rate of interest declared by the central government under the Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952 and shortfall, if any, shall be made good by the Bank. The guidance note on implementing AS-15 (revised 2005), Employee Benefits, states that benefits involving employer established provident funds, which requires interest shortfalls to be provided, are to be considered as defined benefit plans. Actuarial valuation of this Provident Fund interest shortfall has been done as per the guidance note issued during the year in this respect by the Actuary Society of India and provision towards this liability has been made.

The overseas branches make contributions to the respective relevant government scheme calculated as a percentage of the employees' salaries. The Bank's obligations are limited to these contributions, which are expensed when due, as such contribution is in the nature of defined contribution.

Leave encashment / compensated absences

The Bank does not have a policy of encashing unavailed leave for its employees, except for certain eLKB employees under Indian Banks' Association ('IBA') structure. The Bank provides for leave encashment / compensated absences based on an independent actuarial valuation at the Balance Sheet date, which includes assumptions about demographics, early retirement, salary increases, interest rates and leave utilisation.

Pension

In respect of pension payable to certain eLKB employees under IBA structure, which is a defined benefit scheme, the Bank contributes 10% of basic salary to a pension fund set up by the Bank and administered by the board of trustees and balance amount is provided based on actuarial valuation at the Balance Sheet date conducted by an independent actuary.

In respect of certain eLKB employees who had moved to a Cost to Company ('CTC') driven compensation structure and have completed less than 15 years of service, the contribution which was made uptill then, is maintained as a fund and will be converted into annuity on separation after a lock-in-period of two years. For this category of employees, liability stands frozen and no additional provision would be required except for interest as applicable to Provident Fund, which has been provided for.

In respect of the employees who moved to a CTC structure and had completed service of more than 15 years, pension would be paid on separation based on salary applicable as on date of movement to CTC structure and provision is made based on actuarial valuation at the Balance Sheet date conducted by an independent actuary.

10 Debit and credit cards reward points

The Bank estimates the probable redemption of debit and credit card reward points and cost per point using an actuarial method by employing an independent actuary. Provision for the said reward points is then made based on the actuarial valuation report as furnished by the said independent actuary.

11 Bullion

The Bank imports bullion including precious metal bars on a consignment basis for selling to its wholesale and retail customers. The imports are typically on a back-to-back basis and are priced to the customer based on an estimated price quoted by the supplier. The Bank earns a fee on such wholesale bullion transactions. The fee is classified under commission income.

The Bank also sells bullion to its retail customers. The difference between the sale price to customers and actual price quoted by supplier is also reflected under commission income.

The Bank also borrows and lends gold, which is treated as borrowing / lending as the case may be with the interest paid / received classified as interest expense / income.

12 Lease accounting

Lease payments including cost escalation for assets taken on operating lease are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the lease term in accordance with the AS-19, Leases, issued by the ICAI.

13 Income tax

Income tax expense comprises current tax provision (i.e. the amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961 and the rules framed there under) and the net change in the deferred tax asset or liability in the year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for the future tax consequences of timing differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, and operating loss carried forward, if any. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted or substantively enacted tax rates at the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future. In case of unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and appropriately adjusted to reflect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain to be realised.

14 Earnings per share

The Bank reports basic and diluted earnings per equity share in accordance with AS-20, Earnings Per Share, issued by the ICAI. Basic earnings per equity share has been computed by dividing net profit for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per share reflect the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue equity shares were exercised or converted during the year. Diluted earnings per equity share are computed using the weighted average number of equity shares and dilutive potential equity shares outstanding during the period except where the results are anti-dilutive.

15 Segment information - basis of preparation

The disclosure relating to segmental classification conforms to the guidelines issued by RBI. Business segments have been identified and reported taking into account, the target customer profile, the nature of products and services, the differing risks and returns, the organisation structure, the internal business reporting system and the guidelines prescribed by RBI. The Bank operates in the following segments :

(a) Treasury

The treasury segment primarily consists of net interest earnings from the Bank's investment portfolio, money market borrowing and lending, gains or losses on investment operations and on account of trading in foreign exchange and derivative contracts.

(b) Retail banking

The retail banking segment serves retail customers through a branch network and other delivery channels.

This segment raises deposits from customers and provides loans and other services with the help of specialist product groups to such customers. Exposures are classified under retail banking taking into account the status of the borrower (orientation criterion), the nature of product, granularity of the exposure and the quantum thereof.

Revenues of the retail banking segment are derived from interest earned on retail loans, net of commission (net of subvention received) paid to sales agents and interest earned from other segments for surplus funds placed with those segments, fees from services rendered, foreign exchange earnings on retail products etc. Expenses of this segment primarily comprise interest expense on deposits, infrastructure and premises expenses for operating the branch network and other delivery channels, personnel costs, other direct overheads and allocated expenses of specialist product groups, processing units and support groups.

(c) Wholesale banking

The wholesale banking segment provides loans, non-fund facilities and transaction services to large corporates, emerging corporates, public sector units, government bodies, financial institutions and medium scale enterprises. Revenues of the wholesale banking segment consist of interest earned on loans made to customers, interest / fees earned on the cash float arising from transaction services, earnings from trade services and other non-fund facilities and also earnings from foreign exchange and derivatives transactions on behalf of customers. The principal expenses of the segment consist of interest expense on funds borrowed from external sources and other internal segments, premises expenses, personnel costs, other direct overheads and allocated expenses of delivery channels, specialist product groups, processing units and support groups.

(d) Other banking business

This segment includes income from para banking activities such as credit cards, debit cards, third party product distribution, primary dealership business and the associated costs.

(e) Unallocated

All items which are reckoned at an enterprise level are classified under this segment. This includes capital and reserves, debt classified as Tier I or Tier II capital and other unallocable assets and liabilities such as deferred tax, prepaid expenses, etc.

Segment revenue includes earnings from external customers plus earnings from funds transferred to other segments. Segment result includes revenue less interest expense less operating expense and provisions, if any, for that segment. Segment-wise income and expenses include certain allocations. Interest income is charged by a segment that provides funding to another segment, based on yields benchmarked to an internally approved yield curve or at a certain agreed transfer price rate. Transaction charges are levied by the retail-banking segment to the wholesale banking segment for the use by its customers of the retail banking segment's branch network or other delivery channels. Such transaction costs are determined on a cost plus basis. Segment capital employed represents the net assets in that segment.

Geographic segments

Since the Bank does not have material earnings emanating outside India, the Bank is considered to operate in only the domestic segment.

16 Accounting for provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

In accordance with AS-29, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, issued by the ICAI, the Bank recognises provisions when it has a present obligation as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and when a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made.

Provisions are determined based on management estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date, supplemented by experience of similar transactions. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current management estimates. In cases where the available information indicates that the loss on the contingency is reasonably possible but the amount of loss cannot be reasonably estimated, a disclosure is made in the financial statements.

Contingent assets, if any, are not recognised in the financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may never be realised.

17 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, balances with RBI, balances with other banks and money at call and short notice.

 
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