Mar 31, 2016
IDFC Bank Limited (âthe Bankâ) was incorporated on October 21, 2014 as a Company under the Companies Act, 2013. Further to the grant of the universal banking license issued by the Reserve Bank of India (''the RBI'') on July 23, 2015 and pursuant to the filing and approval of the Scheme of Arrangement under Section 391-394 of the Companies Act, 1956, between IDFC Limited and IDFC Bank Limited and their respective shareholders and creditors (''Scheme of Arrangement''), by the Hon''ble Madras High Court vide its order dated June 25, 2015 and on fulfillment of all conditions specified under the Scheme and final banking license, the Bank has commenced its Banking operations on October 1, 2015, mainly in Commercial & Wholesale, Personal & Business Banking and Bharat (rural) Banking business. The Bank is regulated by the RBI and governed under the Banking Regulation Act, 1949. The Bank''s shares are listed on National Stock Exchange of India Limited and BSE Limited since November 6, 2015.
Under the Scheme of Arrangement, the Financing Undertaking of IDFC Limited was demerged into the Bank with effect from October 1, 2015. The Financing Undertaking as defined under the Scheme of Arrangement included lending and financing business undertaking of IDFC Limited including project finance (fund based and non fund based), fixed income and treasury. Financing Undertaking comprises of all outstanding loans and deposits, borrowings, investments, current assets, sundry debtors, all debts, liabilities including contingent liabilities, licenses, approvals, tax credit, properties - movable and immovable, plant and machinery, furniture and fixtures, office equipment, software and licenses, insurance, policies, all contracts, agreements, collateral, all staff and employees employed in connection with Financing Undertaking etc.
b. basis of preparation
The financial statements have been prepared based on historical cost convention and accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the requirements prescribed under Section 29 and third schedule of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 and in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India to comply with the statutory requirements prescribed under the circulars and guidelines issued by the RBI from time to time and the Accounting Standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, in so far as applicable to banks, to the extent applicable and practices generally prevalent in the banking industry in India.
c. use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions that affects the reported amount of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements. The management believes that the estimates used in preparation of financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Actual results could differ from those estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates would be recognized in the periods in which the results are known / materialized.
d. significant accounting policies :
In accordance with the RBI Guidelines on investment classification and valuation; Investments are classified on the date of purchase into:
- Held for Trading (HFT),
- Available for Sale (AFS) and
- Held to Maturity (HTM).
Reclassification of securities if any, in any categories are accounted for as per the RBI guidelines. However, for disclosure in the Balance Sheet, investments in India are classified under six categories - Government Securities, Other approved securities, Shares, Debentures and Bonds, Investment in Subsidiaries / Joint Ventures and Others.
Basis of classification and accounting :
Investments that are held principally for resale within 90 days from the date of purchase are classified under HFT category.
Further, as per the RBI guidelines, HFT securities, which remain unsold for a period of 90 days are reclassified to AFS category. Investments which the Bank intends to hold till maturity are classified as HTM securities. Investments which are not classified in either of the above categories are classified under AFS category. Investments are recorded on value date except for equity shares which are recorded on trade date.
cost of acquisition :
- Costs including brokerage and commission pertaining to investments paid at the time of acquisition are charged to the Profit and Loss Account.
- Cost of investments is computed based on First in First out Method for all categories of Investments including Short sales.
- Broken period interest (the amount of interest from the previous interest payment date till the date of purchase / sale of instrument) on debt instrument is treated as a revenue item.
Investments classified under HTM category are carried at their acquisition cost and not marked to market. Any premium on acquisition is amortized over the remaining maturity period of the security on a constant Yield-to-Maturity (''YTM'') basis while discount is not accreted. Such amortization of premium is adjusted against interest income under the head âIncome from investmentsâ as per the RBI guidelines. Any diminution, other than temporary, in the value of investments in HTM Category is provided for
Investments classified under AFS and HFT categories are marked to market as per the RBI guidelines. Traded investments are valued based on the trades / quotes on the recognized stock exchanges, or prices/yields declared by Primary Dealers Association of India (PDAI) jointly with Fixed Income Money Market and Derivatives Association (''FIMMDA''), periodically.
- The market value of unquoted government securities which qualify for determining the Statutory Liquidity Ratio (''SLR'') included in the AFS and HFT categories is computed as per the YTM rates published by FIMMDA.
- The valuation of other unquoted fixed income securities (viz. State Government securities, Other approved securities, Bonds and Debentures) and preference shares, wherever linked to the YTM rates, is done with a mark-up (reflecting associated credit and liquidity risk) over the YTM rates for government securities published by FIMMDA.
Unquoted equity shares are valued at the break-up value, if the latest balance sheet is available or atRs,1 as per the RBI guidelines in case the latest balance sheet is not available.
- Units of mutual funds are valued at the latest repurchase price / net asset value (''NAV'') declared by the mutual fund.
- Treasury Bills, Commercial Papers and Certificate of Deposits being discounted instruments, are valued at carrying cost. Accretion of discount on discounted Money Market Securities is computed on straight line method and for long term discounted securities, constant YTM method is used.
- Security receipts are valued as per NAV as provided by the Reconstruction Company (RC) / Securitization Company (SC) on a half yearly basis.
- Units of Venture Capital Funds (''VCF'') and Alternate Investment Fund (''AIF'') held under AFS category are marked to market based on the NAV provided by VCF/AIF based on the latest financial statements. In case the audited financials are not available for a period beyond 18 months, the investments are valued atRs,1 per VCF/AIF. Banks'' investments in units of VCFs is classified under HTM for an initial period of three years and valued at cost during this period, in accordance with the RBI guidelines.
Securities are valued script wise and depreciation / appreciation is aggregated for each category. Net depreciation, if any, compared to the acquisition cost, in any of the categories, is charged to the Profit and Loss Account. The net appreciation in each category, if any, is not recognized except to the extent of depreciation already provided. The valuation of investments includes securities under repo transactions.
Non-performing investments are identified and depreciation / provision is made thereon based on the RBI guidelines. The depreciation / provision is not set off against the appreciation in respect of other performing securities. Interest on non-performing investments is recognized on cash basis.
Short sales :
The Bank undertakes short sale transactions in Central Government dated securities in accordance with RBI guidelines. The short position is marked to market and loss, if any, is charged to the Profit and Loss Account while gain, if any, is ignored. Profit / loss on settlement of the short position are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account.
Repo and Reverse Repo Transaction :
In accordance with the RBI guidelines Repo and Reverse Repo transactions in government securities and corporate debt securities (excluding transactions conducted under Liquidity Adjustment Facility (''LAF'') and Marginal Standby Facility (''MSF'') with RBI) are reflected as borrowing and lending transactions respectively. Borrowing cost on repo transactions is accounted for as interest expense and revenue on reverse repo transactions are accounted for as interest income.
In respect of repo transactions under LAF and MSF with RBI, amount borrowed from RBI is credited to investment account. Costs thereon are accounted for as interest expense. In respect of reverse repo transactions under LAF and MSF, amount lent to RBI is debited to investment account and reversed on maturity of the transaction. Revenues thereon are accounted for as interest income.
In accordance with the RBI guidelines, advances are classified as performing and non-performing. These advances are stated net of specific provisions, provisions for funded interest term loan classified as non-performing advances, claims received from Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd. (ECGC) and provisions in lieu of diminution in the fair value of restructured asset. Non-Performing advances are further classified as Sub-Standard, Doubtful and Loss Assets in accordance with the RBI guidelines on Income Recognition and Asset Classification (IRAC). In addition, based extant environment or specific information on risk of possible slippages or current pattern of servicing, the Bank makes provision on identified advances in infrastructure sector which are classified as standard advances as these are not non-performing advances.
17.3 PROVISIONS / WRITE OFF ON LOANS AND OTHER CREDIT FACILITIES
(a) On legacy advances - loans acquired on demerger of Financing Undertaking of IDFC Limited
In addition to the minimum provisioning level prescribed by RBI, IDFC Limited on a prudent basis made provisions on specific advances in infrastructure sector that are not NPAs (''identified advances'') but had reason to believe risk of possible slippages on the basis of the extant environment or specific information or current pattern of servicing. These provisions being specific in nature are netted off from gross advances.
At each Balance Sheet date, these provisions are reviewed and reassessed to determine their adequacy
(b) On loans and other credit facilities disbursed after commencement of banking operations
The Bank makes general provisions on all standard advances based on the rates under each category of advance as prescribed by the RBI. The provision on standard advances is not reckoned for arriving at net NPAs. The provisions towards standard advance is not netted from gross advance but shown separately as âContingent Provisions against Standard Assetsâ under âOther Liabilitiesâ.
Specific loan loss provisions in respect of non-performing advances are made based on management''s assessment of the degree of impairment of wholesale and retail advances, subject to the minimum provisioning level prescribed by the RBI.
In case of corporate loans, provision is made for substandard and doubtful assets at the rates prescribed by the RBI. Loss assets and the unsecured portion of doubtful assets are provided / written off as per the extant RBI guidelines or higher as approved by the management. Provision on retail loans and advances, subject to minimum provisioning requirement of the RBI are assessed at borrower level, on the basis of ageing of loans based on internal provisioning policy of the Bank.
The Bank considers an account as restructured where the Bank for economic or legal reasons relating to the borrower''s financial difficulty, grants to the borrower concessions that the Bank would not otherwise consider. Restructuring would normally involve modification of terms of the advance / securities, which would generally include, among others, alteration of repayment period / repayable amount / the amount of instilments / rate of interest (due to reasons other than competitive reasons). Necessary provision for diminution in the fair value of a restructured account is made in accordance with the RBI guidelines.
Under the RBI guidelines, with a view to ensuring more stake of promoters in reviving stressed accounts and provide banks with enhanced capabilities to initiate change of ownership in accounts which fail to achieve the projected viability milestones, banks may, at their discretion, undertake a ''Strategic Debt Restructuring (SDR)'' by converting loan dues to equity shares. The invocation of SDR is not treated as restructuring for the purpose of asset classification and provisioning norms. On completion of conversion of debt to equity as approved under SDR, the existing asset classification of the account, as on the reference date, continues for a period of 18 months from the reference date. Thereafter, the asset classification is as per the extant IRAC norms, assuming the aforesaid ''stand-still'' in asset classification had not been given. In addition, under the guidelines, the Bank is required to build provisions such that, by the end of the 18 month period from the reference date, the Bank holds provision of at least 15 per cent of the residual loan.
In order to further enhance banks'' ability to bring in a change in ownership of borrowing entities which are under stress primarily due to operational/ managerial inefficiencies despite substantial sacrifices made by the lending banks, the RBI has permitted banks to upgrade the credit facilities extended to borrowing entities whose ownership has been changed outside SDR, to ''Standard'' category upon such change in ownership, subject to conditions. On such change in ownership of the borrowing entities, credit facilities of the concerned borrowing entities may be upgraded as ''Standard''. However, the quantum of provision held by the bank against the said account as on the date of change in ownership of the borrowing entities shall be revered only when all the outstanding loan/facilities of the borrowing entities perform satisfactorily during the ''specified period''.
In accordance with the RBI guidelines, accelerated provision is made on advances which were not earlier reported by the Bank as Special Mention Account under âSMA-2â category to Central Repository of Information on Large Credits (CRILC). Accelerated provision is also made on advances which are erstwhile SMA-2 accounts with Aggregate Exposure (AE) ofRs,1,000 million or above and Joint Lenders'' Forum (JLF) is not formed or they fail to agree upon a common Corrective Action Plan (CAP) within the stipulated time frame. In addition as an incentive for banks to communicate their decision on the agreed CAP in a time bound manner wherein penal provisioning norms have been stipulated for the Bank, subject to certain conditions.
Provision on loans and advances restructured / rescheduled is made in accordance with the applicable RBI guidelines. In respect of non-performing loans and advances accounts subjected to restructuring, the account is upgraded to standard only after the specified period (as prescribed by the RBI) subject to satisfactory performance of the account during the period. A restructured loan is upgraded to the standard category when satisfactory payment performance is evidenced during the specified period and after the loan reverts to the normal level of standard asset provisions / risk weights.
Amounts recovered against debts written off in earlier years are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account and included under Other Income.
Provision for Unheeded Foreign Currency Exposure of borrowers is made as per the RBI guidelines and disclosed under Contingent Provision against Standard Assets. In addition to the provisions required to be held according to the asset classification status, provisions are held for individual country exposure (other than for home country as per the RBI guidelines). The countries are categorized into seven risk categories as mentioned in the ECGC guidelines namely insignificant, low, moderate, high, very high, restricted and off-credit and provision is made on exposures exceeding 180 days on a graded scale ranging from 0.25% to 100%. For exposures with contractual maturity of less than 180 days, 25% of the normal provision requirement is held. If the country exposure (net) of the Bank in respect of each country does not exceed 1% of the total funded assets, no provision is maintained on such country exposure.
17.4 REVENUE RECOGNITION
interest income :
Interest Income is recognized on accrual basis in the Profit and Loss Account, except in the case of Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) and identified advances as defined in para 2 above, where it is recognized upon realization. The unrealized interest, fees and charges booked in respect of NPAs and identified advances is reversed and recognized on cash basis.
Interest Income on coupon bearing securities is recognized over the tenure of the instrument on a straight line method and on non-coupon bearing securities over the tenure on yield basis. Any premium on acquisition of securities held under HTM category is amortized over the remaining maturity period of the security on a straight line method basis.
Dividend on equity shares, preference shares and on mutual fund units is recognized as income when the right to receive the dividend is established.
Fees and charges :
Loan originating fees, when it becomes due, is recognized upfront as income. Arranger ship / syndication fee is recognized as income on completion of the significant act / milestone and when right to recovery is e
established. Fee and commission income is recognized as income when due and reasonable right of recovery is established and can be reliably measured.
Commission received on guarantees and letter of credit issued is recognized on straight line basis over the period of the contract or the period for which commission is received except for commission not exceedingRs,25 lacs which is recognized when due, unless the Bank is uncertain of ultimate collection.
Fee on rescheduling of outstanding debt is recognized on accrual basis over the period of time covered by the rescheduled extension period. Underwriting fees is recognized as income on closure of issue and revenue can be reliably measured. All other fees and charges is recognized as and when they become due and revenue can be reliably measured and reasonable right of recovery is established.
Profit / loss on sale of investments under the HTM, AFS and HFT categories are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account. The profit from sale of investment under HTM category, net of taxes and transfer to Statutory Reserves, is appropriated from Profit and Loss Account to âCapital Reserveâ (net of applicable taxes and transfer to Statutory Reserve) in accordance with the RBI guidelines. Losses are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account.
Exchange gain or loss arising on account of revaluation of monetary assets and liabilities is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account as per the revaluation rates published by Foreign Exchange Dealers'' Association of India (FEDAI).
OTHER OPERATING INCOME :
securitization transactions :
Net income arising on account of sale of standard asset, being the difference between the sale consideration and book value, is amortized over the life of the securities issued by the SPV. Any loss arising on account of sale is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which the sale occurs. In case of gain on sale of Non-Performing Assets to Securitization Company (SC) / Reconstruction Company (RC), excess provision will be reversed on sale of NPA in the year in which amount is received and shortfall if any is charged to the Profit and Loss Account. If sale is against issuance of SRs / PTCs by SC / RC, the sale will be recognized at lower of redemption value of SRs / PTCs and net book value of financial asset sold. Upon realization of proceeds on redemption of SR / PTC, the gain and shortfall is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account.
Direct Assignments :
Profit / premium arising on account of sale of standard asset, being the difference between the sale consideration and book value, is amortized over the residual life of the loan. Any loss arising on account of sale is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which the sale occurs. In case of gain on sale of non-performing assets, the excess provision shall not be reversed but will be utilized to meet the shortfall / loss on account of sale of other non-performing financial assets and shortfall if any is charged to the Profit and Loss Account. However, in accordance with the RBI guidelines, in case of non - performing loans sold to SC / RC, the Bank can reverse the excess provision in Profit and Loss Account in the year in which amounts are received.
17.5 TRANSACTIONS INVOLVING FOREIGN EXCHANGE
Foreign currency income and expenditure items of domestic operations are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities of domestic and integral foreign operations are translated at closing exchange rates notified by FEDAI. The resulting gain or loss on revaluation are included in the Profit and Loss Account in accordance with the RBI / FEDAI guidelines. The forward exchange contracts of longer maturities where exchange rates are not notified by FEDAI are revalued at the forward exchange rates implied by the swap curves in respective currencies. The resultant gains or losses are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account.
Premium / discount on currency swaps undertaken to hedge foreign currency assets and liabilities and funding swaps is recognized as interest income / expense on accrual basis and is amortized on a pro-rata basis over the underlying swap period.
Contingent liabilities on account of forward exchange and derivative contracts, guarantees, acceptances, endorsements and other obligations denominated in foreign currencies are disclosed at closing rates of exchange notified by FEDAI.
17.6 ACCOUNTING FOR DERIVATIVE TRANSACTIONS
Derivative transactions comprises of forward contracts, futures, swaps and options. The Bank undertakes derivative transactions for trading and hedging on-balance sheet assets and liabilities. All trading transactions are marked to market and resultant gain or loss is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account.
For hedge transactions, the Bank identifies the hedged item (asset or liability) at the inception of the transaction itself. Hedge swaps and funding swaps are not subjected to marked to market, unless underlying transactions are marked to market. In such cases swaps are marked to market with the resultant gain or loss recorded as an adjustment to the market value of the underlying transactions.
Premium in option transaction is recognized as income / expense on expiry or early termination of the transaction. Mark to market gain / loss (adjusted for premium received / paid on options contracts) is recorded as other income. Pursuant to the RBI guidelines, any receivables under derivative contracts which remain overdue for more than 90 days and mark-to-market gains on other derivative contracts with the same counter-parties are reversed in Profit and Loss Account.
Currency futures contracts are marked-to-market using daily settlement price on a trading day, which is the closing price of the respective futures contracts on that day. All open positions are marked to market based on the settlement price and the resultant marked to market profit/loss settled with the exchange. The amounts received / paid on cancellation of option contracts are recognized as realized gain / loss on options. Charges receivable / payable on cancellation / termination of foreign exchange forward contracts is recognized as income / expense on the date of cancellation / termination under ''Other Income''. Any resultant profit or loss on termination of hedge swaps is amortized over the life of the swap or underlying liability whichever is shorter
As per the RBI guidelines on ''Prudential Norms for Off balance Sheet Exposures of Banks'', a standard asset provision is made on the current gross MTM gain of the contract for all outstanding interest rate and foreign exchange derivative transactions. Realized gain / loss arise when the derivatives expire or mature or when the underlying trading assets / liabilities are sold.
17.7 FIXED ASSETS AND DEPRECIATION
Fixed assets are carried at cost of acquisition less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. Cost includes freight, duties, taxes and incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the asset.
Depreciation is charged over the estimated useful life of a fixed asset on a straight-line basis. The rates of depreciation for fixed assets, which are not lower than the rates prescribed in Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, are given below :
Depreciation on vehicles and mobile phone is higher than the rates prescribed under the Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, based on the internal assessment of the useful life of these assets.
All fixed assets individually costing less thanRs,5,000 are fully depreciated in the year of installation.
Depreciation on assets sold during the year is recognized on a pro-rata basis to the Profit and Loss Account till the date of sale. Profit on sale of premises net of taxes and transfer to statutory reserve is appropriated to Capital Reserve as per the RBI guidelines.
17.8 INCOME TAX
Income tax expense is the aggregate amount of current tax and deferred tax charge. The current tax expense and deferred tax expense is determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and as per Accounting Standard 22 -Accounting for Taxes on Income respectively.
Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.
Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realized in future. In case of unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty of realization of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date and appropriately adjusted to reflect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain to be realized. The impact of changes in the deferred tax assets / liabilities is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account.
17.9 EMPLOYEE STOCK OPTION SCHEME
The Bank has formulated Employee Stock Option Scheme - IDFC Bank Limited ESOS -2015 (''the Scheme'') in accordance with the SEBI (Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme) Guidelines, 1999. The ESOS provides for the grant of options to acquire equity shares of the Bank to its employees. The options granted to employees vest in a graded manner and these may be exercised by the employees within a specified period.
In addition, against each outstanding employee stock of options granted by IDFC Limited to its employees, equivalent options of IDFC Bank Limited were granted under the Scheme of Arrangement. The price of these options are determined by multiplying the existing grant price of the options granted by IDFC Limited to its employees under the IDFC Limited Employee Stock Option Scheme by the proportion that the net worth of the Financing Undertaking bears to the total net book value of IDFC Limited immediately prior to the effectiveness of the Scheme of Arrangement.
The Bank follows the intrinsic value method to account for its stock-based employee compensation plans. Compensation cost is measured by the excess, if any, of the market price / fair value of the underlying stock over the grant price as determined under the option plan. Compensation cost, if any is amortized over the vesting period on a straight line method. In case the vested stock options expire unexercised, the balance in stock options outstanding is transferred to the general reserve. In case the unvested stock options get cancelled, the balance in stock option outstanding account is transferred to the Profit and Loss Account.
17.10 EMPLOYEE BENEFITS
Defined contribution plan :
The contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund and pension fund are considered as defined plans and are charged to the Profit and Loss Account as they fall due, based on the amount of contribution required to be made and when services are rendered
Defined benefit plan :
The net present value of obligations towards gratuity to employees is actuarially determined as at the Balance Sheet based on the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account for the year
Compensated absences :
Based on the leave rules of the Bank, employees are not permitted to accumulate leave for encashment. Any unveiled privilege leave to the extent encashable is paid to the employees and charged to the Profit and Loss Account for the year. Short term compensated absences are provided based on estimates of a ailment / encashment of leaves.
17.11 PROVISIONS, CONTINGENT LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENT ASSETS
A provision is recognized when the Bank has a present obligation as a result of past event where it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.
Provisions for onerous contracts are recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Bank from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Bank recognizes any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.
A disclosure of contingent liability is made when there is :
a possible obligation arising from a past event, the existence of which will be confirmed by occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not within the control of the Bank; or
- a present obligation arising from a past event which is not recognized as it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made.
When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.
Contingent assets are not recognized in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise, the asset and related income are recognized in the period in which the change occurs.
17.12 EARNINGS PER SHARE
The Bank reports basic and diluted earnings per share in accordance with AS-20, Earnings per Share, as notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013. Basic earnings per share are computed by dividing the net profit after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding for the year
Diluted earnings per share reflect the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue equity shares were exercised or converted during the year. Diluted earnings per share are computed using the weighted average number of equity shares and dilutive potential equity shares outstanding at the year end, except where the results are anti-dilutive.
Leases where the less or effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership over the lease term are classified as operating lease. Amount due under the operating leases, including cost escalation, are charged on a straight line method over the lease term in the Profit and Loss account. Initial direct cost incurred specifically for operating leases are recognized as expense in the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which they are incurred.
17.14 SEGMENT REPORTING
The disclosure relating to segment information is in accordance with the guidelines issued by RBI and Accounting Standard as notified.
17.15 IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS
The carrying amount of the assets at each Balance Sheet date is reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and its value in use, which is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value, based on an appropriate discounting factor. If at the Balance Sheet date, there is an indication that previously recognized impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount, subject to a maximum of the depreciable historical cost and reversal of such impairment loss is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account, except in case of revalued assets.
17.16 CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, balances with the RBI, balances with other banks and money at call and short notice.
Mar 31, 2015
(a) Basis of preparation
The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India ('Indian GAAP') to comply with the Accounting Standards specified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 ('the 2013 Act') / Companies Act, 1956 ('the 1956 Act'), as applicable. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention.
IDFC Limited has received in principle approval for Banking business in April 2014. IDFC Bank Limited is a company formed under the Companies Act, 2013 to carry out the banking operations. IDFC Bank Limited is currently not registered as a Bank under the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (the 'RBI Act') and hence compliance and disclosure requirements under the RBI Act for Banks has not been followed.
(b) Use of estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the period. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known / materialise.
Long-term investments (excluding investment properties), are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such investments. Current investments are carried individually, at the lower of cost and fair value. Cost of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.
(d) Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. In addition, the following criteria must also be met before revenue is recognised:
* Interest Income is accounted on accrual basis.
* Dividend is accounted on accrual basis when the right to receive is established.
* Profit / loss earned on sale of investments is recognised on trade date basis. Profit / loss on sale of investments is determined based on the FIFO cost for current investments and weighted average cost for long term investments.
(e) Taxes on income
Income tax expense comprises of current income tax and deferred tax. Current tax is the amount payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the applicable tax rates and the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and other applicable tax laws. The accounting treatment for income-tax in respect of the Company's income is based on Accounting Standard 22 on Accounting for Taxes on Income' as specified under section 133 of Companies Act, 2013 read with Rule 7 of Companies Rules, 2014. The provision made for income-tax in the accounts comprises both, the current tax and the deferred tax. The deferred tax assets and liabilities for the year arising on account of timing differences are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss and the cumulative effect thereof is reflected in the Balance Sheet.
Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of items other than unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward losses only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. However, if there are unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses and items relating to capital losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise the assets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date for their realisability.
(f) Cash and cash equivalents (for purposes of Cash Flow statement)
Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.
(g) Cash flow statement
Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.
(h) Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax as adjusted for expense or income relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.
(i) Provisions and contingencies
A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities if any, are disclosed in the notes. Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements.
(j) operating cycle
Based on the nature of products / activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.
(k) preliminary expenses
Preliminary expenses incurred before the commencement of the business are expensed in the year in which they are incurred.