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Accounting Policies of Indo Thai Securities Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

1. Corporate Information

Indo Thai Securities Limited (“ITSL” or “the Company”) carries on the business as stock and share brokers on the National Stock Exchange of India Limited (“NSE”) and the BSE Limited (“BSE”); depository participants and other related ancillary services. On September 14, 1995 ITSL received a certificate of registration from the Securities and Exchange Board of India (“SEBI”) under sub-section 1 of section 12 of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 to carry on the business as a stock broker. Accordingly, all provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992, and Rules and Regulations relating thereto are applicable to the Company. On November 2, 2011 the Equity shares of the Company were listed on the NSE and the BSE.

2 Significant Accounting Policies

a) Basis of Accounting and Preparation of Financial Statements:

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 (“the 1956 Act”) (which continue to be applicable in respect of Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (“the 2013 Act”) in terms of General Circular 15/2013 dated September 13, 2013 of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs) and the relevant provisions of the 1956 Act/ 2013 Act, as applicable. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year.

b) Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year.

The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the periods in which the results are known / materialize.

c) Cash Flow Statement:

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

d) Revenue Recognition:

-Revenue from brokerage activities is accounted for on the trade date of the transaction.

-Revenue from interest charged to customers on margin funding is recognized on a daily/monthly basis up to the last day of accounting period. Depository income is accounted on an accrual basis as and when the right to receive the income is established.

-Revenue from interest on fixed deposits is recognized on an accrual basis.

-Dividend income on Equity shares is recognized when the right to receive the dividend is unconditional as at the Balance Sheet date.

-Dividend income on units of mutual funds is recognized when the right to receive the dividend is unconditional as at the Balance Sheet date. Any gains/losses on sale / redemption of units are recognized on the date of sale / redemption.

e) Stock-in-trade :

Stock-in-trade comprising of securities held for the purposes of trading is valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Profit or loss on sale of such securities is determined using First-in-first-out (FIFO) cost method.

f) Fixed Assets:

-Tangible Assets:

Tangible fixed assets are stated at cost, net of tax / duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated depreciation/ impairment losses, if any. Cost includes original cost of acquisition, including incidental expenses related to such acquisition and installation.

-Intangible Assets:

Intangible assets are stated at cost, net of tax / duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated amortization/ impairment losses, if any. Cost includes original cost of acquisition, including incidental expenses related to such acquisition and installation.

-Capital Work in Progress :

Capital Work in Progress represent expenditure incurred on capital assets that are under construction or are pending for capitalization.

g) Depreciation and Amortization:

Depreciation on tangible fixed assets is provided on a Written Down method as per the rates prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. Depreciation on additions to fixed assets is provided on a pro-rata basis from the date the asset is available for use. Depreciation on sale / deduction from fixed assets is provided for up to the date of sale / deduction / scrapping, as the case may be.

Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line method over a period of three years.

h) Impairment of Assets:

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognized, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognized for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

i) Investments:

Investments are classified as long-term and current. Long-term investments are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such investments. Current investments are carried individually, at the lower of cost and fair value. Costs of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

j) Leases

Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed on a straight line basis with reference to the lease terms and other considerations.

k) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement in the period in which they are incurred.

l) Employees Benefits Short Term Employee Benefits

The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognized as an expense during the period when the employees render the services. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences.

Post-Employment Benefits Defined Contribution Plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the Company pays specified contributions to a separate entity. The Company makes specified contributions towards Provident Fund and Pension Scheme. The Company''s contribution is recognized as an expense in the Profit and Loss Statement during the period in which the employee renders the related service. Defined Benefit Plans

The liability in respect of defined benefit plans and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the Projected Unit Credit Method and spread over the period during which the benefit is expected to be derived from employees'' services.

Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post-employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement.

Leave Encashment

Unutilized leave of staff lapses as at the year end and is not encashable.

m) Equity Index/Stock - Futures :

Equity Index/Stock Futures are marked-to-market on a daily basis. Debit or credit balance disclosed under Loans and advances or Current liabilities, respectively, in the “Mark-to-Market Margin — Equity Index/Stock Futures Account”, represents the net amount paid or received on the basis of movement in the prices of Index/Stock Futures till the balance sheet date. As on the Balance Sheet date, the profit/ loss on open position in Index/Stock futures are accounted for as follows:

-Credit balance in the “Mark-to-Market Margin-Equity Index/Stock Futures Account”, being anticipated profit, is ignored and no credit is taken in the profit & loss account.

-Debit balance in the “Mark-to-Market Margin-Equity Index/Stock Futures Account”, being anticipated loss, is recognized in the profit & loss account.

On final settlement or squaring up of contracts for equity index/stock futures, the profit or loss is calculated as difference between settlement/squaring up price and contract price. Accordingly, debit or credit balance pertaining to the settlement/squared up contract in “Mark-to-Market Margin Equity Index/Stock Futures Account” is recognized in the profit & loss account upon expiry of the contracts. “Initial Margin — Equity Index/Stock Futures Account”, representing initial margin paid, for entering into contracts for Equity Index/Stock Futures, which are released on final settlement/squaring-up of underlying contracts, is disclosed as under Loans and advances.

n) Taxes on Income:

Current tax is determined as the tax payable in respect of taxable income for the year and is computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognized as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognized on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for timing differences of items other than unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward losses only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realized. However, if there is unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realize the assets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date for their reliability.

o) Provisions and Contingencies:

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes. Contingent assets are not recognized in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2014

1.1 System of Accounting

The financial statements have been prepared on a going concern and on accrual basis, under the historical cost convention and in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles, the accounting standards prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central Government and relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, to the extent applicable.

1.2 Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with the generally accepted accounting principles requires the management to make estimates and assumption that affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, revenues & expenses and disclosure of contingent assets & liabilities. The estimates & assumptions used in the accompanying financial statements are based upon management''s evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the Financial Statements. Actual results may defer from the estimates & assumptions used in preparing the accompanying Financial Statements. Any differences of actual results to such estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known / materialized.

1.3 Revenue recognition

a. Income from brokerage activities is recognized as income on the trade date of the transaction.

b. Income from arbitrage operations is stated net of commission expenses, if any, incurred against it and without deduction of Securities Transaction Tax.

c. Profit / Loss on sale of investments are recognized on the trade date of the transaction and are stated net of Securities Transaction Tax incurred.

d. Other Income is accounted for on accrual basis.

1.4 Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost less depreciation /amortization. The cost of fixed assets comprises purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

1.5 Depreciation / Amortization

a. Tangible fixed assets including computer software are depreciated on Written Down Value (WDV) in accordance with the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956, except for the following assets:

Sr No Assets Rate of Depreciation

1. Battery for UPS 20%

2. UPS System 20%

b. Intangible assets except computer software are amortized on a straight line basis over a period having regard to their useful economic life and estimated residual value in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 26 "Intangible Assets".

1.6 Stock - in - trade

Shares and Securities acquired for sale in the ordinary course of business are considered as stock in trade, and are valued at lower of cost or market value as at the year/period end.

1.7 Investments

Investments of long term nature are valued at cost. Provision is made to recognize a Marline, other than temporary, in the value of such investments.

1.8 Keyman Insurance

Keyman Insurance premium paid during the financial year is written off as expenditure in the profit and loss account.

1.9 Employees Retirement Benefits * Provident Fund

The Company contributes to a recognized provident fund which is a defined contribution scheme. The contributions are accounted for on an accrual basis and recognized in the profit and loss account.

* Gratuity

Gratuity is accounted for on the basis of actuarial valuation as per the requirement of Accounting Standard -15 Employees Benefits.

* Leave Encashment

Unutilized leave of staff lapses as at the year end and is not encashable.

1.10 Equity Index/Stock - Futures :

Equity Index/Stock Futures are marked-to-market on a daily basis. Debit or credit balance disclosed under Loans and advances or Current liabilities, respectively, in the "Mark-to-Market Margin - Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", represents the net amount paid or received on the basis of movement in the prices of Index/Stock Futures till the balance sheet date. As on the Balance Sheet date, the profit/ loss on open position in Index/Stock futures are accounted for as follows:

a. Credit balance in the "Mark-to-Market Margin-Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", being anticipated profit, is ignored and no credit is taken in the profit & loss account.

b. Debit balance in the "Mark-to-Market Margin-Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", being anticipated loss, is recognized in the profit & loss account.

On final settlement or squaring up of contracts for equity index/stock futures, the profit or loss is calculated as difference between settlement/squaring up price and contract price. Accordingly, debit or credit balance pertaining to the settlement/squared up contract in "Mark-to-Market Margin Equity Index/Stock Futures Account" is recognized in the profit & loss account upon expiry of the contracts. "Initial Margin - Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", representing initial margin paid, for entering into contracts for Equity Index/Stock Futures, which are released on final settlement/squaring-up of underlying contracts, is disclosed as under Loans and Advances.

1.11 Taxation

Income-tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income-tax law), deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effect of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period) and fringe benefit tax.

Deferred taxation

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the year ended March 31, 2014 using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the asset can be realized in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is a virtual certainty of realization of the assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonable/virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realized.

1.12 Impairment of Assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired based on internal/external factors. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generated unit to which the asset belongs, is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount.

1.13 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities & Contingent Assets

Contingent liabilities, if material, are disclosed by way of notes, contingent assets are not recognized or disclosed in the financial statements. A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event(s) and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation(s), in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made for the amount of obligation.

1.14 Preliminary expenses

Preliminary expenses are written off in the financial year in which it is incurred.


Mar 31, 2013

1.1 System of Accounting

The financial statements have been prepared on a going concern and on accrual basis, under the historical cost convention and in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles, the accounting standards prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central Government and relevant provisions of the Companies Act 1956, to the extent applicable.

1.2 Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with the generally accepted accounting principles requires the management to make estimates and assumption that affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, revenues & expenses and disclosure of contingent assets & liabilities. The estimates & assumptions used in the accompanying financial statements are based upon management''s evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the Financial Statements. Actual results may defer from the estimates & assumptions used in preparing the accompanying Financial Statements. Any differences of actual results to such estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known / materialized.

1.3 Revenue recognition

a. Income from brokerage activities is recognized as income on the trade date of the transaction.

b. Income from arbitrage operations is stated net of commission expenses, if any, incurred against it and without deduction of Securities Transaction Tax.

c. Profit / Loss on sale of investments are recognized on the trade date of the transaction and are stated net of Securities Transaction Tax incurred.

d. Other Income is accounted for on accrual basis.

1.4 Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost less depreciation /amortization. The cost of fixed assets comprises purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

1.5 Depreciation / Amortization

a. Tangible fixed assets including computer software are depreciated on Written Down Value (WDV) in accordance with the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956, except for the following assets:

b. Intangible assets except computer software are amortized on a straight line basis over a period having regard to their useful economic life and estimated residual value in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 26"Intangible Assets".

1.6 Stock - in - trade

Shares and Securities acquired for sale in the ordinary course of business are considered as stock in trade, and are valued at lower of cost or market value as at the year/period end.

1.7 Investments

Investments of long term nature are valued at cost. Provision is made to recognize a Marline, other than temporary, in the value of such investments.

1.8 Keyman Insurance

Keyman Insurance premium paid during the financial year is written off as expenditure in the profit and loss account.

1.9 Employees Retirement Benefits

- Provident Fund

The Company contributes to a recognized provident fund which is a defined contribution scheme. The contributions are accounted for on an accrual basis and recognized in the profit and loss account.

- Gratuity

Gratuity is accounted for on the basis of actuarial valuation as per the requirement of Accounting Standard -15 Employees Benefits.

- Leave Encashment

Unutilized leave of staff lapses as at the year end and is not encashable.

1.10 Equity Index/Stock - Futures :

Equity Index/Stock Futures are marked-to-market on a daily basis. Debit or credit balance disclosed under Loans and advances or Current liabilities, respectively, in the"Mark-to-Market Margin — Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", represents the net amount paid or received on the basis of movement in the prices of Index/Stock Futures till the balance sheet date. As on the Balance Sheet date, the profit/ loss on open position in Index/Stock futures are accounted for as follows:

a. Credit balance in the"Mark-to-Market Margin- Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", being anticipated profit, is ignored and no credit is taken in the profit & loss account.

b. Debit balance in the"Mark-to-Market Margin- Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", being anticipated loss, is recognized in the profit & loss account.

On final settlement or squaring up of contracts for equity index/stock futures, the profit or loss is calculated as difference between settlement/squaring up price and contract price. Accordingly, debit or credit balance pertaining to the settlement/squared up contract in "Mark-to-Market Margin Equity Index/Stock Futures Account" is recognized in the profit & loss account upon expiry of the contracts. "Initial Margin — Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", representing initial margin paid, for entering into contracts for Equity Index/Stock Futures, which are released on final settlement/squaring-up of underlying contracts, is disclosed as under Loans and advances.

1.11 Taxation

Income-tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income-tax law), deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effect of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period) and fringe benefit tax.

Deferred taxation

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the asset can be realized in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is a virtual certainty of realization of the assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonable/virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realized.

1.12 Impairment of Assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired based on internal/external factors. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generated unit to which the asset belongs, is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount.

1.13 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities & Contingent Assets

Contingent liabilities, if material, are disclosed by way of notes, contingent assets are not recognized or disclosed in the financial statements. A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event(s) and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation(s), in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made for the amount of obligation.

1.14 Preliminary expenses

Preliminary expenses are written off in the financial year in which it is incurred.


Mar 31, 2012

1. System of Accounting

The financial statements have been prepared on a going concern and on accrual basis, under the historical cost convention and in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles, the accounting standards prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central Government and relevant provisions of the Companies Act 1956, to the extent applicable.

2. Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with the generally accepted accounting principles requires the management to make estimates and assumption that affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, revenues & expenses and disclosure of contingent assets & liabilities. The estimates & assumptions used in the accompanying financial statements are based upon management's evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the Financial Statements. Actual results may defer from the estimates & assumptions used in preparing the accompanying Financial Statements. Any differences of actual results to such estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known/materialized.

3. Revenue recognition

a. Income from brokerage activities is recognized as income on the trade date of the transaction.

b. Income from arbitrage operations is stated net of commission expenses, if any, incurred against it and without deduction of Securities Transaction Tax.

c. Profit/Loss on sale of investments are recognized on the trade date of the transaction and are stated net of Securities Transaction Tax incurred.

d. Other Income is accounted for on accrual basis.

4. Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost less depreciation /amortization. The cost of fixed assets comprises purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

5. Depreciation/Amortization

b. Intangible assets except computer software are amortized on a straight line basis over a period having regard to their useful economic life and estimated residual value in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 26 "Intangible Assets".

6. Stock - in - trade

Shares and Securities acquired for sale in the ordinary course of business are considered as stock in trade, and are valued at lower of cost or market value as at the year/period end.

7. Investments

Investments of long term nature are valued at cost. Provision is made to recognize a Marline, other than temporary, in the value of such investments.

8. Keyman Insurance

Keyman Insurance premium paid during the financial year is written off as expenditure in the profit and loss account.

9. Employees Retirement Benefits

Provident Fund

The Company contributes to a recognized provident fund which is a defined contribution scheme. The contributions are accounted for on an accrual basis and recognized in the profit and loss account.

Gratuity

Gratuity is accounted for on the basis of actuarial valuation as per the requirement of Accounting Standard -15 Employees Benefits.

Leave Encashment

Unutilized leave of staff lapses as at the year end and is not encashable.

10. Equity Index/Stock - Futures :

Equity Index/Stock Futures are marked-to-market on a daily basis. Debit or credit balance disclosed under Loans and advances or Current liabilities, respectively, in the "Mark-to-Market Margin - Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", represents the net amount paid or received on the basis of movement in the prices of Index/Stock Futures till the balance sheet date. As on the Balance Sheet date, the profit/loss on open position in Index/Stock futures are accounted for as follows:

a. Credit balance in the "Mark-to-Market Margin- Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", being anticipated profit, is ignored and no credit is taken in the profit & loss account.

b. Debit balance in the "Mark-to-Market Margin- Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", being anticipated loss, is recognized in the profit & loss account.

On final settlement or squaring up of contracts for equity index/stock futures, the profit or loss is calculated as difference between settlement/squaring up price and contract price. Accordingly, debit or credit balance pertaining to the settlement/squared up contract in "Mark-to-Market Margin Equity Index/Stock Futures Account" is recognized in the profit & loss account upon expiry of the contracts. "Initial Margin - Equity Index/Stock Futures Account", representing initial margin paid, for entering into contracts for Equity Index/Stock Futures, which are released on final settlement/squaring-up of underlying contracts, is disclosed as under Loans and advances.

11. Taxation

Income-tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income-tax law), deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effect of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period) and fringe benefit tax.

Deferred taxation

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the asset can be realized in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is a virtual certainty of realization of the assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonable/virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realized.

12. Impairment of Assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired based on internal/external factors. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generated unit to which the asset belongs, is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount.

13. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities & Contingent Assets

Contingent liabilities, if material, are disclosed by way of notes, contingent assets are not recognized or disclosed in the financial statements. A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event(s) and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation(s), in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made for the amount of obligation.

 
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