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Accounting Policies of Innoventive Industries Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

2.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared and presented in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (Indian GAAP) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis. Indian GAAP comprises accounting standards notified by the Central Government of India under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read with rule 7 of Companies (Account) Rules 2014, other pronouncements of Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the provisions of Companies Act, 2013 and guidelines issued by Securities and Exchange Board of India.

The Company has prepared these financial statements as per the format prescribed in Schedule III to The Companies Act, 2013.

The Company's operating results continue to be materially affected by various factors, particularly high interest cost, pricing pressures from competition and general economic slowdown. The Company has incurred a net loss of Rs. 21,348.26 Lacs during the year ended March 31, 2015, and as of that date, the Company's total liabilities exceeded its total assets by Rs. 16,559.19 Lacs.

The Company is implementing various long-term measures to improve its product offering and enhancing customer base. The Company has undertaken a comprehensive review of its current network to maximize profitability and improve efficiency in its operations. The Company is also implementing various measures to optimize plant utilization, improving operational efficiencies, renegotiation of contracts and other cost control measures to improve the Company's operating results and cash flows.

The promoters continue to be committed to providing the required operational and financial support to Company in the foreseeable future. During the year, the Promoters have infused Rs 2519.06 Lacs by way of promoter's contribution. The release of the short term working capital funds by the bankers as per their commitments to the terms of the Corporate Debt Restructuring scheme will significantly improve the company's working Capital position

In view of the foregoing, the Company's financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis whereby the realization of assets and discharge of liabilities are expected to occur in the normal course of business.

2.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

2.3 Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Excise duty deducted from revenue [gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue [gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year and are recorded inclusive of incentives received from State Government, excise duty, net of trade discounts, rebates, price adjustments, rejections and shortage in transit

Dividends are recorded when the right to receive is established.

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate.

Export benefits are accrued when it is reasonably certain that those will get realised.

2.4 Tangible assets

Tangible assets are stated at historical cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of tangible asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing tangible assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

2.5 Capitalisation of foreign exchange

In accordance with MCA notification on Accounting Standard (AS 11), in respect of long term foreign currency loan taken for acquisition of assets, the exchange difference arising on reporting of said loan is adjusted to the cost of the assets, which was earlier been recognised as income or expense in the statement of Profit and Loss.

2.6 Depreciation

Depreciation on tangible assets, which has been depredated over estimated useful life, is provided on the straight line method, pro-rata to the period of use. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 have been adopted by the Company, which in view of the management reflect the useful lives of related fixed assets except in case of one vehicle where the management estimates its useful life as 7 years.

Capital work-in-progress includes the cost of fixed assets that are not ready for intended use as at the Balance Sheet date.

Building and other constructions on leasehold land are depreciated over the lease term or the useful life, whichever is shorter.

Pursuant to Companies Act 2013 (the Act) becoming effective from April 1, 2014, the Company has re-worked depreciation with reference to the estimated useful lives of fixed assets prescribed under Schedule II to the Act or as per technical evaluation and componentization.

2.7 Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are recognised when the asset is identifiable, is within the control of the Company, it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the Company and cost of the asset can be reliably measured.

Acquired intangible assets consisting of technical know-how, patents and software, are recorded at acquisition cost and amortised on straight-line basis based on the following useful lives.

Pursuant to Companies Act 2013 (the Act) becoming effective from April 1, 2014, the Company has re-worked amortisations with reference to the estimated useful lives of intangible assets prescribed under Schedule II to the Act or as per technical evaluation and componentization.

2.8 Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

2.9 Impairment of tangible and intangible assets

The carrying amounts of the Company's assets including intangible assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indications exist, the assets recoverable amount is estimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount If at the Balance Sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reinstated at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost

2.10 Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

2.11 Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written dowm below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, components and stores and spares is determined on a weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on norma! operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty and is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

2.12 Foreign currency transactions Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognized as an expense/income over the life of the contract. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or as expense for the period.

2.13 Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straight line basis over the lease term.

2.14 Employee benefits

a) Contribution to Provident Fund

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The contributions to the provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the year when the contributions are due. The company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund.

b) Gratuity

The company has gratuity as a defined benefit liability. The cost of providing benefits under this plan is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation at each year-end. Actuarial valuation is carried out using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses for defined benefit plan is recognized in full in the period in which they occur in the statement of profit and loss.

c) Leave encashment

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

2.15 Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Deferred income taxes reflect tire impact of timing differences between, taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depredation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

At each reporting date, the company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under the Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

2.16 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

2.17 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

2.18 Government Grants and Subsidies

Revenue grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

2.19 Identification of segments

The company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets.

i. The nature of the products,

ii. The related risk and returns, and

iii. The internal financial reporting systems.

The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the company operate.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies

The company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole. '

2.20 Provisions:

A provision is recognized when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be

required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

2.21 Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2014

1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the company have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention.

The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of financial statements are consistent with those of previous year.

2 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

3 Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year and are recorded inclusive of incentives received from State Government, excise duty, net of trade discounts, rebates, price adjustments, rejections and shortage in transit.

Dividends are recorded when the right to receive is established.

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate.

Export benefits are accrued when it is reasonably certain that those will get realised.

4 Tangible assets

Tangible assets are stated at historical cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of tangible asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing tangible assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

5 Capitalisation of foreign exchange

In accordance with MCA notification on Accounting Standard (AS 11), in respect of long term foreign currency loan taken for acquisition of assets, the exchange difference arising on reporting of said loan is adjusted to the cost of the assets, which was earlier been recognised as income or expense in the statement of Profit and Loss. (Also refer note 36 below.)

6 Depreciation

Depreciation on tangible assets except items mentioned below is provided on the straight line method, pro-rata to the period of use. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 have been adopted by the Company, which in view of the management reflect the useful lives of related fixed assets.

In case of the Auto Division, accelerated rates of depreciation have been adopted by the Company as the management is of the view that the same reflects the useful life of certain fixed assets.

Asset Rates as per Depreciation Schedule XIV Rate Used

Plant & Machinery 10.34% 14.28%

Electrification 4.75% 14.28%

Assets costing individually, Rs. 5,000 or less are depreciated at the rate of 100%.

Capital work-in-progress includes the cost of fixed assets that are not ready for intended use as at the Balance Sheet date.

Building and other constructions on leasehold land are depreciated over the lease term or the useful life, whichever is shorter.

7 Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are recognised when the asset is identifiable, is within the control of the Company, it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the Company and cost of the asset can be reliably measured.

The Company acquired intangible assets consisting of technical know-how, patents and software, which are recorded at acquisition cost and amortised on straight-line basis based on the following useful lives, which in management''s estimate represents the period during which economic benefits will be derived from their use.

Software is to be amortised over the period 5 years.

Pilgering Process Patent is to be amortised over a period of 10 years.

Product development Costs are to be amortised over a period of 10 years.

Patent and Trademark Costs are to be amortised over a period of 10 years.

8 Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

9 Impairment of tangible and intangible assets

The carrying amounts of the Company''s assets including intangible assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indications exist, the assets recoverable amount is estimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. If at the Balance Sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reinstated at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost.

10 Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

11 Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, components and stores and spares is determined on a weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty and is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

12 Foreign currency transactions

Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognized as an expense/income over the life of the contract. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or as expense for the period.

13 Leases

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straight line basis over the lease term.

14 Employee benefits

a) Contribution to Provident Fund

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The contributions to the provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the year when the contributions are due. The company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund.

b) Gratuity

The company has gratuity as a defined benefit liability. The cost of providing benefits under this plan is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation at each year-end. Actuarial valuation is carried out using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses for defined benefit plan are recognized in full in the period in which they occur in the statement of profit and loss.

c) Leave encashment

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

15 Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

At each reporting date, the company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under the Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

16 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

17 Government Grants and Subsidies

Revenue grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

18 Identification of segments

The company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets.

I. The nature of the products,

II. The related risk and returns, and

III. The internal financial reporting systems.

The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the company operate.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies

The company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.

19 Earning Per Share

Basic earning per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to Equity Shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earning per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

20 Provisions:

A provision is recognized when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

21 Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2012

1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the company have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention, except for change in accounting policy as stated below in Note 2.2.

1.2 Capitalisation of foreign exchange

In accordance with MCA notification on Accounting Standard (AS 11), in respect of long term foreign currency loan taken for acquisition of assets, the exchange difference arising on reporting of said loan is adjusted to the cost of the assets, which was hitherto being recognised as income or expense in the statement of Profit and Loss. (Also refer note 37 below.)

1.3 Presentation and disclosure of financial statements

During the year ended March 31, 2012, the revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act 1956, has become applicable to the company, for preparation and presentation of its financial statements. The adoption of revised Schedule VI does not impact recognition and measurement principles followed for preparation of financial statements. However, it has significant impact on presentation and disclosures made in the financial statements. The company has also reclassified the previous year figures in accordance with the requirements applicable in the current year.

1.4 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

1.5 Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year and are recorded inclusive of incentives received from State Government, excise duty, net of trade discounts, rebates, price adjustments, rejections and shortage in transit.

Dividends are recorded when the right to receive is established.

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate.

Export benefits are accrued when it is reasonably certain that those will get realised.

1.6 Tangible assets

Tangible assets are stated at historical cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of tangible asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing tangible assets, including Day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

1.7 Depreciation

Depreciation on tangible assets except items mentioned below is provided on the straight line method, pro-rata to the period of use. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 have been adopted by the Company, which in view of the management reflect the useful lives of related fixed assets.

In case of the Auto Division, accelerated rates of depreciation have been adopted by the Company as the management is of the view that the same reflects the useful life of certain fixed assets.

Assets costing individually, f 5,000 or less are depreciated at the rate of 100%.

Capital work-in-progress includes the cost of fixed assets that are not ready for intended use as at the Balance Sheet date.

Building and other constructions on leasehold land are depreciated over the lease term or the useful life, whichever is shorter.

1.8 Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are recognised when the asset is identifiable, is within the control of the Company, it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the Company and cost of the asset can be reliably measured.

Acquired intangible assets consisting of technical know-how, patents and software, are recorded at acquisition cost and amortised on straight-line basis based on the following useful lives, which in management's estimate represents the period during which economic benefits will be derived from their use.

Software is amortised over the period 5 years.

1.9 Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

1.10 Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of the Company's assets including intangible assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indications exist, the assets recoverable amount is estimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. If at the Balance Sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reinstated at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost.

1.11 Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

1.12 Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, components and stores and spares is determined on a weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty and is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

1.13 Foreign currency transactions

Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognized as an expense/income over the life of the contract. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or as expense for the period.

1.14 Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straight line basis over the lease term.

1.15 Employee benefits

a) Contribution to Provident Fund: Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The contributions to the provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the year when the contributions are due. The company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund.

b) Gratuity: The company has gratuity as a defined benefit liability. The cost of providing benefits under this plan is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation at each year-end. Actuarial valuation is carried out using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses for defined benefit plan is recognized in full in the period in which they occur in the statement of profit and loss.

c) Leave encashment: Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short- term employee benefit. The company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

1.16 Provisions and Contingencies

A provision is recognised when the Company has present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date.

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.

1.17 Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

At each reporting date, the company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under the Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

1.18 Earning per share

Basic earning per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earning per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

1.19 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

1.20 Government Grants and Subsidies

Revenue grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

1.21 Identification of segments

The company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the company operate.

Allocation of common costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items:

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment. Segment accounting policies:

The company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.


Mar 31, 2011

1. ACCOUNTING CONVENTION

The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention, having due regard to fundamental accounting assumptions of going concern, consistency and accrual, in compliance with the accounting standards referred to in Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956.

2. USE OF ESTIMATES

The preparation of Financial Statements requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent liabilities as at the date of financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the year. examples of such estimates include provision for doubtful debts, employee benefits, provision for income taxes, the useful lives of depreciable fixed assets and provision for impairment. Actual results may differ from those estimates. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognized prospectively in current and future periods.

3. FIXED ASSETS AND DEPRECIATION

i. Freehold land is stated at cost.

ii. Amortization is provided in respect of leasehold land.

iii. All fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition/construction less accumulated depreciation, amortization and impairment losses. The cost of fixed assets includes taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities), duties, freight and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets.

iv. Depreciation on fixed assets except items mentioned below at (v) is provided on the straight line method pro-rata to the period of use. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule xIv to the Companies Act, 1956 have been adopted by the Company, which in view of the management refect the useful lives of related fixed assets.

v. In case of the Auto Division, accelerated rates of depreciation have been adopted by the Company as the management is of the view that the same refects the useful life of certain fixed assets.

vi. Capital work-in-progress includes the cost of fixed assets that are not ready for intended use as at the Balance Sheet date.

vii. The management periodically assesses using external and internal sources whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If an asset is impaired, the Company recognizes an impairment loss as the excess of the carrying amount of asset over the recoverable amount.

4. INVESTMENTS

i. Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investment is made are classified as current investments.

ii. Long- term investments are carried at cost less any other than temporary diminution in value, determined separately for each individual investment.

iii. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value, which is determined for each individual investment. Cost includes related expenses such as commission/brokerage etc.

5. BORROWING COSTS

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of the cost of such assets upto the date the asset is put to use. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss Account in the year in which they are incurred.

6. INVENTORIES

i. Inventories are stated at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower.

ii. Raw Materials are valued on Weighted Average basis.

iii. In case of Semi-finished & Finished goods, cost includes material cost, conversion costs, and excise duty, wherever applicable.

7. FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS

i. Transactions denominated in foreign currency are accounted for at rates that approximate the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the respective transaction. exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account of the year.

ii. Monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currency, which are outstanding as at the year-end, are translated at the year-end closing exchange rate and the resultant exchange differences are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account.

8. REVENUE RECOGNITION

i. Revenue from sales are recognized on dispatch of goods to the customers, which coincide with the transfer of significant risks and rewards associated with ownership, and are recorded inclusive of recurring incentive received from State Government, excise duty, net of trade discounts, rebates, price adjustments, rejections and shortage in transit.

ii. Revenue from services is recognized as and when services are rendered and related costs are incurred, in accordance with the terms of specific contracts.

iii. Dividends are recorded when the right to receive payment is established.

iv. Interest Income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

9. GOVERNMENT GRANTS AND SUBSIDIES

Revenue grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

10. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

a. Short term employee benefits

employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b. Post-employment benefits - Defined Contribution Plans

Retirement benefits in the form of Provident Fund and Labour Welfare Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Profit and Loss Account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due.

c. Post-employment benefits - Defined Benefit Plans

i. Company's liability towards Gratuity is determined using the Projected unit Credit Method, which considers each period of service as giving rise to an additional unit of benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Past Service Gratuity Liability is computed with reference to the service put in by each employee till the date of valuation as also the projected terminal salary at the time of exit. Actuarial gain or losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss as income or expense. Obligation is measured at the present value of estimated future Cash Flow using a discount rate that is determined by reference to market yields at the Balance Sheet date on government bonds where the currency and terms of the government bonds are consistent with the currency and estimated terms of the defined benefit obligation.

ii. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation, using the projected unit credit method.

11. TAXATION

Current tax is determined as the amount of tax payable in respect of taxable income for the year. The deferred tax for timing difference between the book and tax profit for the year is accounted for using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted at the Balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets arising from the timing differences are recognized to the extent that there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

12. LEASES

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

13. PROVISIONS AND CONTINGENT LIABILITIES

i. A provision is recognized when the Company has present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date.

ii. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

iii. Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2010

1. Accounting Convention

The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention, having due regard to fundamental accounting assumptions of going concern, consistency and accrual, in compliance with the accounting standards referred to in Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956.

2. Use of Estimates

The preparation of Financial Statements requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent liabilities as at the date of financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the year. Examples of such estimates include provision for doubtful debts, employee benefits, provision for income taxes, the useful lives of depreciable fixed assets and provision for impairment. Actual results may differ from those estimates. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

3. Fixed Assets and Depreciation

i. Freehold land is stated at cost.

ii. Amortization is provided in respect of leasehold land.

iii. All fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition / construction less accumulated depreciation, amortization and impairment losses. The cost of fixed assets includes taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities), duties, freight and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets.

iv. Depreciation on fixed assets except items mentioned below at (v) is provided on the straight line method pro-rata to the period of use. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 have been adopted by the Company, which in view of the management reflect the useful lives of related fixed assets.

v. In case of the Auto Division, accelerated rates of depreciation have been adopted by the Company as the management is of the view that the same reflects the useful life of certain fixed assets.

vi. Capital work-in-progress includes the cost of fixed assets that are not ready for intended use as at the Balance Sheet date.

vii. The management periodically assesses using external and internal sources whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If an asset is impaired, the Company recognizes an impairment loss as the excess of the carrying amount of asset over the recoverable amount.

4. Investments

i. Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investment is made are classified as current investments.

ii. Long-term investments are carried at cost less any other than temporary diminution in value, determined separately for each individual investment.

iii. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value, which is determined for each individual investment. Cost includes related expenses such as commission/brokerage etc.

5. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of the cost of such assets upto the date the asset is put to use. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to profit and loss account in the year in which they are incurred.

6. Inventories

i. Inventories are stated at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower

ii. Raw Materials are valued on Weighted Average basis.

iii. In case of Semi-finished & Finished goods, cost includes material cost, conversion costs, and excise duty, wherever applicable.

7. Foreign Currency Transactions

i. Transactions denominated in foreign currency are accounted for at rates that approximate the exchange rate prevailing on the dale of the respective transaction. Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognised in the profit and loss account of the year.

ii Monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currency, which are outstanding as at the year- end, are translated at the year-end closing exchange rate and the resultant exchange differences are recognised in the Profit and loss account.

8. Revenue Recognition

i. Revenue from sales are recognized on dispatch of goods to the customers, which coincide with the transfer of significant risks and rewards associated with ownership, and are recorded inclusive of excise duty, net of trade discounts, rebates, price adjustments, rejections and shortage in transit.

ii. Revenue from services is recognized as and when services are rendered and related costs are incurred, in accordance with the terms of specific contracts.

lii. Dividends are recorded when the right to receive payment is established.

iv. Interest Income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

9. Government Grants and Subsidies

Revenue grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

10. Employee Benefits

a. Short term employee benefits

Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b. Post-employment benefits - Defined Contribution Plans

Retirement benefits in the form of Provident Fund and Labour Welfare Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Profit and Loss Account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due.

c. Post-employment benefits - Defined Benefit Plans

i. Companys liability towards Gratuity is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which considers each period of service as giving rise to an additional unit of benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Past Service Gratuity Liability is computed with reference to the service put in by each employee till the date of valuation as also the projected terminal salary at the time of exit. Actuarial gain or losses are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss as income or expense. Obligation is measured at the present value of estimated future Cash Flow using a discount that determined by reference to market

yields at the Balance Sheet date on government bonds where the currency and terms of the government bonds are consistent with the currency and estimated terms of the defined benefit obligation. ii. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation, using the projected unit credit method.

11. Income Taxes

i. Income tax expense comprises of current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income tax law) and deferred tax (reflecting the tax effect of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the year).

ii. In accordance with Accounting Standard 22 - Accounting for taxes on Income, issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the deferred tax charge or credit and corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that they will be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realize such assets.

iii. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably/virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised.

iv. Minimum Alternative tax (MAT) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company wilt pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the profit and loss account and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

12. Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straight line basis over the lease term.

13. Provisions and Contingent Liabilities

i. A provision is recognised when the Company has present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. ii. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is 3 possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made. iii. Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.