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Accounting Policies of Jyothy Laboratories Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2016

A) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with Indian GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues , expenses ,assets, liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

b) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed assets are initially recorded at cost . Cost comprises the purchase price and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. The cost of the tangible assets acquired in an amalgamation in the nature of purchase is their fair value as at the date of amalgamation. Following initial recognition, tangible assets are carried at cost ess accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of tangible assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

The company identifies and determines cost of asset significant to the total cost of the asset having useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining life.

c) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of the intangible assets acquired in an amalgamation in the nature of purchase is their fair value as at the date of amalgamation.

Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life. The Company uses a rebuttable presumption that the useful life of an intangible asset will not exceed ten years from the date when the asset is available for use.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

d) Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciation on fixed assets is calculated on Straight Line basis using the rates arrived at based on useful lives estimated by the management. Intangible assets are amortised on straight line basis on the estimated useful economic life.

Goodwill purchased is not amortized but tested for impairment every year. The goodwill arising on amalgamation is amortized to the statement of profit and loss over 10 years.

Assets costing less then Rs. 5,000 are depreciated at the rate of 100 %. Leasehold land is amortized over the period of the lease on a straight-line basis which ranges between 60-90 years.

The management has estimated, supported by independent assessment by professionals, the useful lives of the following classes of assets (which were taken over during the merger of erstwhile Jyothy Consumer Prodcuts Limited), which are lower than those indicated in Schedule II.

The amortization/ depreciation period and the amortization/ depreciation method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from previous estimates, the amortization/ depreciation period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the amortization/ depreciation method is changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted for in accordance with AS 5 Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies

e) Impairment

i. The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating unit''s (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceed its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the pre-tax discount rate. In determining net selling price , recent market transaction are taken into account, if available. If no such transaction can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

ii. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.

iii. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.

f) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs consist of interest and amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

g) Operating Leases

i. Where the Company is a lessee;

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Lease payments on operating eases are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis, over the lease term.

ii. Where the Company is a lessor;

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases. Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income on an operating lease is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss.

Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

h) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/ subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with. When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue item, it is recognized as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset. Government grant in the nature of promoters'' contribution is credited to the investment subsidy reserve.

i) Investment

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties and other costs that arise on acquisition of investment.

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis.

Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

An investment in land or building, which is not intended to be occupied substantially for use by, or in the operations of the Company is classified as investment property. Investment properties are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any.

j) Inventories

Inventories of raw materials, packing materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, stores and consumables items are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Cost is ascertained on First-in-First out (''FIFO'') basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition. Cost of work in progress, manufactured packing material and finished goods includes materials and all applicable manufacturing overheads. The Company accrues for excise duty liability in respect of manufactured finished goods/ intermediary inventories lying in the factory.

Traded goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on a FIFO basis.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated cost of completion and estimated cost necessary to make the sale.

k) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific criteria must also be met before revenue is recognised;

Sale of Goods

Revenue is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Excise Duty, Sales Tax and VAT deducted from turnover (gross) is the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arised during the year. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue.

Revenue includes the amount of excise duty refund received / due in accordance with incentive scheme. Revenue is net of trade discount given.

Interest

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and at the applicable interest rate.

l) Foreign currency translation

i. Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date.

Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historica cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non- monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

iii. Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

m) Retirement and other employee benefits

i. Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund and super annuation fund is a defined contribution scheme.

The company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the respective fund. The company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund/ super annuation scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service.

ii. Gratuity benefit is defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

iii. Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

iv. The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long- term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. The Company presents the leave as a current liability in the balance sheet to the extent it does not have an unconditional legal and contractual right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date.

v. Actuarial gains/ losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

n) Sales promotion items

Sales promotion items are valued at cost. Cost is ascertained on First-in-First out (''FIFO'') basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition.

o) Income-tax

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates for deductible timing differences and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtua certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

In the situations where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India or tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where it operates, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognized in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company''s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the Company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the timing differences which originate first are considered to reverse first.

At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Minimum alternative tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax.

MAT credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay norma income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternate Tax under the Income Tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the MAT credit entitlement at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

p) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

q) Excise duty

Excise duty on turnover is reduced from turnover. Excise duty relating to the difference between the opening stock and closing stock is recognized as income/ expense as the case may be, separately in the statement of profit and loss.

r) Segment Reporting

Identification of segments:

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Segment accounting policies :

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.

Intersegment transfer :

The Company generally accounts for inter segment sales and transfers as if the sales or transfer were to third parties at market price.

Allocation of common costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items:

It includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

s) Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for event of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potentia equity shares.

t) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

u) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

v) Measurement of EBITDA

The Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. In its measurement, the company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs, interest income and tax expense.

w) Employee stock compensation cost

Employees in senior management of the company receive remuneration in the form of share based payment transactions, whereby employees render services as consideration for equity instruments (equity-settled transactions).

In accordance with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Share Based Employee Benefits) Regulations, 2014 and the Guidance Note on Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments, the cost of equity-settled transactions is measured using the intrinsic value method. The cumulative expense recognized for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the company''s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The expense or credit recognized in the statement of profit and loss for a period represents the movement in cumulative expense recognized as at the beginning and end of that period and is recognized in employee benefits expense.


Mar 31, 2014

NOTE : 1 BACKGROUND

Jyothy Laboratories Limited (''the Company'') is a public company incorporated on January 15, 1992 under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The Company is principally engaged in manufacturing and marketing of fabric whiteners, soaps, detergents, mosquito repellents, scrubber, body care and incense sticks.

NOTE : 2 BASIS OF PREPARATION

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 read with the General Circular 08/2014 dated 04 April 2014 issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis except in case of assets which has been recorded on fair value and assets for which provision for impairment is made. The accounting policies have been consistently applied by the Company and are consistent with those used in the previous year.

NOTE : 3 SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

The significant accounting policies are as follows:

a) Use of estimate

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with Indian GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

b) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed assets are initially recorded at cost . Cost comprises the purchase price and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. The cost of the tangible assets acquired in an amalgamation in the nature of purchase is their fair value as at the date of amalgamation. Following initial recognition, tangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of tangible assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of Profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

c) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of the intangible assets acquired in an amalgamation in the nature of purchase is their fair value as at the date of amalgamation. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life. The Company uses a rebuttable presumption that the useful life of an intangible asset will not exceed ten years from the date when the asset is available for use.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of Profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

d) Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciation is provided using the Straight Line Method as per the useful lives of the tangible assets estimated by the management, or at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 whichever is higher. Intangible assets are amortised on straight line basis on the estimated useful economic life.

Goodwill purchased is not amortised but tested for impairment every year. The goodwill arising on amalgamation is amortized to the statement of Profit and loss over 10 years.

Assets costing less then Rs. 5,000 are depreciated at the rate of 100 %. Leasehold land is amortised over the period of the lease on a straight-line basis which ranges between 60-90 years.

The amortization/depreciation period and the amortization/ depreciation method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from previous estimates, the amortisation/ depreciation period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the amortization/depreciation method is changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted for in accordance with AS 5 Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

e) Impairment

i. The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating units (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceed its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the pre- tax discount rate.

ii. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.

iii. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.

f) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs consist of interest and amortisation of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

g) Operating Leases

i. Where the Company is a lessee;

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Lease payments on operating leases are recognized as an expense in the statement of Profit and loss on a straight-line basis, over the lease term.

ii. Where the Company is a lessor;

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases. Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income on an operating lease is recognized in the statement of Profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognized as an expense in the statement of Profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of Profit and loss.

h) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/ subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with. When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue item, it is recognized as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset. Government grant in the nature of promoters'' contribution is credited to the investment subsidy reserve.

i) Investment

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties and other costs that arise on acquisition of investment.

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis.

Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

An investment in land or building, which is not intended to be occupied substantially for use by, or in the operations of the Company is classified as investment property. Investment properties are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any.

j) Inventories

Inventories of raw materials, packing materials, work-in- progress, finished goods, stores and consumables items are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Cost is ascertained on First-in-First out (''FIFO'') basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition. Cost of work in progress, manufactured packing material and finished goods includes materials and all applicable manufacturing overheads. The Company accrues for excise duty liability in respect of manufactured finished goods/ intermediary inventories lying in the factory.

Traded goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on a FIFO basis.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated cost of completion and estimated cost necessary to make the sale.

k) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific criteria must also be met before revenue is recognised;

Sale of Goods

Revenue is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Excise Duty, Sales Tax and VAT deducted from turnover (gross) is the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arised during the year. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Revenue includes the amount of excise duty refund received / due in accordance with incentive scheme. Revenue is net of trade discount given.

Interest

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

l) Foreign currency translation

i. Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non- monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non- monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

iii. Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

m) Retirement and other employee benefits

i. Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund and super annotation fund is a defined contribution scheme. The company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the respective fund. The company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund/ super annotation scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service.

ii. Gratuity benefit is defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

iii. Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

iv. The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long- term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end.

v. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of Profit and loss and are not deferred.

n) Sales promotion items

Sales promotion items are valued at cost. Cost is ascertained on First-in-First out (''FIFO'') basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition.

o) Income-tax

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates for deductible timing differences and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable Profits.

In the situations where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India or tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where it operates, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognized in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company''s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the Company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the timing differences which originate first are considered to reverse first.

At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of Profit and loss as current tax. MAT credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for credit available in respect of Minimum Alternate Tax under the Income Tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of Profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the MAT credit entitlement at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

p) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

q) Excise duty

Excise duty on turnover is reduced from turnover. Excise duty relating to the difference between the opening stock and closing stock is recognized as income/expense as the case may be, separately in the statement of Profit and loss.

r) Segment Reporting

Identification of segments:

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Segment accounting policies :

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.

Intersegment transfer :

The Company generally accounts for inter segment sales and transfers as if the sales or transfer were to third parties at market price.

Allocation of common costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items:

It includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

s) Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net Profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for event of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net Profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

t) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation.

A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

u) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

v) Measurement of EBITDA

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of Profit and loss. In its measurement, the company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs, interest income and tax expense.

c. Terms/ rights attached to equity shares

The Company has only one class of equity shares having par value of 1 Rs. per share. Each holder of equity shares is entitled to one vote per share. The Company declares and pays dividends in Indian rupees. The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting.

During the year ended March 31, 2014, the amount of per share dividend recognized as distributions to equity shareholders was Rs. 3 (2013: Rs. 2.50), including interim dividend of Rs. 1/- per equity share paid during the year.

In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the Company, after distribution of all preferential amounts. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.


Mar 31, 2013

A) Use of estimate

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with Indian GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

b) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed assets are initially recorded at cost. Cost comprises the purchase price and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. The cost of the tangible assets acquired in an amalgamation in the nature of purchase is their fair value as at the date of amalgamation. Following initial recognition, tangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of tangible assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

c) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of the intangible assets acquired in an amalgamation in the nature of purchase is their fair value as at the date of amalgamation. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life. The Company uses a rebuttable presumption that the useful life of an intangible asset will not exceed ten years from the date when the asset is available for use.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized

d) Depreciation and amortization

Depreciation is provided using the Straight Line Method as per the useful lives of the tangible assets estimated by the management, or at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 whichever is higher. Intangible assets are amortized on straight line basis on the estimated useful economic life.

Goodwill purchased is not amortized but tested for impairment every year. The goodwill arising on amalgamation is amortized to the statement of profit and loss over 10 years.

Assets costing less then Rs. 5,000 are depreciated at the rate of 100%. Leasehold land is amortized over the period of the lease on a straight- line basis which ranges between 60-90 years.

The amortization/depreciation period and the amortization/depreciation method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from previous estimates, the amortization/depreciation period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the amortization/ depreciation method is changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted for in accordance with AS 5 Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

e) Impairment

i. The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating unit''s (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceed its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the pre-tax discount rate.

ii. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.

iii. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.

f) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs consist of interest and amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

g) Operating Leases

i. Where the Company is a lessee;

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Lease payments on operating leases are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight- line basis, over the lease term.

ii. Where the Company is a lessor;

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases. Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income on an operating lease is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

h) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with. When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue item, it is recognized as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset. Government grant in the nature of promoters'' contribution is credited to the investment subsidy reserve.

i) Investment

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties and other costs that arise on acquisition of investment.

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis.

Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

An investment in land or building, which is not intended to be occupied substantially for use by, or in the operations of the Company is classified as investment property. Investment properties are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any.

j) Inventories

Inventories of raw materials, packing materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, stores and consumables items are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Cost is ascertained on First-in-First out (''FIFO'') basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition. Cost of work-in-progress, manufactured packing material and finished goods includes materials and all applicable manufacturing overheads. The Company accrues for excise duty liability in respect of manufactured finished goods/intermediary inventories lying in the factory.

Traded goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on a FIFO basis.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated cost of completion and estimated cost necessary to make the sale.

k) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized;

Sale of Goods

Revenue is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Excise Duty, Sales Tax and VAT deducted from turnover (gross) is the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arised during the year. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Revenue includes the amount of excise duty refund received / due in accordance with incentive scheme. Revenue is net of trade discount given.

Interest

Revenue is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

l) Foreign currency translation

i. Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date.

Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

iii. Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

m) Retirement and other employee benefits

i. Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund and superannuation fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the respective fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund/super annuation scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service.

ii. Gratuity benefit is defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

iii. Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

iv. The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end.

v. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

n) Sales promotion items

Sales promotion items are valued at cost. Cost is ascertained on First-in-First out (''FIFO'') basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition.

o) Income-tax

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income tax Act. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates for deductible timing differences and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

In the situations where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India or tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where it operates, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognized in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company''s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the Company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the timing differences which originate first are considered to reverse first.

At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Minimum alternative tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. MAT credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternate Tax under the Income tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the MAT credit entitlement at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income tax during the specified period.

p) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made.

Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

q) Excise duty

Excise duty on turnover is reduced from turnover. Excise duty relating to the difference between the opening stock and closing stock is recognized as income/expense as the case may be, separately in the statement of profit and loss.

r) Segment Reporting

Identification of segments:

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets.

The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Segment accounting policies:

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

Intersegment transfer:

The Company generally accounts for inter segment sales and transfers as if the sales or transfer were to third parties at market price. Allocation of common costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs. Unallocated items:

It includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment. s) Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for event of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

t) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non- occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

u) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

v) Measurement of EBITDA

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. In its measurement, the Company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs, interest income and tax expense.


Mar 31, 2012

A) Change in accounting policy

During the year ended March 31, 2012, the revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act, 1956, has become applicable to the Company, for preparation and presentation of its financial statements. The adoption of revised Schedule VI does not impact recognition and measurement principles followed for preparation of financial statements. However, it has significant impact on presentation and disclosures made in the financial statements. The Company has also reclassified the previous year figures in accordance with the requirements applicable in the current year.

b) Use of estimate

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with Indian GAAP requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

c) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

d) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life. The Company uses a rebuttable presumption that the useful life of an intangible asset will not exceed ten years from the date when the asset is available for use.

e) Depreciation and amortization

Depreciation is provided using the Straight Line Method as per the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management, or at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 whichever is higher.

The goodwill purchased is not amortised but tested for impairement purposes for every year. Assets costing less then Rs 5,000 are depreciated at the rate of 100%. Leasehold land is amortized over the period of the lease on a straight-line basis.

f) Impairment

i. The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset's recoverable amount. An asset's recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's or cash-generating unit's (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceed its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the pre-tax discount rate.

ii. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.

iii. A previously recognized impairment loss is increased or reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset's recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.

g) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and amortisation of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings.

h) Operating Leases

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased iterm, are classified as operating leases. Lease payments on operating leases are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis, over the lease term.

i) Government Grants and Subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/ subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with. When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue item, it is recognized as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset. Government grant in the nature of promoters' contribution is credited to the investment subsidy reserve.

j) Investment

On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties and other costs that arise on acquisition of investment. Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

k) Inventories

Inventories of raw materials, packing materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, stores and consumables items are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Cost is ascertained on First-in-First out ('FIFO') basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition. Cost of work-in-progress, manufactured packing material and finished goods includes materials and all applicable manufacturing overheads. The Company accrues for excise duty liability in respect of manufactured finished goods/intermediary inventories lying in the factory.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated cost of completion and estimated cost necessary to make the sale.

l) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of Goods

Revenue is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Excise Duty, Sales Tax and VAT deducted from turnover (gross) is the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arised during the year. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Revenue includes the amount of excise duty refund received/due in accordance with incentive scheme. Revenue is net of trade discount given.

Interest

Revenue is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable. m) Foreign currency translation

(i) Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

(iii) Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company's monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

n) Retirement and other employee benefits

(i) Retirement benefits in the form of Provident Fund and Superannuation Fund are defined contribution schemes and the contributions are charged to the statement of profit and loss of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective fund.

(ii) Gratuity liability is defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

(iii) Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

(iv) The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end.

(v) Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

o) Sales promotion items

Sales promotion items are valued at cost. Cost is ascertained on First-in-First out ('FIFO') basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition.

p) Income-tax

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

MAT credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternate Tax under the Income Tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the MAT credit entitlement at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

q) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made.

Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

r) Excise duty

Excise duty on turnover is reduced from turnover. Excise duty relating to the difference between the opening stock and closing stock is recognized as income/expense as the case may be, separately in the statement of profit and loss.

s) Segment Reporting

Identification of segments:

The Company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Segment accounting policies :

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

Intersegment transfer:

The Company generally accounts for inter segment sales and transfers as if the sales or transfer were to third parties at market price. Allocation of common costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs. Unallocated items:

It includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment. t) Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for event of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding,without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

u) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non- occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

v) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

w) Measurement of EBITDA

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. In its measurement, the Company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs and tax expense.


Mar 31, 2011

A) Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

c) Impairment

i. The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/ external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceed its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the assets.

ii. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.

iii. A previously recognized impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

d) Operating Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Lease payments on operating leases are recognized as expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straight-line basis, over the lease term.

e) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

When the grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset. Government grant in the nature of promoters' contribution is credited to the investment subsidy reserve.

f) Investment

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

g) Inventories

Inventories of raw materials, packing materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, stores and consumables items are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Cost is ascertained on First-in-First-out ('FIFO') basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition. Cost of work in progress, manufactured packing material and finished goods includes materials and all applicable manufacturing overheads. The Company accrues for excise duty liability in respect of manufactured finished goods/ intermediary inventories lying in the factory.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated cost of completion and estimated cost necessary to make the sale.

h) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of Goods

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer. Excise Duty, Sales Tax and VAT deducted from turnover (gross) is the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arised during the year. Revenue includes the amount of excise duty refund received/due in accordance with incentive scheme. Revenue is net of trade discount given.

Interest

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

i) Foreign currency translation

(i) Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

(iii) Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting company's monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

j) Retirement and other employee benefits

(i) Retirement benefits in the form of Provident Fund and Superannuation Fund are defined contribution schemes and the contributions are charged to the profit and loss account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective fund.

(ii) Gratuity liability is defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

(iii) Short-term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates at the year end. Long-term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

(iv) Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to profit and loss account and are not deferred.

k) Sales promotion items

Sales promotion items are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. Cost is ascertained on First-in-First-out ('FIFO') basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition.

l) Income-tax

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

MAT credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the profit and loss account and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

m) Provisions

A provision is recognised when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

n) Excise duty

Excise duty on turnover is reduced from turnover. Excise duty relating to the difference between the opening stock and closing stock is recognized as income/expense as the case may be, separately in the Profit and Loss account.

o) Segment Reporting Policies

Identification of segments:

The Company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Segment policies:

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

Intersegment transfer:

The Company generally accounts for inter segment sales and transfers as if the sales or transfer were to third parties at market price.

Allocation of common costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items:

It includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

p) Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for event of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

q) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.


Mar 31, 2010

The significant accounting policies are as follows:

a) Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Cost of shares of Co-operative society has been added to the cost of office building. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

b) Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciation is provided using the Straight Line Method as per the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management, or at the rates prescribed under schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 whichever is higher.

The estimated useful life of the assets is as follows:

c) Impairment

i. The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/ external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital.

ii. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.

iii. A previously recognized impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

d) Operating Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Lease payments on operating leases are recognized as expense in the Profit and Loss Account on a straight-line basis, over the lease term.

e) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/ subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

When the grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset. Government grant in the nature of promoters contribution is credited to the investment subsidy reserve.

f) Investment

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

g) Inventories

Inventories of raw materials, packing materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, stores and consumables items are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Cost is ascertained on First-in-First out (FIFO) basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition. Cost of work in progress and finished goods includes materials and all applicable manufacturing overheads. The Company accrues for excise duty liability in respect of manufactured finished goods/intermediary inventories lying in the factory.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated cost of completion and estimated cost necessary to make the sale.

h) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of Goods

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer. Excise Duty, Sales Tax and VAT deducted from turnover (gross) is the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arised during the year. Revenue includes the amount of excise duty refund received/due in accordance with incentive scheme. Revenue is net of trade discount given.

Interest

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

j) Retirement and other employee benefits

(i) Retirement benefits in the form of Provident Fund and Superannuation Fund are defined contribution schemes and the contributions are charged to the profit and loss account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective fund.

(ii) Gratuity liability is defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

(iii) Short-term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates at the year end. Long-term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

(iv) Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to profit and loss account and are not deferred.

k) Sales promotion items

Sales promotion items are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. Cost is ascertained on First-in-First out (FIFO) basis and includes all applicable costs incurred in bringing goods to their present location and condition.

l) Income-tax

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income tax reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future

taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

m) Provisions

A provision is recognised when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

n) Excise duty

Excise duty on turnover is reduced from turnover. Excise duty relating to the difference between the opening stock and closing stock is recognized as income/expense as the case may be, separately in the Profit and Loss account.

o) Segment Reporting Policies

Identification of segments:

The Company’s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Segment policies :

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.

Intersegment transfer :

The Company generally accounts for inter segment sales and transfers as if the sales or transfer were to third parties at market price.

Allocation of common costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items:

It includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

p) Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for event of share split.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

q) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the year end. Although these estimates are based upon managements best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

r) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

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