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Accounting Policies of Kingfisher Airlines Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2013

(a) Basis of preparation

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. Further, the financial statements are presented in the general format specified in schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 (‘the Act'').

(b) Use of estimates

In preparation of the financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles, estimates and assumptions, where necessary, have been made based on management''s best knowledge and experience. Accordingly, actual results may differ from such estimates.

(c) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue from charter services is recognized based on services provided and billed as per the terms of the contracts with the customers provided that the collection is reasonably certain. Revenue from sale of tickets of the airline and cargo operations is recognized in the period, in which the service is provided, i.e. on flown / carried basis. Such revenue is net of statutory fees to be collected from customers as per government regulations. Unearned revenue represents consideration on sale of passenger tickets and cargo against which the Company has to provide services in future periods and is included under Advances received / Forward sales. The same is released to the Statement of Profit and Loss as the services are rendered.

Fees for passenger initiated changes and cancellations of tickets are recognized as revenue in the period in which such changes / cancellations are effected.

Interest income is recognized on a time proportionate method when the right to receive income is established and that collection is reasonably certain. Income from sale of advertisement space is recognized on accrual basis over the period the advertisements are displayed.

The Company enters into barter arrangements with other parties for providing services in exchange for the Company''s advertising in the other party''s media or in exchange for other services or goods. Such transactions are recorded at the fair value of the services / goods received from the other party, or at the fair value of the services provided by the Company if it is not feasible to determine the fair value of the services / goods received.

(d) Fixed assets and Intangible assets

Fixed assets and intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated depreciation / amortization and impairment losses (if any). Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use and also includes cost of modification and improvements to leased assets. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

Cost of fixed assets not ready for intended use as of the balance sheet date are disclosed under capital work-in-progress. Advance paid towards acquisition of fixed assets are included in long term loans and advances.

(e) Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets, except non-compete fees, trademarks, design - aircraft interiors, software, leasehold improvements, is provided on a straight line basis at the rates prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 which are estimated to be the useful life of fixed assets by the management. Additions are depreciated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed.

1) Non Compete fees are amortized over the period of agreement (i.e. five years).

2) Trademarks are amortized over the period of four years.

3) Design - Aircraft Interiors are amortized over the period of seven years.

4) Software is depreciated over a period of 1 - 4 years, based on estimated useful life as ascertained by the management.

5) Leasehold improvements on operating leases are depreciated over the shorter of the period of the lease and their estimated useful lives.

6) Cost of major maintenance and overhaul of the engines are amortized over the period of estimated useful life of the repairs (3 years).

7) Movable cabins and mobile phones are depreciated over the period of five and two years, respectively, on a straightline method.

(f) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as a part of the cost of the assets. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. Borrowing costs include amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings. The unamortized portion of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings is included under ‘Loans and Advances''.

(g) Leases - Where the Company is a lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are charged directly against income. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalized.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalized leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Leases where the lessors effectively retain substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership over the leased term are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments including expenses incurred for bringing the leased asset to its working condition for intended use are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Profit or loss on sale and leaseback arrangements resulting in operating leases are recognized immediately in case the transaction is established at a fair value, else the excess over the fair value is deferred and amortised over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the sale price is below the fair value and the loss is compensated by future lease payments at below market price, the same is deferred and amortized in proportion to the lease payments over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the fair value at the time of sale and lease back transaction is less than the carrying amount of the asset, a loss equal to the amount of difference between the carrying amount and fair value is recognised immediately. In case of sale and leaseback arrangement resulting in a finance lease, any excess or deficiency of sales proceeds over the carrying value is deferred and amortised over the lease term in proportion to the depreciation of the leased asset.

(h) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life. A previously recognized impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

(i) Maintenance costs

In respect of aircraft, aircraft engines and helicopters, the Company has entered into maintenance arrangements. Payments made to lessors for major maintenance expenditure as per the related maintenance agreements, comprising fixed period-based amounts and variable activity-based amounts are initially considered as maintenance deposits and expensed as and when maintenance expenditure is incurred/termination of agreements.

(j) Inventory

Inventories are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost of engineering inventories is determined on first in first out basis. In respect of reusable items such as rotables, special tools etc, provision for amortization / obsolescence is made based on the estimated useful life of the aircraft as derived from schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. In-flight inventory is valued on weighted average basis, while inventory of fuel is valued on the basis of last fuel uplifted rates in respective aircrafts.

(k) Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

(l) Employee Benefits

(i) Defined Contribution Plan

The Company contributes on a defined contribution basis to employees'' provident fund and pension scheme towards post employment benefits, all of which are administered by the respective government authorities. The Company also contributes to social security schemes in respect of its employees at certain overseas offices. It has no further obligation beyond making its contribution which is expected in the year in which it pertains.

(ii) Defined Benefit Plan

The Company has a defined benefit plan namely gratuity for all its employees. The liability for the defined benefit plan of gratuity is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation by an independent actuary at the year-end, which is calculated using Projected Unit Credit Method. Actuarial gains and losses are adjusted in the Statement of Profit and Loss. (iii) Other long-term employee benefits

The employees of the Company are entitled to leave as per the leave policy of the Company. The liability in respect of unutilized leave balances is provided based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary as at the year-end and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Actuarial gains and losses are adjusted in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(m) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current, deferred and fringe benefit taxes. Current income tax and fringe benefit tax are measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current period timing differences between taxable and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier years. Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. Deferred tax assets are recognized on carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses only if there is virtual certainty that such deferred tax assets can be realized against future taxable profits. Unrecognized deferred tax assets of earlier years are re-assessed and recognized to the extent that it has become reasonably certain that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

(n) Foreign currency transactions

(i) Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting and foreign currencies at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported at rate prevailing on the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

(iii) Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise except that the Company had availed the option provided by notification (No. G.S.R. 225(E), dated March 31, 2009) issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs read with accounting standard 11 in respect of foreign exchange differences in respect of long term monetary assets and liabilities. The Company has not availed the option of the relevant notification after March 31, 2010.

(iv) Forward exchange contracts

The Company uses forward exchange contracts to hedge its exposure to movements in foreign exchange rates. The Company does not use the forward exchange contracts for trading or speculation purposes. In respect of foreign currency monetary assets or liabilities in respect of which forward exchange contract is taken, the premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortized as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognized as income or as expense for the period. Pursuant to The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India''s announcement ‘Accounting for Derivatives'', the Company marks-to-market all such outstanding derivative contracts at the end of the period and the resulting mark-to-market losses, if any, are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(o) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and relevant taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(p) Provisions

A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event; and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(q) Stock option compensation expense

The Company accounts for stock option compensation expense based on the intrinsic value of the options granted which is the difference between the fair value of the share underlying the option and the exercise price of the option determined at the grant date. Compensation expense is amortized over the period of vesting on a straight-line basis. The accounting value of the options net of deferred compensation expense is reflected as Employee stock option outstanding.

(r) Initial costs on leased aircrafts

Expenses directly attributable and incurred in relation to aircrafts acquired on operating lease arrangement are deferred and amortized over the period of lease of aircrafts. Such expenses interalia include initial borrowing costs incurred on pre delivery payments for aircrafts till the Company novates / assigns the right to acquire the aircrafts in favor of the lessors.

(s) Incentives from aircraft manufacturers

Incentives from aircraft manufacturers are credited to statement of Profit and Loss in the year when such incentives are made available to the Company as per the terms of aircraft purchase agreements. This includes incentives granted for the purpose of meeting certain revenue expenses.

(t) Commission

Commission to travel agents is recognized when the corresponding revenues are recognized as income on flown / carried basis.


Mar 31, 2012

(a) Basis of preparation

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. Further, the financial statements are presented in the general format specified in schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 ('the Act').

(b) Use of estimates

In preparation of the financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles, estimates and assumptions, where necessary, have been made based on management's best knowledge and experience. Accordingly, actual results may differ from such estimates.

(c) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue from charter services is recognized based on services provided and billed as per the terms of the contracts with the customers provided that the collection is reasonably certain. Revenue from sale of tickets of the airline and cargo operations is recognized in the period, in which the service is provided, i.e. on flown / carried basis. Such revenue is net of statutory fees to be collected from customers as per government regulations. Unearned revenue represents consideration on sale of passenger tickets and cargo against which the Company has to provide services in future periods and is included under Advances received / Forward sales. The same is released to the Statement of Profit and Loss as the services are rendered.

Fees for passenger initiated changes and cancellations of tickets are recognized as revenue in the period in which such changes / cancellations are effected.

Interest income is recognized on a time proportionate method when the right to receive income is established and that collection is reasonably certain. Income from sale of advertisement space is recognized on accrual basis over the period the advertisements are displayed.

The Company enters into barter arrangements with other parties for providing services in exchange for the Company's advertising in the other party's media or in exchange for other services or goods. Such transactions are recorded at the fair value of the services / goods received from the other party, or at the fair value of the services provided by the Company if it is not feasible to determine the fair value of the services / goods received.

(d) Fixed assets and Intangible assets

Fixed assets and intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated depreciation / amortization and impairment losses (if any). Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use and also includes cost of modification and improvements to leased assets.

Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

Cost of fixed assets not ready for intended use as of the balance sheet date are disclosed under capital work-in- progress. Advance paid towards acquisition of fixed assets are included in long term loans and advances.

(e) Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets, except non-compete fees, trademarks, design - aircraft interiors, software, leasehold improvements, is provided on a straight line basis at the rates prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 which are estimated to be the useful life of fixed assets by the management. Additions are depreciated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed.

1) Non Compete fees are amortized over the period of agreement (i.e. five years).

2) Trademarks are amortized over the period of four years.

3) Design - Aircraft Interiors are amortized over the period of seven years.

4) Software is depreciated over a period of 1 - 4 years, based on estimated useful life as ascertained by the management.

5) Leasehold improvements on operating leases are depreciated over the shorter of the period of the lease and their estimated useful lives.

6) Cost of major maintenance and overhaul of the engines are amortized over the period of estimated useful life of the repairs (3 years).

7) Movable cabins and mobile phones are depreciated over the period of five and two years, respectively, on a straightline method.

(f) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as a part of the cost of the assets. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. Borrowing costs include amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings. The unamortized portion of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings is included under 'Loans and Advances'.

(g) Leases - Where the Company is a lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are charged directly against income. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalized.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalized leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term. Leases where the lessors effectively retain substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership over the leased term are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments including expenses incurred for bringing the leased asset to its working condition for intended use are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Profit or loss on sale and leaseback arrangements resulting in operating leases are recognized immediately in case the transaction is established at a fair value, else the excess over the fair value is deferred and amortised over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the sale price is below the fair value and the loss is compensated by future lease payments at below market price, the same is deferred and amortized in proportion to the lease payments over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the fair value at the time of sale and lease back transaction is less than the carrying amount of the asset, a loss equal to the amount of difference between the carrying amount and fair value is recognised immediately. In case of sale and leaseback arrangement resulting in a finance lease, any excess or deficiency of sales proceeds over the carrying value is deferred and amortised over the lease term in proportion to the depreciation of the leased asset.

(h) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life. A previously recognized impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

(i) Maintenance costs

In respect of aircraft, aircraft engines and helicopters, the Company has entered into maintenance arrangements. Payments made to lessors for major maintenance expenditure as per the related maintenance agreements, comprising fixed period-based amounts and variable activity-based amounts are initially considered as maintenance deposits and expensed as and when maintenance expenditure is incurred/termination of agreements.

(j) Inventory

Inventories are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost of engineering inventories is determined on first in first out basis except at one of the divisions where the weighted average basis was followed till December 31, 2008. In respect of reusable items such as rotables, special tools etc, provision for amortization / obsolescence is made based on the estimated useful life of the aircraft as derived from schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. In-flight inventory is valued on weighted average basis, while inventory of fuel is valued on the basis of last fuel uplifted rates in respective aircrafts.

(k) Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

(l) Employee Benefits

(i) Defined Contribution Plan

The Company contributes on a defined contribution basis to employees' provident fund and pension scheme towards post employment benefits, all of which are administered by the respective government authorities. The Company also contributes to social security schemes in respect of its employees at certain overseas offices. It has no further obligation beyond making its contribution which is expected in the year in which it pertains.

(ii) Defined Benefit Plan

The Company has a defined benefit plan namely gratuity for all its employees. The liability for the defined benefit plan of gratuity is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation by an independent actuary at the year-end, which is calculated using Projected Unit Credit Method. Actuarial gains and losses are adjusted in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(iii) Other long-term employee benefits

The employees of the Company are entitled to leave as per the leave policy of the Company. The liability in respect of unutilized leave balances is provided based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary as at the year-end and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Actuarial gains and losses are adjusted in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(m) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current, deferred and fringe benefit taxes. Current income tax and fringe benefit tax are measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current period timing differences between taxable and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier years. Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. Deferred tax assets are recognized on carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses only if there is virtual certainty that such deferred tax assets can be realized against future taxable profits. Unrecognized deferred tax assets of earlier years are re-assessed and recognized to the extent that it has become reasonably certain that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

(n) Foreign currency transactions

(i) Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting and foreign currencies at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported at rate prevailing on the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

(iii) Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company's monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise except that the Company had availed the option provided by notification (No. G.S.R. 225(E), dated March 31, 2009) issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs read with accounting standard 11 in respect of foreign exchange differences in respect of long term monetary assets and liabilities. The Company has not availed the option of the relevant notification after March 31, 2010.

(iv) Forward exchange contracts

The Company uses forward exchange contracts to hedge its exposure to movements in foreign exchange rates. The Company does not use the forward exchange contracts for trading or speculation purposes. In respect of foreign currency monetary assets or liabilities in respect of which forward exchange contract is taken, the premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortized as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognized as income or as expense for the period. Pursuant to The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India's announcement 'Accounting for Derivatives', the Company marks-to-market all such outstanding derivative contracts at the end of the period and the resulting mark-to-market losses, if any, are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(o) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and relevant taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(p) Provisions

A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event; and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(q) Stock option compensation expense

The Company accounts for stock option compensation expense based on the intrinsic value of the options granted which is the difference between the fair value of the share underlying the option and the exercise price of the option determined at the grant date. Compensation expense is amortized over the period of vesting on a straight-line basis. The accounting value of the options net of deferred compensation expense is reflected as Employee stock option outstanding.

(r) Initial costs on leased aircrafts

Expenses directly attributable and incurred in relation to aircrafts acquired on operating lease arrangement are deferred and amortized over the period of lease of aircrafts. Such expenses interalia include initial borrowing costs incurred on pre delivery payments for aircrafts till the Company novates / assigns the right to acquire the aircrafts in favor of the lessors.

(s) Incentives from aircraft manufacturers

Incentives from aircraft manufacturers are credited to statement of Profit and Loss in the year when such incentives are made available to the Company as per the terms of aircraft purchase agreements. This includes incentives granted for the purpose of meeting certain revenue expenses.

(t) Commission

Commission to travel agents is recognized when the corresponding revenues are recognized as income on flown / carried basis.


Mar 31, 2011

(a) Basis of preparation

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. Further, the financial statements are presented in the general format specified in schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 ('the Act').

(b) Use of estimates

In preparation of the financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles, estimates and assumptions, where necessary, have been made based on management's best knowledge and experience. Accordingly, actual results may differ from such estimates.

(c) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue from charter services is recognized based on services provided and billed as per the terms of the contracts with the customers provided that the collection is reasonably certain. Revenue from sale of tickets of the airline and cargo operations is recognized in the period, in which the service is provided, i.e. on flown / carried basis. Such revenue is net of statutory fees to be collected from customers as per government

(c) Revenue recognition (Contd.)

regulations. Unearned revenue represents consideration on sale of passenger tickets and cargo against which the Company has to provide services in future periods and is included under Advances received / Forward sales. The same is released to the profit and loss account as the services are rendered.

Fees for passenger initiated changes and cancellations of tickets are recognized as revenue in the period in which such changes / cancellations are effected.

Interest income is recognized on a time proportionate method when the right to receive income is established and that collection is reasonably certain. Income from sale of advertisement space is recognized on accrual basis over the period the advertisements are displayed.

The Company enters into barter arrangements with other parties for advertising in exchange for the Company's advertising in the other party's media or in exchange for other services or goods. Such transactions are recorded at the fair value of the services / goods received from the other party, or at the fair value of the services provided by the Company if it is not feasible to determine the fair value of the services / goods received.

(d) Fixed assets and Intangible assets

Fixed assets and intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated depreciation / amortization and impairment losses (if any). Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use and also includes cost of modification and improvements to leased assets. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of fixed assets and the cost of fixed assets not ready for intended use as of the balance sheet date are disclosed under capital work-in-progress.

(e) Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets, except non-compete fees, trademarks, design - aircraft interiors, software, leasehold improvements, is provided on a straight line basis at the rates prescribed under schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 which are estimated to be the useful life of fixed assets by the management. Additions are depreciated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed.

Non-compete fees are amortized over the period of agreement (i.e. five years).

Trademarks are amortized over the period of four years.

Design - Aircraft Interiors are amortized over the period of seven years.

Software is depreciated over a period of 1 - 4 years, based on estimated useful life as ascertained by the management.

Leasehold improvements on operating leases are depreciated over the shorter of the period of the lease and their estimated useful lives.

Cost of major maintenance and overhaul of the engines are amortized over the period of estimated useful life of the repairs (3 years).

Movable cabins and mobile phones are depreciated over the period of five and two years, respectively, on a straight-line method.

(f) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as a part of the cost of the assets. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. Borrowing costs include amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings. The unamortized portion of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings is included under 'Loans and Advances'.

(g) Leases - Where the Company is a lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are charged directly against income. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalized.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalized leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Leases where the lessors effectively retain substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership over the leased term are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments including expenses incurred for bringing the leased asset to its working condition for intended use are recognized as an expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straight- line basis over the lease term.

Profit or loss on sale and leaseback arrangements resulting in operating leases are recognized immediately in case the transaction is established at a fair value, else the excess over the fair value is deferred and amortised over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the sale price is below the fair value and the loss is compensated by future lease payments at below market price, the same is deferred and amortized in proportion to the lease payments over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the fair value at the time of sale and lease back transaction is less than the carrying amount of the asset, a loss equal to the amount of difference between the carrying amount and fair value is recognised immediately. In case of sale and lease back arrangement resulting in a finance lease, any excess or deficiency of sales proceeds over the carrying value is deferred and amortised over the lease term in proportion to the depreciation of the leased asset.

(h) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life. A previously recognized impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

(i) Maintenance costs

In respect of aircraft, aircraft engines and helicopters, the Company has entered into maintenance arrangements. Payments made to lessors for major maintenance expenditure as per the related maintenance agreements, comprising fixed period-based amounts and variable activity-based amounts are initially considered as maintenance deposits and expensed as and when maintenance expenditure is incurred/termination of agreements.

(j) Inventory

Inventories are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost of engineering inventories is determined on first in first out basis except at one of the divisions where the weighted average basis was followed till December 31, 2008. In respect of reusable items such as rotables, special tools etc, provision for amortization / obsolescence is made based on the estimated useful life of the aircraft as derived from schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. In-flight inventory is valued on weighted average basis, while inventory of fuel is valued on the basis of last fuel uplifted rates in respective aircrafts.

(k) Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

(l) Employee Benefits

i. Defined Contribution Plan

The Company contributes on a defined contribution basis to employees' provident fund and pension scheme towards post employment benefits, all of which are administered by the respective government authorities. The Company also contributes to social security schemes in respect of its employees at certain overseas offices. It has no further obligation beyond making its contribution which is expected in the year in which it pertains.

ii. Defined Benefit Plan

The Company has a defined benefit plan namely gratuity for all its employees. The liability for the defined benefit plan of gratuity is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation by an independent actuary at the year-end, which is calculated using Projected Unit Credit Method. Actuarial gains and losses are adjusted in the Profit and Loss Account.

iii. Other long-term employee benefits

The employees of the Company are entitled to leave as per the leave policy of the Company. The liability in respect of unutilized leave balances is provided based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary as at the year-end and charged to the Profit and Loss Account. Actuarial gains and losses are adjusted in the Profit and Loss Account.

(m) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current, deferred and fringe benefit taxes. Current income tax and fringe benefit tax are measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current period timing differences between taxable and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier years. Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. Deferred tax assets are recognized on carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses only if there is virtual certainty that such deferred tax assets can be realized against future taxable profits. Unrecognized deferred tax assets of earlier years are re-assessed and recognized to the extent that it has become reasonably certain that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

(n) Foreign currency transactions

i. Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting and foreign currencies at the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported at rate prevailing on the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

iii. Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company's monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise except that the Company has availed the option provided by notification (No. G.S.R. 225(E), dated March 31, 2009) issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs read with accounting standard 11 in respect of foreign exchange differences in respect of long term monetary assets and liabilities.

iv. Forward exchange contracts

The Company uses forward exchange contracts to hedge its exposure to movements in foreign exchange rates. The Company does not use the forward exchange contracts for trading or speculation purposes. In respect of foreign currency monetary assets or liabilities in respect of which forward exchange contract is taken, the premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortized as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognized as income or as expense for the period. Pursuant to The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India's announcement 'Accounting for Derivatives', the Company marks-to-market all such outstanding derivative contracts at the end of the period and the resulting mark-to-market losses, if any, are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account.

(o) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and relevant taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue; bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders; share split; and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(p) Provisions

A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event; and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(q) Deferred revenue expenses

Share issue expenses are amortized over a period of three years on a straight- line basis following the year of incurring the expenses.

(r) Stock option compensation expense

The Company accounts for stock option compensation expense based on the intrinsic value of the options granted which is the difference between the fair value of the share underlying the option and the exercise price of the option determined at the grant date. Compensation expense is amortized over the period of vesting on a straight-line basis. The accounting value of the options net of deferred compensation expense is reflected as Employee stock option outstanding.

(s) Initial costs on leased aircrafts

Expenses directly attributable and incurred in relation to aircrafts acquired on operating lease arrangement are deferred and amortized over the period of lease of aircrafts. Such expenses interalia include initial borrowing costs incurred on pre delivery payments for aircrafts till the Company novates / assigns the right to acquire the aircrafts in favor of the lessors.

(t) Incentives from aircraft manufacturers I

Incentives from aircraft manufacturers are credited to Profit and Loss Account in the year when such incentives are made available to the Company as per the terms of aircraft purchase agreements. This includes incentives granted for the purpose of meeting certain revenue expenses.

(u) Commission

Commission to travel agents is recognized when the corresponding revenues are recognized as income on flown / carriage basis.


Mar 31, 2010

(a) Basis of preparation

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. Further, the financial statements are presented in the general format specified in Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 (the Act).

(b) Use of estimates

In preparation of the financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles, estimates and assumptions, where necessary, have been made based on Managements best knowledge and experience. Accordingly, actual results may differ from such estimates.

(c) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue from charter services is recognized based on services provided and billed as per the terms of the contracts with the customers provided that the collection is reasonably certain. Revenue from sale of tickets of the airline and cargo operations is recognized in the period in which the service is provided i.e. on flown / carried basis. Such revenue is net of statutory fees to be collected from customers as per government regulations. Unearned revenue represents consideration on sale of passenger tickets and cargo against which the Company has to provide services in future periods and is included under Advances received / Forward sales. The same is released to the profit and loss account as the services are rendered.

Fees for passenger initiated changes and cancellations of tickets are recognized as revenue in the period in which such changes / cancellations are effected.

Interest income is recognized on a time proportionate method when the right to receive income is established and that collection is reasonably certain. Income from sale of advertisement space is recognized on accrual basis over the period the advertisements are displayed.

The Company enters into barter arrangements with other parties for advertising in exchange for the Companys advertising in the other partys media or in exchange for other services or goods. Such transactions are recorded at the fair value of the services / goods received from the other party, or at the fair value of the services provided by the Company if it is not feasible to determine the fair value of the services / goods received.

(d) Fixed assets and Intangible assets

Fixed assets and intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated depreciation / amortization and impairment losses (if any). Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use and also includes cost of modification and improvements to leased assets. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of fixed assets and the cost of fixed assets not ready for intended use as of the balance sheet date are disclosed under capital work-in-progress.

(e) Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets, except non-compete fees, trademarks, design - aircraft interiors, software, leasehold improvements, is .provided on a straight line basis at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act,1956 which are estimated to be the useful life of fixed assets by the management. Additions are depreciated on a pro-rata basis from the date of installation till the date the assets are sold or disposed.

Non-compete fees are amortized over the period of agreement (i.e. five years).

- Trademarks are amortized over the period of four years.

- Design - Aircraft Interiors are amortized over the period of seven years.

- Software is depreciated over a period of 1 - 4 years, based on estimated useful life as ascertained by the management.

Leasehold improvements on operating leases are depreciated over the shorter of the period of the lease and their estimated useful lives.

Cost of major maintenance and overhaul of the engines are amortized over the period of estimated useful life of the repairs.

Movable cabins and mobile phones are depreciated over the period of five and two years, respectively, on a straight-line method.

(f) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as a part of the cost of the assets. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

(g) Leases - Where the Company is a lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are charged directly against income. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalized.

If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, capitalized leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Leases where the lessors effectively retain substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership over the leased term are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments including expenses incurred for bringing the leased asset to its working condition for intended use are recognized as an expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straight- line basis over the lease term.

Profit or loss on sale and leaseback arrangements resulting in operating leases are recognized immediately in case the transaction is established at a fair value, else the excess over the fair value is deferred and amortised over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the sale price is below the fair value and the loss is compensated by future lease payments at below market price, the same is deferred and amortized in proportion to the lease payments over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the fair value at the time of sale and lease back transaction is less than the carrying amount of the asset, a loss equal to the amount of difference between the carrying amount and fair value is recognised immediately. In case of sale and leaseback arrangement resulting in a finance lease, any excess or deficiency of sales proceeds over the carrying value is deferred and amortised over the lease term in proportion to the depreciation of the leased asset.

(h) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life. A previously recognized impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.

(i) Maintenance costs

In respect of aircraft, aircraft engines and helicopters, the Company has entered into maintenance arrangements. Payments made to lessors for major maintenance expenditure as per the related maintenance agreements, comprising fixed period-based amounts and variable activity-based amounts are initially considered as maintenance deposits and expensed as and when maintenance expenditure is incurred.

(j) Inventory

Inventories are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined on first in first out basis except at one of the divisions where the weighted average basis was followed till December 31, 2008. In respect of reusable items such as rotables, special tools etc provision for amortization / obsolescence is made based on the estimated useful life of the aircraft as derived from Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. In-flight inventory is valued on weighted average basis, while inventory of fuel is valued on the basis of last fuel uplifted rates in respective aircrafts.

(k) Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

(I) Employee Benefits

i. Defined Contribution Plan

The Company contributes on a defined contribution basis to Employees Provident Fund and Pension Scheme towards post employment benefits, all of which are administered by the respective government authorities. The Company also contributes to social security schemes in respect of its employees at certain overseas offices. It has no further obligation beyond making its contribution which is expected in the year in which it pertains.

ii. Defined Benefit Plan

The Company has a defined benefit plan namely gratuity for all its employees. The liability for the defined benefit plan of gratuity is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation by an independent actuary at the year-end, which is calculated using Projected Unit Credit Method. Actuarial gains and losses are adjusted in the Profit and Loss Account.

iii. Other long-term employee benefits

The employees of the Company are entitled to leave as per the leave policy of the Company. The liability in respect of unutilized leave balances is provided based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary as at the year-end and charged to the Profit and Loss Account. Actuarial gains and losses are adjusted in the Profit and Loss Account.

(m) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current, deferred and fringe benefit taxes. Current income tax and fringe benefit tax are measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current period timing differences between taxable and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier years. Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. Deferred tax assets are recognized on carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses only if there is virtual certainty that such deferred tax assets can be realized against future taxable profits. Unrecognized deferred tax assets of earlier years are re-assessed and recognized to the extent that it has become reasonably certain that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

(n) Foreign currency transactions

i. Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting and foreign currencies at the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported at rate prevailing on the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

iii. Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Companys monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise except that the Company has availed the option provided by notification (No. G.S.R. 225(E), dated March 31, 2009) issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs read with accounting standard 11 in respect of foreign exchange differences in respect of long term monetary assets and liabilities.

iv. Forward exchange contracts

The Company uses forward exchange contracts to hedge its exposure to movements in foreign exchange rates. The Company does not use the forward exchange contracts for trading or speculation purposes. In respect of foreign currency monetary assets or liabilities in respect of which forward exchange contract is taken, the premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortized as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognized as income or as expense for the period. Pursuant to The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Indias announcement Accounting for Derivatives, the Company marks-to-market all such outstanding derivative contracts at the end of the period and the resulting mark-to-market losses, if any, are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account.

(o) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and relevant taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue; bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders; share split; and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(p) Provisions

A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event; and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(q) Deferred revenue expenses

Share issue expenses are amortized over a period of three years on a straight- line basis following the year of incurring the expenses.

(r) Stock option compensation expense

The Company accounts for stock option compensation expense based on the intrinsic value of the options granted which is the difference between the fair value of the share underlying the option and the exercise price of the option determined at the grant date. Compensation expense is amortized over the period of vesting on a straight-line basis. The accounting value of the options net of deferred compensation expense is reflected as Employee stock option outstanding.

(s) Initial costs on leased aircrafts

Expenses directly attributable and incurred in relation to aircrafts acquired on operating lease arrangement are deferred and amortized over the period of lease of aircrafts. Such expenses interalia include initial borrowing costs incurred on pre delivery payments for aircrafts till the Company novates / assigns the right to acquire the aircrafts in favor of the lessors.

(t) Incentives from aircraft manufacturers

Incentives from aircraft manufacturers are credited to Profit and Loss Account in the year when such incentives are made available to the Company as per the terms of aircraft purchase agreements. This includes incentives granted for the purpose of meeting certain revenue expenses.

(u) Commission

Commission to travel agents is recognized when the corresponding revenues are recognized as income on flown / carriage basis.

 
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