Home  »  Company  »  L&T  »  Quotes  »  Accounting Policy
Enter the first few characters of Company and click 'Go'

Accounting Policies of Larsen & Toubro Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

1. Basis of accounting

The Company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention, except for the revaluation of certain fixed assets, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles ["GAAP"] in compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and the Accounting Standards as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 read with Rule 7(1) of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs in respect of section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013. Further, the guidance notes/announcements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) are also considered, wherever applicable except to the extent where compliance with other statutory promulgations override the same requiring a different treatment.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the Company makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful lives of tangible and intangible fixed assets, allowance for doubtful debts/advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans, etc. difference, if any, between the actual results and estimates is recognised in the period in which the results are known.

2. Presentation of financial statements

The Balance Sheet and the Statement of Profit and Loss are prepared and presented in the format prescribed in the Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013 ("the Act"). The Cash Flow Statement has been prepared and presented as per the requirements of Accounting Standard (AS) 3 "Cash Flow Statements". The disclosure requirements with respect to items in the Balance Sheet and Statement of Profit and Loss, as prescribed in the Schedule III to the Act, are presented by way of notes forming part of accounts along with the other notes required to be disclosed under the notified Accounting Standards and the Equity Listing Agreement.

Amounts in the financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees in crore [1 crore = 10 million] rounded off to two decimal places in line with the requirements of Schedule III. Per share data are presented in Indian Rupees to two decimals places.

3. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised based on nature of activity when consideration can be reasonably measured and there exists reasonable certainty of its recovery.

A. Revenue from operations

a. Sales & Service

i. Sales and service include excise duty and adjustments made towards liquidated damages and price variation, wherever applicable. Escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable/acknowledged by customers, are not taken into account.

ii. Revenue from sale of manufactured and traded goods is recognised when the substantial risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer under the terms of the contract.

iii. Revenue from property development activity which are in substance similar to delivery of goods is recognised when all significant risks and rewards of ownership in the land and/or building are transferred to the customer and a reasonable expectation of collection of the sale consideration from the customer exists.

Revenue from those property development activities which have the same economic substance as that of a construction contract is recognised based on the 'Percentage of completion method' (POC) when the outcome of a real estate project can be estimated reliably upon fulfillment of all the following conditions:

a. All critical approvals necessary for commencement of the project have been obtained;

b. When the stage of completion of the project reaches a reasonable level of development i.e., contract costs for work performed bears a reasonable proportion to the estimated total contract costs. For this purpose, a reasonable level of development is treated as achieved only if the cost incurred (excluding cost of land/developmental rights and borrowing cost) is atleast 25% of the total of such cost;

c. Atleast 25% of the saleable project area is secured by contracts or agreements with buyers;

d. Atleast 10 % of the total revenue as per the agreements of sale or any other legally enforceable documents are realised at the reporting date in respect of each of the contracts and it is reasonable to expect that the parties to such contracts will comply with the payment terms as defined in the contracts.

The costs incurred on property development activities are carried as "Inventories" till such time the outcome of the project cannot be estimated reliably and all the aforesaid conditions are fulfilled. When the outcome of the project can be ascertained reliably and all the aforesaid conditions are fulfilled, revenue from property development activity is recognised at cost incurred plus proportionate margin, using percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is determined based on the proportion of actual cost incurred to the total estimated cost of the project. For this purpose, actual cost includes cost of land and developmental rights but excludes borrowing cost.

Expected loss, if any, on the project is recognised as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract.

iv. Revenue from construction/project related activity and contracts for supply/commissioning of complex plant and equipment is recognised as follows:

a. Cost plus contracts: Contract revenue is determined by adding the aggregate cost plus proportionate margin as agreed with the customer.

b. Fixed price contracts: Contract revenue is recognised only to the extent of cost incurred till such time the outcome of the job cannot be ascertained reliably. When the outcome of the contract is ascertained reliably, contract revenue is recognised at cost of work performed on the contract plus proportionate margin, using the percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is the proportion of cost of work performed to-date, to the total estimated contract costs.

Government grants in the nature of subsidy related to customer contracts are recognised as revenue from operations in the Statement of Profit and Loss, on a prudent basis, in proportion to work completed when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions for the grant of subsidy will be fulfilled.

Expected loss, if any, on the construction/project related activity is recognised as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract. While determining the amount of foreseeable loss, all elements of costs and related incidental income not included in contract revenue are taken into consideration.

v. Revenue from contracts for the rendering of engineering design services and other services which are directly related to the construction of an asset is recognised on similar basis as stated in (iv) supra.

vi. Revenues from construction/project related activity and contracts executed in joint ventures under work-sharing arrangement [being jointly controlled operations, in terms of Accounting Standard (AS) 27 "Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures"], is recognised on the same basis as similar contracts independently executed by the Company.

vii. Revenue from service related activities is recognised using the proportionate completion method.

viii. Commission income is recognised as and when the terms of the contract are fulfilled.

ix. Revenue from engineering and service fees is recognised as per the terms of the contract

x. Profit/loss on contracts executed by Integrated Joint Ventures under profit-sharing arrangement [being Jointly Controlled Entities, in terms of Accounting Standard (AS) 27 "Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures"] is accounted as and when the same is determined by the joint venture. Revenue from services rendered to such joint ventures is accounted on accrual basis.

b. Other operational revenue

Other operational revenue represents income earned from the activities incidental to the business and is recognised when the right to receive the income is established as per the terms of the contract.

B. Other Income

a. Interest income is accrued at applicable interest rate.

b. Dividend income is accounted in the period in which the right to receive the same is established.

c. Other Government grants, which are revenue in nature and are towards compensation for the related costs, are recognised as income in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the matching costs are incurred.

d. Other items of income are accounted as and when the right to receive arises.

4. Extraordinary and exceptional Items

Income or expenses that arise from events or transactions that are clearly distinct from the ordinary activities of the Company are classified as extraordinary items. Specific disclosure of such events/transactions is made in the financial statements. Similarly, any external event beyond the control of the Company, significantly impacting income or expense, is also treated as extraordinary item and disclosed as such.

On certain occasions, the size, type or incidence of an item of income or expense, pertaining to the ordinary activities of the Company, is such that its disclosure improves an understanding of the performance of the Company. Such income or expense is classified as an exceptional item and accordingly disclosed in the notes to accounts.

5. Research and development

a. Revenue expenditure on research is expensed under respective heads of account in the period in which it is incurred.

b. Development expenditure on new products is capitalised as intangible asset, if all of the following can be demonstrated:

i. The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale

ii. The Company has intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it

iii. The Company has ability to use or sell the intangible asset

iv. The manner in which the probable future economic benefits will be generated including the existence of a market for output of the intangible asset or intangible asset itself or if it is to be used internally, the usefulness of intangible assets

v. The availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset and

vi. The Company has ability to measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development reliably. The development expenditure capitalised as intangible asset is amortised over its useful life.

Other development costs that do not meet above criteria are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

6. Employee benefits

a) Short term employee benefits:

All employee benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences etc. and the expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia. are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post-employment benefits:

i. Defined contribution plans: The Company's superannuation scheme, state governed provident fund scheme, employee state insurance scheme and employee pension scheme are defined contribution plans. The contribution paid/payable under the schemes is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

ii. Defined benefit plans: The employees' gratuity fund schemes, post-retirement medical care scheme, pension scheme and provident fund scheme managed by trust are the Company's defined benefit plans. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plans is determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method.

The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rate used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans, is based on the market yield on government securities of a maturity period equivalent to the weighted average maturity profile of the related obligations at the Balance Sheet date.

Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The interest element in the actuarial valuation of defined benefit plans, which comprises the implicit interest cost and the impact of changes in discount rate, is classified under finance cost. The balance charge is recognised as employee benefit expenses in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plans to recognise the obligation on a net basis.

Gains or losses on the curtailment or settlement of any defined benefit plan are recognised when the curtailment or settlement occurs. Past service cost is recognised as expense on a straight line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested.

c) Long term employee benefits:

The obligation for long term employee benefits such as long term compensated absences, long service award etc. is recognised in the similar manner as in the case of defined benefit plans as mentioned in (b)(ii) supra.

d) Termination benefits:

Termination benefits such as compensation under Voluntary Retirement cum Pension Scheme are recognised as expense in the period in which they are incurred.

7. Tangible fixed assets

Tangible fixed assets are stated at original cost net of tax/duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment and those which were revalued as on October 1,1984 are stated at the values determined by the valuers less accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment. Assets acquired on hire purchase basis are stated at their cash values. Specific know-how fees paid, if any, relating to plant and equipment is treated as part of cost thereof.

Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to construction or acquisition of fixed assets or bringing the fixed assets to working condition are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the fixed assets.

Own manufactured assets are capitalised at cost including an appropriate share of overheads.

Tangible assets not ready for the intended use on the date of the Balance Sheet are disclosed as "capital work-in-progress". (Also refer to policy on leases, borrowing costs, impairment of assets and foreign currency transactions infra.)

8. Leases

The determination of whether an agreement is, or contains, a lease is based on the substance of the agreement at the date of inception.

a. Lease transactions entered into prior to April 1, 2001:

Assets leased out are stated at original cost. Lease equalisation adjustment is the difference between capital recovery included in the lease rentals and depreciation provided in the books.

Lease rentals in respect of assets acquired under leases are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss.

b. Lease transactions entered into on or after April 1, 2001:

Finance leases:

i. Assets acquired under leases where the Company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Such assets are capitalised at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value or the present value of minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost, so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each period.

iii. Assets given under a finance lease are recognised as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. Lease income is recognised over the period of the lease so as to yield a constant rate of return on the net investment in the lease.

iv. Initial direct costs relating to assets given on finance leases are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss.

Operating leases:

i) Assets acquired on leases where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on accrual basis.

ii) Assets leased out under operating leases are capitalised. Rental income is recognised on accrual basis over the lease term. (Also refer to policy on depreciation, infra)

9. Depreciation

a. Owned assets

i. Revalued assets:

Depreciation is provided on straight line method on the values and based at the rates given by the valuers. The difference between depreciation provided on revalued amount and on historical cost is transferred from revaluation reserve to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

ii. Assets carried at historical cost:

Depreciation on assets carried at historical costs is provided on straight line method on the basis of useful life as specified in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of certain assets where the useful life was determined by technical evaluation. The carrying amount of the assets as on April 1, 2014 is depreciated over the remaining useful life. Where the useful life of the asset has expired, the carrying amount as on April 1, 2014 has been charged to the retained earnings as on April 1, 2014.

iii. Depreciation for additions to/deductions from, owned assets is calculated pro rata. Extra shift depreciation is provided on a location basis.

iv. Depreciation charge for impaired assets is adjusted in future periods in such a manner that the revised carrying amount of the asset is allocated over its remaining useful life.

b. Leased assets:

i. Lease transactions entered into prior to April 1,2001:

Lease charge comprising statutory depreciation and lease equalisation charge is provided for assets given on lease over the primary period of the lease equal to recovery of net investment in the lease. Accordingly, while the statutory depreciation on such assets is provided for on straight line method as per Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013, the difference is adjusted through lease equalisation and lease adjustment account.

ii. Lease transactions entered into on or after April 1,2001:

Assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated on a straight line basis over the lease term. Where there is reasonable certainty that the Company shall obtain ownership of the assets at the end of the lease term, such assets are depreciated based on the useful life prescribed under Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 or based on the useful life adopted by the Company for similar assets.

iii. Leasehold land

Land acquired under long term lease is classified under "tangible assets" and is depreciated over the period of lease.

10. Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are stated at original cost net of tax/duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated amortisation and cumulative impairment. Intangible assets are recognised when it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the enterprise and the cost of the asset can be measured reliably. Intangible assets are amortised over their useful life as follows:

a. Specialised software: over a period of six years.

b. Technical know-how: over a period of six years in case of foreign technology and three years in the case of indigenous technology.

c. Development costs for new products: over a period of five years.

Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to acquisition of intangible assets are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the intangible assets.

Intangible assets not ready for the intended use on the date of the Balance Sheet are disclosed as "intangible assets under development".

Amortisation on impaired assets is provided by adjusting the amortisation charges in the remaining periods so as to allocate the asset's revised carrying amount over its remaining useful life.

11. Impairment of assets

As at each Balance Sheet date, the carrying amount of assets is tested for impairment so as to determine:

a. the provision for impairment loss, if any; and

b. the reversal of impairment loss recognised in previous periods, if any,

Impairment loss is recognised when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. Recoverable amount is determined:

a. in the case of an individual asset, at the higher of the net selling price and the value in use;

b. in the case of a cash generating unit (a group of assets that generates identified, independent cash flows), at the higher of the cash generating unit's net selling price and the value in use.

(Value in use is determined as the present value of estimated future cash flows from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life).

12. Investment

Trade investments comprise investments in subsidiary companies, joint ventures, associate companies and in the entities in which the Company has strategic business interest.

Investments, which are readily realisable and are intended to be held for not more than one year from the date of acquisition, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long term investments.

Long term investments including trade investments are carried at cost, after providing for any diminution in value, if such diminution is other than temporary in nature. Investments in integrated joint ventures are carried at cost net of adjustments for Company's share in profits or losses as recognised.

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value. The determination of carrying amount of such investments is done on the basis of weighted average cost of each individual investment.

Purchase and sale of investments are recognised based on the trade date accounting.

13. Inventories

Inventories are valued after providing for obsolescence, as under:

a) Raw materials, components, construction materials, stores, spares and loose tools at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value. However, these items are considered to be realisable at cost if the finished products in which they will be used, are expected to be sold at or above cost.

b) Manufacturing work-in-progress at lower of weighted average cost including related overheads or net realisable value. In some cases, Manufacturing work-in-progress are valued at lower of specifically identifiable cost or net realisable value. In the case of qualifying assets, cost also includes applicable borrowing costs vide policy relating to borrowing costs.

c) Finished goods and stock-in-trade (in respect of goods acquired for trading) at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value. Cost includes related overheads and excise duty paid/payable on such goods.

d) Completed property/work-in-progress (including land) in respect of property development activity at lower of specifically identifiable cost or net realisable value.

14. Cash and bank balances

Cash and bank balances also include fixed deposits, margin money deposits, earmarked balances with banks and other bank balances which have restrictions on repatriation. Short term and liquid investments being not free from more than insignificant risk of change in value, are not included as part of cash and cash equivalents.

15. Securities premium account

a) Securities premium includes:

i. The difference between the market value and the consideration received in respect of shares issued pursuant to Stock Appreciation Rights Scheme.

ii. The discount allowed, if any, in respect of shares allotted pursuant to Stock Options Scheme

b) The following expenses are written off against securities premium account:

i. Expenses incurred on issue of shares

ii. Expenses (net of tax) incurred on issue of debentures/bonds

v. Premium (net of tax) on redemption of debentures/bonds

16. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs include interest, commitment charges, amortisation of ancillary costs, amortisation of discounts/premium related to borrowings, finance charges in respect of assets acquired on finance lease and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings, to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs.

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalised/inventorised as part of cost of such asset till such time the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

17. Employee stock ownership schemes

In respect of stock options granted pursuant to the Company's Stock Options Scheme, the intrinsic value of the options (excess of market price of the share over the exercise price of the option) is treated as discount and accounted as employee compensation cost over the vesting period. The amount recognised as expense each year is arrived at based on the number of grants expected to vest. If a grant lapses after the vesting period, the cumulative discount recognised as expense in respect of such grant is transferred to the general reserve.

18. Foreign currency transactions, foreign operations, forward contracts and derivatives

a) The reporting currency of the Company is Indian rupee.

b) Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency, using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. At each Balance Sheet date, foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate.

Non-monetary items, carried at historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences that arise on settlement of monetary items or on reporting of monetary items at each Balance Sheet date at the closing rate are:

i. adjusted in the cost of fixed assets specifically financed by the borrowings contracted up to March 31, 2004 to which the exchange differences relate

ii. adjusted in the cost of fixed assets specifically financed by borrowings contracted between the period April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2007 and to which the exchange differences relate, provided the assets are acquired from outside India

iii. recognised as income or expense in the period in which they arise, in cases other than (i) and (ii) above.

c) Financial statements of foreign operations comprising jobs contracted prior to April 1, 2004, are translated as follows:

i. Closing inventories at rates prevailing at the end of the year

ii. Fixed assets as at April 1, 1991 at rates prevailing at the end of the year in which the additions were made. Subsequent additions are at rates prevailing on the dates of the additions. Depreciation is accounted at the same rate at which the assets are translated.

iii. Other assets and liabilities at rates prevailing at the end of the year.

iv. Net revenues at the average rate for the year.

d) Financial statements of foreign operations comprising jobs contracted on or after April 1,2004, are treated as integral operations and translated as in the same manner as foreign currency transactions, as described above. Exchange differences arising on such translation are recognised as income or expense of the period in which they arise.

e) Forward contracts, other than those entered into to hedge foreign currency risk on unexecuted firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions, are treated as foreign currency transactions and accounted accordingly as per Accounting Standard (AS) 11 "The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates". Exchange differences arising on such contracts are recognised in the period in which they arise.

Gains and losses arising on account of roll over/cancellation of such forward contracts are recognised as income/expense of the period in which such roll over/cancellation takes place.

f) All the other derivative contracts, including forward contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risks on unexecuted firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions, are recognised in the financial statements at fair value as on the Balance Sheet date, in pursuance of the announcement of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) dated March 29, 2008 on accounting of derivatives. In addition, the derivative arrangements embedded in the contracts entered in the course of business are accounted separately if the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivatives are not closely related to economic characteristics and risks of the host contract.

The Company has adopted Accounting Standard (AS) 30 "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement" for accounting of such derivative contracts, not covered under Accounting Standard (AS) 11 "The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates", as mandated by the ICAI in the aforesaid announcement.

Accordingly, the resultant gains or losses on fair valuation/settlement of the derivative contracts (including embedded derivatives) covered under Accounting Standard (AS) 30 "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement" are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss or Balance Sheet as the case may be after applying the test of hedge effectiveness. Where the hedge in respect of off-balance sheet items is effective, the gains or losses are recognised in the "hedging reserve" which forms part of "reserves and surplus" in the Balance Sheet. The amount recognised in the "hedging reserve" is transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the underlying hedged item affects the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains or losses in respect of ineffective hedges are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which such gains or losses are incurred.

g) The premium paid/received on a foreign currency forward contract is accounted as expense/income over the life of the contract.

19. Segment accounting

a) Segment accounting policies

Segment accounting policies are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. In addition, the following specific accounting policies have been followed for segment reporting:

i. Segment revenue includes sales and other operational revenue directly identifiable with/allocable to the segment including inter segment revenue.

ii. Expenses that are directly identifiable with/allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. Expenses which relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments are included under "unallocable corporate expenditure".

iii. Income which relates to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in "unallocable corporate income".

iv. Segment result includes margins on inter-segment capital jobs, which are reduced in arriving at the profit before tax of the Company.

v. Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments. Unallocable corporate assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

vi. Segment non-cash expenses forming part of segment expenses includes the intrinsic value of the employee stock options which is accounted as employee compensation cost [see Note R(17)] and is allocated to the segment.

b) Inter-segment transfer pricing

Segment revenue resulting from transactions with other business segments is accounted on the basis of transfer price agreed between the segments. Such transfer prices are either determined to yield a desired margin or agreed on a negotiated basis.

20. Taxes on Income

Tax on income for the current period is determined on the basis of taxable income and tax credits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act 1961, and based on the expected outcome of assessments/appeals.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences between the income accounted in financial statements and the taxable income for the year, and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted as on the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets relating to unabsorbed depreciation/business losses/losses under the head "capital gains" are recognised and carried forward to the extent there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

Other deferred tax assets are recognised and carried forward to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

22. Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

Provisions are recognised for liabilities that can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation, if

a) the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event

b) a probable outflow of resources is expected to settle the obligation and

c) the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.

Reimbursement expected in respect of expenditure required to settle a provision is recognised only when it is virtually certain that the reimbursement will be received.

Contingent liability is disclosed in case of

a) a present obligation arising from past events, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation

b) a present obligation arising from past events, when no reliable estimate is possible

c) a possible obligation arising from past events where the probability of outflow of resources is not remote. Contingent assets are neither recognised, nor disclosed.

Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date.

23. Commitments

Commitments are future liabilities for contractual expenditure.

Commitments are classified and disclosed as follows:

a) Estimated amount of contracts remaining to be executed on capital account and not provided for

b) Uncalled liability on shares and other investments partly paid

c) Funding related commitment to subsidiary, associate and joint venture companies and

d) Other non-cancellable commitments, if any, to the extent they are considered material and relevant in the opinion of management. Other commitments related to sales/procurements made in the normal course of business are not disclosed to avoid excessive details.

24. Operating cycle for current and non-current classification

Operating cycle for the business activities of the Company covers the duration of the specific project/contract/product line/service including the defect liability period, wherever applicable and extends up to the realisation of receivables (including retention monies) within the agreed credit period normally applicable to the respective lines of business.

25. Cash Flow Statement

Cash Flow Statement is prepared segregating the cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities. Cash flow from operating activities is reported using indirect method. Under the indirect method, the net profit is adjusted for the effects of:

i. transactions of a non-cash nature

ii. any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and

iii. items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows.

Cash and cash equivalents (including bank balances) are reflected as such in the Cash Flow Statement. Those cash and cash equivalents which are not available for general use as on the date of Balance Sheet are also included under this category with a specific disclosure.


Mar 31, 2013

1. Basis of accounting

The Company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention [except for the revaluation of certain fixed assets], in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"] in compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and the Accounting Standards as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 prescribed by the central government. Further, the guidance notes/announcements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) are also considered, wherever applicable except to the extent where compliance with other statutory promulgations viz. SEBI guidelines override the same requiring a different treatment.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the Company makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful lives of tangible and intangible fixed assets, allowance for doubtful debts/advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans, etc. Difference, if any, between the actual results and estimates is recognised in the period in which the results are known.

2. Presentation of financial statements

The Balance Sheet and the Statement of Profit and Loss are prepared and presented in the format prescribed in the Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 ("the Act"). The Cash Flow Statement has been prepared and presented as per the requirements of Accounting Standard (AS) 3 "Cash Flow Statements". The disclosure requirements with respect to items in the Balance Sheet and Statement of Profit and Loss, as prescribed in the Schedule VI to the Act, are presented by way of notes forming part of accounts along with the other notes required to be disclosed under the notified Accounting Standards and the Listing Agreement.

Amounts in the financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees in crore [1 crore = 10 million] rounded off to two decimal places in line with the requirements of Schedule VI. Per share data are presented in Indian Rupees to two decimals places.

3. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised based on nature of activity when consideration can be reasonably measured and there exists reasonable certainty of its recovery.

A. Revenue from operations

a. Sales & Service

i. Sales and service include excise duty and adjustments made towards liquidated damages and price variation, wherever applicable. Escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable/acknowledged by customers, are not taken into account.

ii. Revenue from sale of manufactured and traded goods is recognised when the substantial risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer under the terms of the contract.

iii. Revenue from property development activity which are in substance similar to delivery of goods is recognised when all significant risks and rewards of ownership in the land and/or building are transferred to the customer and a reasonable expectation of collection of the sale consideration from the customer exists.

Revenue from those property development activities [Note no.Q23(b)] which have the same economic substance as that of a construction contract is recognised based on the Percentage of Completion method (POC) when the outcome of a real estate project can be estimated reliably upon fulfillment of all the following conditions:

a. All critical approvals necessary for commencement of the project have been obtained;

b. When the stage of completion of the project reaches a reasonable level of development i.e. contract costs for work performed bears a reasonable proportion to the estimated total contract costs. For this purpose, a reasonable level of development is treated as achieved only if the cost incurred (excluding cost of land/developmental rights and borrowing cost) is atleast 25% of the total of such cost;

c. Atleast 25% of the saleable project area is secured by contracts or agreements with buyers;

d. Atleast 10 % of the total revenue as per the agreements of sale or any other legally enforceable documents are realised at the reporting date in respect of each of the contracts and it is reasonable to expect that the parties to such contracts will comply with the payment terms as defined in the contracts.

The costs incurred on property development activities are carried as "inventories" till such time the outcome of the project cannot be estimated reliably and all the aforesaid conditions are fulfilled. When the outcome of the project can be ascertained reliably and all the aforesaid conditions are fulfilled, revenue from property development activity is recognized at cost incurred plus proportionate margin, using percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is determined based on the proportion of actual cost incurred to the total estimated cost of the project. For this purpose, actual cost includes cost of land and developmental rights but excludes borrowing cost.

Expected loss, if any, on the project is recognised as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract.

iv. Revenue from construction/project related activity and contracts for supply/commissioning of complex plant and equipment is recognised as follows:

a. Cost plus contracts: Contract revenue is determined by adding the aggregate cost plus proportionate margin as agreed with the customer.

b. Fixed price contracts: Contract revenue is recognized only to the extent of cost incurred till such time the outcome of the job cannot be ascertained reliably. When the outcome of the contract is ascertained reliably, contract revenue is recognized at cost of work performed on the contract plus proportionate margin, using the percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is the proportion of cost of work performed to-date, to the total estimated contract costs.

Government grants in the nature of subsidy related to customer contracts is recognised as revenue from operations in the Statement of Profit and Loss, on a prudent basis, in proportion to work completed when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions for the grant of subsidy will be fulfilled.

Expected loss, if any, on the construction/project related activity is recognized as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract. While determining the amount of foreseeable loss, all elements of costs and related incidental income not included in contract revenue is taken into consideration.

v. Revenue from contracts for the rendering of services which are directly related to the construction of an asset is recognised on similar basis as stated in (iv) above.

vi. Revenue from construction/project related activity and contracts executed in joint ventures under work-sharing arrangement [being jointly controlled operations, in terms of Accounting Standard (AS) 27 "Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures"], are recognised on the same basis as similar contracts independently executed by the Company.

vii. Revenue from service related activities is recognised using the proportionate completion method.

viii. Commission income is recognised as and when the terms of the contract are fulfilled.

ix. Revenue from engineering and service fees is recognised as per the terms of the contract.

x. Profit/loss on contracts executed by Integrated Joint Ventures under profit-sharing arrangement [being Jointly Controlled Entities, in terms of Accounting Standard (AS) 27 "Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures"] is accounted as and when the same is determined by the joint venture. Revenue from services rendered to such joint ventures is accounted on accrual basis.

b. Other operational revenue

Other operational revenue represents income earned from the activities incidental to the business and is recognised when the right to receive the income is established as per the terms of the contract.

B. Other Income

i. Interest income is accrued at applicable interest rate.

ii. Dividend income is accounted in the period in which the right to receive the same is established.

iii. Other Government grants, which are revenue in nature and are towards compensation for the related costs, are recognised as income in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the matching costs are incurred.

iv. Other items of income are accounted as and when the right to receive arises.

4. Extraordinary and exceptional Items

Income or expenses that arise from events or transactions that are clearly distinct from the ordinary activities of the Company are classified as extraordinary items. Specific disclosure of such eventsAransactions is made in the financial statements. Similarly, any external event beyond the control of the Company, significantly impacting income or expense, is also treated as extraordinary item and disclosed as such.

On certain occasions, the size, type or incidence of an item of income or expense, pertaining to the ordinary activities of the Company, is such that its disclosure improves an understanding of the performance of the Company. Such income or expense is classified as an exceptional item and accordingly disclosed in the notes to accounts.

5. Research and development

a. Revenue expenditure on research is expensed under respective heads of account in the period in which it is incurred.

b. Development expenditure on new products is capitalised as intangible asset, if all of the following can be demonstrated:

i. The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale

ii. The Company has intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it

iii. The Company has ability to use or sell the intangible asset

iv. The manner in which the probable future economic benefits will be generated including the existence of a market for output of the intangible asset or intangible asset itself or if it is to be used internally, the usefulness of intangible assets

v. The availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset and

vi. The Company has ability to measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development reliably The development expenditure capitalised as intangible asset is amortised over its useful life.

Other development costs that do not meet above criteria are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

6. Employee benefits

a. Short term employee benefits:

All employee benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the sen/ice are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences etc. and the expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b. Post-employment benefits:

i. Defined contribution plans: The Companys superannuation scheme, state governed provident fund scheme, employee state insurance scheme and employee pension scheme are defined contribution plans. The contribution paid/payable under the schemes is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

ii. Defined benefit plans: The employees gratuity fund schemes, post-retirement medical care scheme, pension scheme and provident fund scheme managed by trust are the Companys defined benefit plans. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plans is determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method.

The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rate used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans, is based on the market yield on government securities of a maturity period equivalent to the weighted average maturity profile of the related obligations at the Balance Sheet date.

Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The interest element in the actuarial valuation of defined benefit plans, which comprises the implicit interest cost and the impact of changes in discount rate, is classified under finance costs. The balance charge is recognised as employee benefit expenses in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plans to recognise the obligation on a net basis.

Gains or losses on the curtailment or settlement of any defined benefit plan are recognised when the curtailment or settlement occurs. Past service cost is recognised as expense on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested.

c. Long term employee benefits:

The obligation for long term employee benefits such as long term compensated absences, long service award etc. is recognised in the similar manner as in the case of defined benefit plans as mentioned in (b)(ii) above.

d. Termination benefits:

Termination benefits such as compensation under voluntary retirement cum pension scheme are recognised as expense in the period in which they are incurred.

7. Tangible Fixed assets

Tangible fixed assets are stated at original cost net of tax/duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment and those which were revalued as on October 1,1984 are stated at the values determined by the valuers less accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment. Assets acquired on hire purchase basis are stated at their cash values. Specific know-how fees paid, if any, relating to plant and equipment is treated as part of cost thereof.

Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to construction or acquisition of fixed assets or bringing the fixed assets to working condition are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the fixed assets.

Own manufactured assets are capitalised at cost including an appropriate share of overheads.

Tangible assets not ready for the intended use on the date of the Balance Sheet are disclosed as "capital work-in-progress".

(Also refer to policy on ieases, borrowing costs, impairment of assets and foreign currency transactions infra.)

8. Leases

The determination of whether an agreement is, or contains, a lease is based on the substance of the agreement at the date of inception.

a. Lease transactions entered into prior to April 1, 2001:

Assets leased out are stated at original cost. Lease equalisation adjustment is the difference between capital recovery included in the lease rentals and depreciation provided in the books.

Lease rentals in respect of assets acquired under leases are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss.

b. Lease transactions entered into on or after April 1, 2001:

Finance leases:

i. Assets acquired under leases where the Company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance ieases. Such assets are capitalised at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value or the present value of minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost, so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each period. .

ii. Assets given under Leases where the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to lessee, are classified as finance leases. Assets given under a finance lease are recognised as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. Lease income is recognised over the period of the lease so as to yield a constant rate of return on the net investment in the lease.

iii. Initial direct costs relating to assets given on finance leases are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss.

Operating leases:

i) Assets acquired on leases where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals are charged to the Statement of-Profit and Loss on accrual basis.

ii) Assets leased out under operating leases are capitalised. Rental income is recognised on accrual basis over the lease term. (Also refer to policy on depreciation infra)-

9. Depreciation

a. Owned assets

i. Revalued assets:

Depreciation is provided on straight line method on the values and at the rates given by the valuers. The difference between depreciation provided on revalued amount and on historical cost is transferred from revaluation reserve to Statement of Profit and Loss.

ii. Assets carried at historical cost:

Depreciation on assets carried at historical cost is provided on the written down value basis on assets acquired up to March 31, 1968 (at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956) and on straight line method on assets acquired subsequently (at the rates prevailing at the time of their acquisition on assets acquired up to September 30, 1987 and at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 on assets acquired after that date). However, in respect of the following asset categories, the depreciation is provided at higher rates in line with their estimated useful life.

iii. Depreciation for additions to/deductions from, owned assets is calculated pro rata from/to the month of additions/ deductions. Extra shift depreciation is provided on a location basis.

iv. Depreciation charge for impaired assets is adjusted in future periods in such a manner that the revised carrying amount of the asset is allocated over its remaining useful life.

b. Leased assets:

i. Lease transactions entered into prior to April 1, 2001:

Lease charge comprising statutory depreciation and lease equalisation charge is provided for assets given on lease over the primary period of the lease equal to recovery of net investment in the lease. Accordingly, while the statutory depreciation on such assets is provided for on straight line method as per Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, the difference is adjusted through lease equalisation and lease adjustment account.

ii. Lease transactions entered into on or after April 1, 2001:

Assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated on a straight line method over the lease term. Where there is reasonable certainty that the Company shall obtain ownership of the assets at the end of the lease term, such assets are depreciated at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or at the higher rates adopted by the Company for similar assets.

iii. Leasehold land:

Land acquired under long term lease is classified under "tangible assets" and is depreciated over the period of lease.

10. Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are stated at original cost net of tax/duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated amortisation and cumulative impairment. Intangible assets are recognised when it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the enterprise and the cost of the asset can be measured reliably. Intangible assets are amortised as follows:

a. Specialised software: over a period of six years

b. Technical know-how: over a period of six years in case of foreign technology and three years in the case of indigenous technology

c. Development costs for new products: over a period of five years

Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to acquisition of intangible assets are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the intangible assets.

Intangible assets not ready for the intended use on the date of the Balance Sheet are disclosed as "Intangible assets under devetopment".

Amortisation on impaired assets is provided by adjusting the amortisation charges in the remaining periods so as to allocate the assets revised carrying amount over its remaining useful life.

11. Impairment of assets

As at each Balance Sheet date, the carrying amount of assets is tested for impairment so as to determine:

a. the provision for impairment loss, if any; and

b. the reversal of impairment loss recognised in previous periods, if any.

- Impairment loss is recognised when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

Recoverable amount is determined:

a. in the case of an individual asset, at the higher of the net selling price and the value in use;

b. in the case of a cash generating unit (a group of assets that generates identified, independent cash flows), at the higher of the cash generating units net selling price and the value in use.

(Value in use is determined as the present value of estimated future cash flows from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life).

12. Investment:

Trade investments comprise investments in subsidiary companies, joint ventures, associate companies and in the entities in which the Company has strategic business interest.

Investments, which are readily realisable and are intended to be held for not more than one year from the date of acquisition, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long term investments.

Long term investments including trade investments are carried at cost, after providing for any diminution in value, if such diminution is other than temporary in nature. Investments in integrated joint ventures are carried at cost net of adjustments for Companys share in profits or losses as recognised.

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value. The determination of carrying amount of such investments is done on the basis of weighted average cost of each individual investment.

Purchase and sale of investments are recognised based on the trade date accounting.

13. Inventories

Inventories are valued after providing for obsolescence, as under:

a. Raw materials, components, construction materials, stores, spares and loose tools at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value

b. Manufacturing work-in-progress at lower of cost including related overheads or net realisable value. In the case of qualifying assets, cost also includes applicable borrowing costs vide policy relating to borrowing costs

c. Finished goods and stock in trade (in respect of goods acquired for trading) at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value. Cost includes related overheads and excise duty paid/payable on such goods

d. Completed property/Work-in-progress (including land) in respect of property development activity at lower of cost or net realisable value

14. Cash and bank balances

Cash and bank balances also include fixed deposits, margin money deposits, earmarked balances with banks and other bank balances which have restrictions on repatriation. Short term and liquid investments being not free from more than insignificant risk of change in value, are not included as part of cash and cash equivalents.

15. Securities premium account

a. Securities premium includes:

i. The difference between the market value and the consideration received in respect of shares issued pursuant to Stock Appreciation Rights Scheme

ii. The discount allowed, if any, in respect of shares allotted pursuant to Stock Options Scheme

b. The following expenses are written off against securities premium account:

i. Expenses incurred on issue of shares

ii. Expenses (net of tax) incurred on issue of debentures/bonds

iii. Premium (net of tax) on redemption of debentures/bonds

16. Borrowing Costs:

Borrowing costs include interest, commitment charges, amortisation of ancillary costs, amortisation of discounts/premium related to borrowings, finance charges in respect of assets acquired on finance lease and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings, to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs.

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalised/inventorised as part of cost of such asset till such time the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

17. Employee stock ownership schemes

In respect of stock options granted pursuant to the Companys Stock Options Scheme, the intrinsic value of the options (excess of market price of the share over the exercise price of the option) is treated as discount and accounted as employee compensation cost over the vesting period.

18. Foreign currency transactions, foreign operations, forward contracts and derivatives

a. The reporting currency of the Company is Indian rupee.

b. Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency, using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. At each balance sheet date, foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate.

Non-monetary items, carried at historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences that arise on settlement of monetary items or on reporting of monetary items at each balance sheet date at the closing rate are:

i. adjusted in the cost of fixed assets specifically financed by the borrowings contracted up to March 31, 2004 to which the exchange differences relate

ii. adjusted in the cost of fixed assets specifically financed by borrowings contracted between the period April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2007 and to which the exchange differences relate, provided the assets are acquired from outside India

iii. recognised as income or expense in the period in which they arise, in cases other than (i) and (ii) above

c. Financial statements of foreign operations comprising jobs contracted prior to April 1, 2004, are translated as follows:

i. Closing inventories at rates prevailing at the end of the year

ii. Fixed assets as at April 1, 1991 at rates prevailing at the end of the year in which the additions were made. Subsequent additions are at rates prevailing on the dates of the additions. Depreciation is accounted at the same rate at which the assets are translated

iii. Other asSets and liabilities at rates prevailing at the end of the year

iv. Net revenues at the average rate for the year

d. Financial statements of foreign operations comprising jobs contracted on or after April 1, 2004, are treated as integral operations and translated as in the same manner as foreign currency transactions, as described above. Exchange differences arising on such translation are recognized as income or expense of the period in which they arise.

e. Forward contracts, other than those entered into to hedge foreign currency risk on unexecuted firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions, are treated as foreign currency transactions and accounted accordingly as per Accounting Standard (AS) 11 "The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates". Exchange differences arising on such contracts are recognised in the period in which they arise.

Gains and losses arising on account of roll over/cancellation of forward contracts are recognised as income/expense of the period in which such roll over/cancellation takes place.

f. All the other derivative contracts, including forward contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risks on unexecuted firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions, are recognised in the financial statements at fair value as on the Balance Sheet date, in pursuance of the announcement of the ICAI dated March 29, 2008 on accounting of derivatives. In addition, the derivative arrangements embedded in the contracts entered in the course of business are accounted separately if the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivatives are not closely related to economic characteristics and risks of the host contract [Note Q23(a)].

The Company has adopted Accounting Standard (AS) 30 "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement" for accounting of such derivative contracts, not covered under Accounting Standard (AS) 11 "The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates", as mandated by the ICAI in the aforesaid announcement.

Accordingly, the resultant gains or losses on fair valuation/settlement of the derivative contracts (including embedded derivatives) covered under Accounting Standard (AS) 30 "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement" are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss or Balance Sheet as the case may be after applying the test of hedge effectiveness. Where the hedge in respect of off-balance sheet items is effective, the gains or losses are recognised in the "hedging reserve" which forms part of "reserves and surplus" in the Balance Sheet. The amount recognised in the "hedging reserve" is transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the underlying hedged item affects the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains or losses in respect of ineffective hedges are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which such gains or losses are incurred.

g. The premium paid/received on a foreign currency forward contract is accounted as expense/income over the life of the contract.

19. Segment accounting

a. Segment accounting policies

Segment accounting policies are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. In addition, the following specific accounting policies have been followed for segment reporting:

i. Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly identifiable with/allocable to the segment including inter segment revenue

ii. Expenses that are directly identifiable with/allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. Expenses which relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments are included under "unallocable corporate expenditure

iii. Income which relates to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in "unallocable corporate income"

iv. Segment result includes margins on inter-segment capital jobs, which are reduced in arriving at the profit before tax of the Company

v. Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments. Unallocable corporate assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to any segment

b. Inter-segment transfer pricing

Segment revenue resulting from transactions with other business segments is accounted on the basis of transfer price agreed between the segments. Such transfer prices are either determined to yield a desired margin or agreed on a negotiated basis.

20. Taxes on Income

Tax on income for the current period is determined on the basis of taxable income and tax credits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and based on the expected outcome of assessments/appeals.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences between the income accounted in financial statements and the taxable income for the year, and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted as on the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets relating to unabsorbed depreciation/business losses/losses under the head "capital gains" are recognised and carried forward to the extent there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

Other deferred tax assets are recognised and carried forward to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

21. Accounting for interests in Joint Ventures

Interests in joint ventures are accounted as follows:

Type of joint venture Accounting treatment

Jointly controlled operations Companys share of revenues, common expenses, assets and liabilities are included in revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities respectively.

Type of joint venture Accounting treatment

Jointly controlled assets Share of the assets, according to nature of the assets, and share of the Liabilities are shown as part of gross block and liabilities respectively. Share of expenses incurred on maintenance of the assets is accounted as expense. Monetary benefits, if any, from use of the assets are reflected as income. .

Jointly controlled entities (a) integrated joint ventures:

(i) Companys share in profits or losses of integrated joint ventures is accounted on determination of the profits or losses by the joint ventures.

(ii) Investments in integrated joint ventures are carried at cost net of Companys share in recognised profits or losses.

(b) Incorporated jointly controlled entities:

(i) Income on investments in incorporated jointly controlled entities is recognised when the right to receive thesame is established.

(ii) Investment in such joint ventures is carried at cost after providing for any diminution in value which is otherthan temporary in nature.

Joint venture interests accounted as above, other than investments in incorporated jointly controlled entities, are included in the segments to which they relate.

22. Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

Provisions are recognised for liabilities that can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation, if

a. the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event

b. a probable outflow of resources is expected to settle the obligation and

c. the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated

Reimbursement expected in respect of expenditure required to settle a provision is recognised only when it is virtually certain that the reimbursement will be received.

Contingent liability is disclosed in case of

a. a present obligation arising from past events, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation

b. a present obligation arising from past events, when no reliable estimate is possible

c. a possible obligation arising from past events where the probability of outflow of resources is not remote Contingent assets are neither recognised, nor disclosed.

Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date.

23. Commitments

Commitments are future liabilities for contractual expenditure.

Commitments are classified and disclosed as follows:

a. Estimated amount of contracts remaining to be executed on capital account and not provided for

b. Uncalled liability on shares and other investments partly paid

c. Funding related commitment to subsidiary, associate and joint venture companies and

d. Other non-canceilable commitments, if any, to the extent they are considered material and relevant in the opinion of management. Other commitments related to sales/procurements made in the normal course of business are not disclosed to avoid excessive details.

24. Operating cycle for current and non-current classification

Operating cycle for the business activities of the Company covers the duration of the specific project/contract/product line/service including the defect liability period, wherever applicable and extends up to the realisation of receivables (including retention monies) within the agreed credit period normally applicable to the respective lines of business.

25. Cash Flow Statement

Cash Flow Statement is prepared segregating the cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities. Cash flow from operating activities is reported using indirect method. Under the indirect method, the net profit is adjusted for the effects of:

I. transactions of a non-cash nature

II. any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and

III. items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows

Cash and cash equivalents (including bank balances) are reflected as such in the Cash Flow Statement. Those cash and cash equivalents which are not available for general use as on the date of Balance Sheet are also included under this category with a specific disclosure.


Mar 31, 2012

1. Basis of accounting

The Company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles ["GAAP"] except for the revaluation of certain fixed assets in compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and the Accounting Standards as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 prescribed by the central government. Further, the guidance notes / announcements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAL) are also considered, wherever applicable except to the extent where compliance with other statutory promulgations viz. SEBI guidelines override the same requiring a different treatment.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the Company makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful lives of tangible and intangible fixed assets, allowance for doubtful debts/advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans, etc. Difference, if any, between the actual results and estimates is recognized in the period in which the results are known.

2. Presentation of financial statements

The Balance Sheet and the Statement of Profit and Loss are prepared and presented in the format prescribed in the Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 ("the Act"). The Cash Flow Statement has been prepared and presented as per the requirements of Accounting Standard (AS) 3 "Cash Flow Statements". The disclosure requirements with respect to items in the Balance Sheet and Statement of Profit and Loss, as prescribed in the Schedule VI to the Act, are presented by way of notes forming part of accounts along with the other notes required to be disclosed under the notified Accounting Standards and the Listing Agreement.

Amounts in the financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees in crore [1 crore = 10 million] rounded off to two decimal places in line with the requirements of Schedule VI. Per share data are presented in Indian Rupees to two decimals places.

3. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized based on nature of activity when consideration can be reasonably measured and there exists reasonable certainty of its recovery.

A. Revenue from operations

a) Sales & service

i) Sales and service include excise duty and adjustments made towards liquidated damages and price variation, wherever applicable. Escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable/acknowledged by customers, are not taken into account.

ii) Revenue from sale of manufactured and traded goods is recognized when the substantial risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer under the terms of the contract.

iii) Revenue from property development activity is recognized when all significant risks and rewards of ownership in the land and/or building are transferred to the customer and a reasonable expectation of collection of the sale consideration from the customer exists.

iv) Revenue from construction/project related activity and contracts for supply/commissioning of complex plant and equipment is recognized as follows:

a) Cost plus contracts: Contract revenue is determined by adding the aggregate cost plus proportionate margin as agreed with the customer.

b) Fixed price contracts: Contract revenue is recognized only to the extent of cost incurred till such time the outcome of the job cannot be ascertained reliably. When the outcome of the contract is ascertained reliably, contract revenue is recognized at cost of work performed on the contract plus proportionate margin, using the percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is the proportion of cost of work performed to-date, to the total estimated contract costs.

Government grants in the nature of subsidy related to customer contracts is recognized as revenue from operations in the Statement of Profit and Loss, on a prudent basis, in proportion to work completed when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions for the grant of subsidy will be fulfilled.

Expected loss, if any, on the construction/project related activity is recognized as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract. While determining the amount of foreseeable loss, all elements of costs and related incidental income not included in contract revenue is taken into consideration.

v) Revenues from construction/project related activity and contracts executed in joint ventures under work-sharing arrangement [being jointly controlled operations, in terms of Accounting Standard (AS) 27 "Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures"], are recognized on the same basis as similar contracts independently executed by the Company.

vi) Revenue from service related activities is recognized using the proportionate completion method.

vii) Commission income is recognized as and when the terms of the contract are fulfilled.

viii) Revenue from engineering and service fees is recognized as per the terms of the contract.

ix) Profit/loss on contracts executed by Integrated Joint Ventures under profit-sharing arrangement [being Jointly Controlled Entities, in terms of Accounting Standard (AS) 27 "Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures"] is accounted as and when the same is determined by the joint venture. Revenue from services rendered to such joint ventures is accounted on accrual basis.

b) Other operational revenue

Other operational revenue represents income earned from the activities incidental to the business and is recognized when the right to receive the income is established as per the terms of the contract.

B. Other Income:

i) Interest income is accrued at applicable interest rate.

ii) Dividend income is accounted in the period in which the right to receive the same is established.

iii) Other Government grants, which are revenue in nature and are towards compensation for the related costs, are recognized as income in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the matching costs are incurred.

iv) Other items of income are accounted as and when the right to receive arises.



4. Extraordinary and exceptional items

Income or expenses that arise from events or transactions that are clearly distinct from the ordinary activities of the Company are classified as extraordinary items. Specific disclosure of such events/transactions is made in the financial statements. Similarly, any external event beyond the control of the Company, significantly impacting income or expense, is also treated as extraordinary item and disclosed as such.

On certain occasions, the size, type or incidence of an item of income or expense, pertaining to the ordinary activities of the Company, is such that its disclosure improves an understanding of the performance of the Company. Such income or expense is classified as an exceptional item and accordingly disclosed in the notes to accounts.

5. Research and development

a) Revenue expenditure on research is expensed under respective heads of account in the period in which it is incurred.

b) Development expenditure on new products is capitalised as intangible asset, if all of the following can be demonstrated:

i) The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale

ii) The Company has intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it

iii) The Company has ability to use or sell the intangible asset

iv) The manner in which the probable future economic benefits will be generated including the existence of a market for output of the intangible asset or intangible asset itself or if it is to be used internally, the usefulness of intangible assets

v) The availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset and

vi) The Company has ability to measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development reliably. The development expenditure capitalized as intangible asset is amortised over its useful life.

Other development costs that do not meet above criteria are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

6. Employee benefits

a) Short term employee benefits:

All employee benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences etc. and the expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia. are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post-employment benefits:

i) Defined contribution plans: The Companys superannuation scheme, state governed provident fund scheme, employee state insurance scheme and employee pension scheme are defined contribution plans. The contribution paid/payable under the schemes is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

ii) Defined benefit plans: The employees gratuity fund schemes, post-retirement medical care scheme, pension scheme and provident fund scheme managed by trust are the Companys defined benefit plans. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plans is determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method.

The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rate used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans, is based on the market yield on government securities of a maturity period equivalent to the weighted average maturity profile of the related obligations at the Balance Sheet date.

Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The interest element in the actuarial valuation of defined benefit plans, which comprises the implicit interest cost and the impact of changes in discount rate, is classified under finance costs. The balance charge is recognised as employee benefit expenses in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plans to recognise the obligation on a net basis.

Gains or losses on the curtailment or settlement of any defined benefit plan are recognised when the curtailment or settlement occurs. Past service cost is recognised as expense on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested.

c) Long term employee benefits:

The obligation for long term employee benefits such as long term compensated absences, long service award etc. is recognised in the similar manner as in the case of defined benefit plans as mentioned in (b)(ii) above.

d) Termination benefits:

Termination benefits such as compensation under Voluntary Retirement cum Pension Scheme are recognised as expense in the period in which they are incurred.

7. Tangible Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at original cost net of tax/duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment and those which were revalued as on October 1,1984 are stated at the values determined by the valuers less accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment. Assets acquired on hire purchase basis are stated at their cash values. Specific know-how fees paid, if any, relating to plant and equipment is treated as part of cost thereof.

Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to construction or acquisition of fixed assets or bringing the fixed assets to working condition are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the fixed assets.

Own manufactured assets are capitalised at cost including an appropriate share of overheads.

Tangible assets not ready for the intended use on the date of the Balance Sheet are disclosed as "capital work-in-progress".

(Also refer to policy on leases, borrowing costs, impairment of assets and foreign currency transactions infra.)

8. Leases

The determination of whether an agreement is, or contains, a lease is based on the substance of the agreement at the date of inception.

a) Lease transactions entered into prior to April 1, 2001:

Assets leased out are stated at original cost. Lease equalisation adjustment is the difference between capital recovery included in the lease rentals and depreciation provided in the books.

Lease rentals in respect of assets acquired under leases are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss.

b) Lease transactions entered into on or arter April i, zuui:

Finance leases:

i) Assets acquired under leases where the Company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Such assets are capitalised at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value or the present value of minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost, so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each period.

ii) Assets given under a finance lease are recognised as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. Lease income is recognised over the period of the lease so as to yield a constant rate of return on the net investment in the lease.

iii) Initial direct costs relating to assets given on finance leases are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss.

Operating leases:

i) Assets acquired on leases where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on accrual basis.

ii) Assets leased out under operating leases are capitalised. Rental income is recognised on accrual basis over the lease term. (Also refer to policy on depreciation, infra)

9. Depreciation

a) Owned assets

i) Revalued assets:

Depreciation is provided on straight line method on the values and at the rates given by the valuers. The difference between depreciation provided on revalued amount and on historical cost is transferred from revaluation reserve to Statement of Profit and Loss.

ii) Assets carried at historical cost:

Depreciation on assets carried at historical cost is provided on the written down value basis on assets acquired up to March 31, 1968 (at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956) and on straight line method on assets acquired subsequently (at the rates prevailing at the time of their acquisition on assets acquired up to September 30,1987 and at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 on assets acquired after that date). However, in respect of the following asset categories, the depreciation is provided at higher rates in line with their estimated useful life.

iii) Depreciation for additions to/deductions from, owned assets is calculated pro rata from/to the month of additions/ deductions. Extra shift depreciation is provided on a location basis.

iv) Depreciation charge for impaired assets is adjusted in future periods in such a manner that the revised carrying amount of the asset is allocated over its remaining useful life.

b) Leased assets

i) Lease transactions entered into prior to April 1, 2001:

Lease chargexompiising statutory -depredation and lease equalisation charge is provided for assets given on lease over the primary period of the lease equal to recovery of net investment in the lease. Accordingly, while the statutory depreciation on such assets is provided for on straight line method as per Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, the difference is adjusted through lease equalisation and lease adjustment account.

ii) Lease transactions entered into on or after April 1, 2001:

Assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated on a straight line basis over the lease term. Where there is reasonable certainty that the Company shall obtain ownership of the assets at the end of the lease term, such assets are depreciated at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or at the higher rates adopted by the Company for similar assets. _

iii) Leasehold land

Land acquit under long term lease is classified under "tangible assets" and is depreciated over the period of lease.

10. Intangible assets and amortization

Intangible assets are stated at original cost net of tax/duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated amortization and cumulative impairment. Intangible assets are recognised when it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the enterprise and the cost of the asset can be measured reliably. Intangible assets are amortised over their useful life as follows:

a) Specialised software: over a period of six years.

b) Technical know-how: over a period of six years in case of foreign technology and three years in the case of indigenous technology.

c) Development costs for new products: over a period of five years.

Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to acquisition of intangible assets are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the intangible assets.

Intangible assets not ready for the intended use on the date of the Balance Sheet are disclosed as" Intangible assets under development".

Amortisation on impaired assets is provided by adjusting the amortisation charges in the remaining periods so as to allocate the assets revised carrying amount over its remaining useful life.

11. Impairment of assets

As at each Balance Sheet date, the carrying amount of assets is tested for impairment so as to determine:

a) the provision for impairment loss, if any; and

b) the reversal of impairment loss recognised in previous periods, if any, Impairment loss is recognised when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.

Recoverable amount is determined:

a) in the case of an individual asset, at the higher of the net selling price and the value in use;

b) in the case of a cash generating unit (a group of assets that generates identified, independent cash flows), at the higher of the cash generating units net selling price and the value in use.

(Value in use is determined as the present value of estimated future cash flows from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life).

12. Investments

Trade investments comprise investments in subsidiary companies, joint ventures, associate companies and in the entities in which the Company has strategic business interest.

Investments, which are readily realizable and are intended to be held for not more than one year from the date of acquisition, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long term investments.

Long term investments including trade investments are carried at cost, after providing for any diminution in value, if such diminution is other than temporary in nature. Investments in integrated joint ventures are carried at cost net of adjustments for Companys share in profits or losses as recognised.

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value. The determination of carrying amount of such investments is done on the basis of weighted average cost of each individual investment.

13. Inventories

Inventories are valued after providing for obsolescence, as under:

a) Raw materials, components, construction materials, stores, spares and loose tools at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value.

b) Manufacturing work-in-progress at lower of cost including related overheads or net realisable value.

In the case of qualifying assets, cost also includes applicable borrowing costs vide policy relating to borrowing costs.

c) Finished goods and stock in trade (in respect of goods acquired for trading) at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value. Cost includes related overheads and excise duty paid/ payable on such goods.

d) Property development land at lower of cost or net realisable value.

14. Cash and bank balances

Cash and bank balances also include fixed deposits, margin money deposits, earmarked balances with banks and other bank balances which have restrictions on repatriation. Short term and liquid investments being not free from more than insignificant risk of change in value, are not included as part of cash and cash equivalents.

15. Securities premium account

a) Securities premium includes:

i) The difference between the market value and the consideration received in respect of shares issued pursuant to Stock Appreciation Rights Scheme.

ii) The discount allowed, if any, in respect of shares allotted pursuant to Stock Options Scheme.

b) The following expenses are written off against securities premium account:

i) Expenses incurred on issue of shares

ii) Expenses (net of tax effect) incurred on issue of debentures/bonds

iii) Premium (net of tax effect) on redemption of debentures/bonds

16. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest, commitment charges, amortization of ancillary costs, amortization of discounts / premium related to borrowings, finance charges in respect of assets acquired on finance lease and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings, to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs.

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalized/inventorised as part of cost of such asset till such time the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

17. Employee stock ownership schemes

In respect of stock options granted pursuant to the Companys Stock Options Scheme, the intrinsic value of the options (excess of market price of the share over the exercise price of the option) is treated as discount and accounted as employee compensation cost over the vesting period.

18. Foreign currency transactions, foreign operations, forward contracts and derivatives

a) The reporting currency of the Company is Indian rupee.

b) Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency, using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. At each balance sheet date, foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items, carried at historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences that arise on settlement of monetary items or on reporting of monetary items at each balance sheet date at the closing rate are:

i) adjusted in the cost of fixed assets specifically financed by the borrowings contracted up to March 31, 2004 to which the exchange differences relate

ii) adjusted in the cost of fixed assets specifically financed by borrowings contracted between the period April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2007 and to which the exchange differences relate, provided the assets are acquired from outside India

iii) recognized as income or expense in the period in which they arise, in cases other than (i) and (ii) above.

c) Financial statements of foreign operations comprising jobs contracted prior to April 1, 2004, are translated as follows:

i) Closing inventories at rates prevailing at the end of the year

ii) Fixed assets as at April 1, 1991 at rates prevailing at the end of the year in which the additions were made. Subsequent additions are at rates prevailing on the dates of the additions. Depreciation is accounted at the same rate at which the assets are translated.

iii) Other assets and liabilities at rates prevailing at the end of the year

iv) Net revenues at the average rate for the year.

d) Financial statements of foreign operations comprising jobs contracted on or after April 1, 2004, are treated as integral operations and translated as in the same manner as foreign currency transactions, as described above. Exchange differences arising on such translation are recognized as income or expense of the period in which they arise.

e) Forward contracts, other than those entered into to hedge foreign currency risk on unexecuted firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions, are treated as foreign currency transactions and accounted accordingly as per Accounting Standard (AS) 11 "The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates". Exchange differences arising on such contracts are recognised in the period in which they arise.

Gains and losses arising on account of roll over/cancellation of forward contracts are recognised as income/expense of the period in which such roll over / cancellation takes place.

f) All the other derivative contracts, including forward contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risks on unexecuted firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions, are recognised in the financial statements at fair value as on the Balance Sheet date, in pursuance of the announcement of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) dated March 29, 2008 on accounting of derivatives. The Company has adopted Accounting Standard (AS) 30 "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement" for accounting of such derivative contracts, not covered under Accounting Standard (AS) 11 "The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates", as mandated by the ICAI in the aforesaid announcement.

Accordingly, the resultant gains or losses on fair valuation/settlement of the derivative contracts covered under Accounting Standard (AS) 30 "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement" are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss or Balance Sheet as the case may be after applying the test of hedge effectiveness. Where the hedge in respect of off-balance sheet items is effective, the gains or losses are recognised in the "hedging reserve" which forms part of "reserves and surplus" in the Balance Sheet. The amount recognised in the "hedging reserve" is transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the underlying hedged item affects the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains or losses in respect pf ineffective hedges are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which such gains or losses are incurred.

g) The premium paid/received on a foreign currency forward contract is accounted as expense/income over the life of the contract.

19. Segment accounting

a) Segment accounting policies

Segment accounting policies are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. In addition, the following specific accounting policies have been followed for segment reporting:

i) Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly identifiable with/allocable to the segment including inter segment revenue.

ii) Expenses that are directly identifiable with/allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. Expenses which relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments are included under "unallocable corporate expenditure".

iii) Income which relates to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in "unallocable corporate income".

iv) Segment result includes margins on inter-segment capital jobs, which are reduced in arriving at the profit before tax of the Company.

v) Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments. Unallocable corporate assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.

b) Inter-segment transfer pricing

Segment revenue resulting from transactions with other business segments is accounted on the basis of transfer price agreed between the segments. Such transfer prices are either determined to yield a desired margin or agreed on a negotiated basis.

20. Taxes on income

Tax on income for the current period is determined on the basis of taxable income and tax credits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act 1961, and based on the expected outcome of assessments/appeals.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences between the income accounted in financial statements and the taxable income for the year, and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted as on the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets relating to unabsorbed depreciation/business losses /losses under the head "capital gains" are recognised and carried forward to the extent there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

Other deferred tax assets are recognised and carried forward to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

22. Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

Provisions are recognised for liabilities that can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation, if a) the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event

b) a probable outflow of resources is expected to settle the obligation and

c) the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.

Reimbursement expected in respect of expenditure required to settle a provision is recognised only when it is virtually certain that the reimbursement will be received.

Contingent liability is disclosed in case of

a) a present obligation arising from past events, when it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation

b) a present obligation arising from past events, when no reliable estimate is possible

c) a possible obligation arising from past events where the probability of outflow of resources is not remote.

Contingent assets are neither recognised, nor disclosed.

Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date.

23. Commitments

Commitments are future liabilities for contractual expenditure. Commitments are classified and disclosed as follows:

a) Estimated amount of contracts remaining to be executed on capital account and not provided for

b) Uncalled liability on shares and other investments partly paid

c) Funding related commitment to subsidiary, associate and joint venture companies and

d) Other non-cancellable commitments, if any, to the extent they are considered material and relevant in the opinion of management. Other commitments related to sales/procurements made in the normal course of business are not disclosed to avoid excessive details.

24. Operating cycle for current and non-current classification:

Operating cycle for the business activities of the company covers the duration of the specific project/contract/product line/service including the defect liability period, wherever applicable and extends up to the realization of receivables (including retention monies) within the agreed credit period normally applicable to the respective lines of business.

25. Cash Flow Statement

Cash flow statement is prepared segregating the cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities. Cash flow from operating activities is reported using indirect method. Under the indirect method, the net profit is adjusted for the effects of:

I. transactions of a non-cash nature

II. any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and

III. items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows.

Cash and cash equivalents (including bank balances) are reflected as such in the cash flow statement. Those cash and cash equivalents which are not available for general use as on the date of Balance Sheet are also included under this category with a specific disclosure.


Mar 31, 2011

1, Basis of accounting

The Company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles ["GAAP"] except for the revaluation of certain fixed assets in compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and the Accounting Standards as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules 2006 prescribed by the Central Government.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the Company makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful lives of tangible and intangible fixed assets, provision for doubtful debts/advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans, etc. Difference, if any, between the actual results and estimates is recognised in the period in which the results are known.

2. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised based on nature of activity when consideration can be reasonably measured and there exists reasonable certainty of its recovery.

a) Sales & Service

i) Sales and service include excise duty and adjustments made towards liquidated damages and price variation, wherever applicable. Escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable/acknowledged by customers, are not taken into account.

ii) Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when the substantial risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer under the terms of the contract.

iii) Revenue from property development activity is recognised when all significant risks and rewards of ownership in the land and/or building are transferred to the customer and a reasonable expectation of collection of the sale consideration from the customer exists.

iv) Revenue from construction /project related activity and contracts for supply/commissioning of complex plant and equipment is recognised as follows:

a) Cost plus contracts: Contract revenue is determined by adding the aggregate cost plus proportionate margin as agreed with the customer.

b) Fixed price contracts received up to March 31, 2003: Contract revenue is recognised by applying percentage of completion to the contract value. Percentage of completion is determined as follows:

(i) in the case of item rate contracts, as a proportion of the progress billing to contract value; and

(ii) in the case of other contracts, as a proportion of the cost incurred-to-date to the total estimated cost

c) Fixed price contracts received on or after April 1, 2003: Contract revenue represents the cost of work performed on the contract plus proportionate margin, using the percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is determined as a proportion of cost of work performed to-date to the total estimated contract costs. Government subsidy related to customer contracts is recognised as revenue from operations in the Profit and Loss Account, on a prudent basis, in proportion to work completed when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions for the grant of subsidy will be fulfilled.

Expected loss, if any, on the construction/project related activity is recognised as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract. While determining the amount of foreseeable loss, all elements of costs and related incidental income not included in contract revenue is taken into consideration. Construction and project related work-in-progress is reflected at cost till such time the outcome of the job cannot be ascertained reliably and at realisable value thereafter.

v) Revenues from construction/project related activity and contracts executed in joint ventures under work-sharing arrangement [being jointly controlled operations, in terms of Accounting Standard (AS) 27 "Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures"], are recognised on the same basis as similar contracts independently executed by the Company.

vi) Revenue from service related activities is recognised using the proportionate completion method.

vii) Commission income is recognised as and when the terms of the contract are fulfilled.

viii) Revenue from engineering and service fees is recognised as per the terms of the contract.

b) Profit/loss on contracts executed by integrated joint ventures under profit-sharing arrangement [being jointly controlled entities, in terms of Accounting Standard (AS) 27 "Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures"] is accounted as and when the same is determined by the joint venture. Revenue from services rendered to such joint ventures is accounted on accrual basis.

c) Other operational income represents income earned from the activities incidental to the business and is recognised when the right to receive the income is established as per the terms of the contract.

d) Interest income is accrued at applicable interest rate.

e) Dividend income is accounted when the right to receive the same is established. Dividends declared by subsidiary companies after the date of the Company's Balance Sheet are also recognised if they are in respect of accounting periods which closed on or before the date of the Company's Balance Sheet.

f) Other Government grants, which are revenue in nature and are intended to compensate the related costs, are recognised as income in the profit and loss account to match such costs, as and when incurred.

g) Other items of income are accounted as and when the right to receive arises.

3. Extraordinary and exceptional items

Income or expenses that arise from events or transactions that are clearly distinct from the ordinary activities of the Company are classified as extraordinary items. Specific disclosure of such events/transactions is made in the financial statements. Similarly, any external event beyond the control of the Company, significantly impacting income or expense, is also treated as extraordinary item and disclosed as such.

On certain occasions, the size, type or incidence of an item of income or expense, pertaining to the ordinary activities of the Company, is such that its disclosure improves an understanding of the performance of the Company. Such income or expense is classified as an exceptional item and accordingly disclosed in the notes to accounts [Note no.10].

4. Research and development

a) Revenue expenditure on research is expensed under respective heads of account in the period in which it is incurred.

b) Development expenditure on new products is capitalised as intangible asset, if all of the following can be demonstrated: i) The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale;

ii) The Company has intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it;

iii) The Company has ability to use or sell the intangible asset;

iv) The manner in which the probable future economic benefits will be generated including the existence of a market for output of the intangible asset or intangible asset itself or if it is to be used internally, the usefulness of intangible assets; v) The availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset; and

vi) The Company has ability to measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development reliably. The development expenditure capitalised as intangible asset is amortised over its useful life. Other development costs that do not meet above criteria are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

c) Capital expenditure on research and development is classified under tangible/intangible assets and depreciated on the same basis as other fixed assets.

5. Employee benefits

a) Short term employee benefits

All employee benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences etc. and the expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post-employment benefits

i) Defined contribution plans: The Company's superannuation scheme, state governed provident fund scheme, employee state insurance scheme and employee pension scheme are defined contribution plans. The contribution paid/payable under the schemes is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

ii) Defined benefit plans: The employees gratuity fund schemes, post-retirement medical care scheme, pension scheme and provident fund scheme managed by trust are the Company's defined benefit plans. Wherever applicable, the present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plans is determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation.

The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rate used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans, is based on the market yield on government securities of a maturity period equivalent to the weighted average maturity profile of the related obligations at the balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Profit & Loss Account.

The interest element implicit in the actuarial valuation of defined benefit plans is classified under interest expense and balance charge is recognised as employee benefits in the Profit and Loss Account.

In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plans to recognise the obligation on the net basis.

Gains or losses on the curtailment or settlement of any defined benefit plan are recognised when the curtailment or settlement occurs. Past service cost is recognised as expense on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested.

c) Long term employee benefits

The obligation for long term employee benefits such as long term compensated absences, long service award etc is recognised in the similar manner as in the case of defined benefit plans as mentioned in (b)(ii) above.

d) Termination benefits

Termination benefits such as compensation under voluntary retirement cum pension scheme is amortised over a defined period. The defined period of amortisation is five years or the period till March 31, 2010, whichever is earlier.

6. Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at original cost net of tax/duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated depreciation, accumulated amortisation and cumulative impairment and those which were revalued as on October 1,1984 are stated at the values determined by the valuers less accumulated depreciation, accumulated amortisation and cumulative impairment. Assets acquired on hire purchase basis are stated at their cash values. Specific know-how fees paid, if any, relating to plant and machinery is treated as part of cost thereof. Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to construction or acquisition of fixed assets or bringing the fixed assets to working condition are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the fixed assets. Own manufactured assets are capitalised at cost including an appropriate share of overheads. (Also refer to policy on leases, borrowing costs, impairment of assets and foreign currency transactions infra.)

7. Leases

a) Lease transactions entered into prior to April 1, 2001:

Assets leased out are stated at original cost. Lease equalisation adjustment is the difference between capital recovery included in the lease rentals and depreciation provided in the books.

Lease rentals in respect of assets acquired under leases are charged to Profit and Loss Account.

b) Lease transactions entered into on or after April 1, 2001: Finance leases:

i) Assets acquired under leases where the Company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Such assets are capitalised at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value or the present value of minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost, so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each period.

ii) Assets given under a finance lease are recognised as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. Lease income is recognised over the period of the lease so as to yield a constant rate of return on the net investment in the lease.

iii) Initial direct costs relating to assets given on finance leases are charged to Profit and Loss Account.

Operating leases:

i) Assets acquired on leases where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals are charged to the Profit and Loss Account on accrual basis.

ii) Assets leased out under operating leases are capitalised. Rental income is recognised on accrual basis over the lease term.

(Also refer to policy on depreciation, infra)

8. Depreciation

a) Owned assets

i) Revalued Assets:

Depreciation is provided on straight line method on the values and at the rates given by the valuers. The difference between depreciation provided on revalued amount and on historical cost is transferred from revaluation reserve to Profit and Loss Account. ii) Assets carried at historical cost:

Depreciation on assets carried at historical cost is provided on the written down value basis on assets acquired up to March 31, 1968 (at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956) and on straight line method on assets acquired subsequently (at the rates prevailing at the time of their acquisition on assets acquired up to September 30, 1987

b) Leased assets

i) Lease transactions entered into prior to April 1, 2001:

Lease charge comprising statutory depreciation and lease equalisation charge is provided for assets given on lease over the primary period of the lease equal to recovery of net investment in the lease. Accordingly, while the statutory depreciation on such assets is provided for on straight line method as per Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, the difference is adjusted through lease equalisation and lease adjustment account.

ii) Lease transactions entered into on or after April 1, 2001:

Assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated on a straight line basis over the lease term. Where there is reasonable certainty that the Company shall obtain ownership of the assets at the end of the lease term, such assets are depreciated at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or at the higher rates adopted by the Company for similar assets.

9. Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are recognised when it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the enterprise and the cost of the asset can be measured reliably. Intangible assets are amortised as follows:

a) Leasehold land: over the period of lease.

b) Specialised software: over a period of six years.

c) Lump sum fees for technical know-how: over a period of six years in case of foreign technology and three years in the case of indigenous technology.

d) Development costs for new products: over a period of five years.

Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to acquisition of intangible assets are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the intangible assets.

Amortisation on impaired assets is provided by adjusting the amortisation charges in the remaining periods so as to allocate the asset's revised carrying amount over its remaining useful life.

10. Impairment of assets

As at each Balance Sheet date, the carrying amount of assets is tested for impairment so as to determine:

a) the provision for impairment loss, if any; and

b) the reversal of impairment loss recognised in previous periods, if any,

Impairment loss is recognised when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. Recoverable amount is determined:

a) in the case of an individual asset, at the higher of the net selling price and the value in use;

b) in the case of a cash generating unit (a group of assets that generates identified, independent cash flows), at the higher of the cash generating unit's net selling price and the value in use.

(Value in use is determined as the present value of estimated future cash flows from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life.)

11. Investments

Long term investments including interests in incorporated jointly controlled entities, are carried at cost, after providing for any diminution in value, if such diminution is "other than temporary" in nature. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value. The determination of carrying amount of such investments is done on the basis of weighted average cost of each individual investment. Investments in integrated joint ventures are carried at cost net of adjustments for Company's share in profits or losses as recognised

12. Inventories

Inventories are valued after providing for obsolescence, as under:

a) Raw materials, components, construction materials, stores, spares and loose tools at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value.

b) Manufacturing work-in-progress at lower of cost including related overheads or net realisable value.

In the case of qualifying assets, cost also includes applicable borrowing costs vide policy relating to borrowing costs.

c) Finished goods at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value. Cost includes related overheads and excise duty paid/ payable on such goods.

d) Property development iand at lower of cost or net realisable value.

13. Securities premium account

a) Securities premium includes:

i) The difference between the market value and the consideration received in respect of shares issued pursuant to Stock Appreciation Rights Scheme.

ii) The discount allowed, if any, in respect of shares allotted pursuant to Stock Options Scheme.

b) The following expenses are written off against securities premium account:

i) Expenses incurred on issue of shares.

ii) Expenses (net of tax) incurred on issue of debentures/bonds. iii) Premium (net of tax) on redemption of debentures/bonds.

14. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalised as part of cost of such asset till such time as the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

15. Employee stock ownership schemes

In respect of stock options granted pursuant to the Company's Stock Options Scheme, the intrinsic value of the options (excess of market price of the share over the exercise price of the option) is treated as discount and accounted as employee compensation cost over the vesting period.

16. Foreign currency transactions, foreign operations, forward contracts and derivatives

a) The reporting currency of the Company is Indian rupee.

b) Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency, using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. At each Balance Sheet date, foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items, carried at historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences that arise on settlement of monetary items or on reporting of monetary items at each Balance Sheet date at the closing rate are:

i) adjusted in the cost of fixed assets specifically financed by the borrowings contracted up to March 31, 2004 to which the exchange differences relate ii) adjusted in the cost of fixed assets specifically financed by borrowings contracted between the period April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2007 and to which the exchange differences relate, provided the assets are acquired from outside India

iii) recognised as income or expense in the period in which they arise, in cases other than (i) and (ii) above.

c) Financial statements of foreign operations comprising jobs contracted prior to April 1, 2004, are translated as follows: i) Closing inventories at rates prevailing at the end of the year

ii) Fixed assets as at April 1, 1991 at rates prevailing at the end of the year in which the additions were made. Subsequent additions are at rates prevailing on the dates of the additions. Depreciation is accounted at the same rate at which the assets are translated.

iii) Other assets and liabilities at rates prevailing at the end of the year.

iv) Net revenues at the average rate for the year.

d) Financial statements of foreign operations comprising jobs contracted on or after April 1, 2004, are treated as integral operations and translated as in the same manner as foreign currency transactions, as described above. Exchange differences arising on such translation are recognised as income or expense of the period in which they arise.

e) Forward contracts, other than those entered into to hedge foreign currency risk on unexecuted firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions, are treated as foreign currency transactions and accounted accordingly as per Accounting Standard (AS) 11["The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates"]. Exchange differences arising on such contracts are recognised in the period in which they arise.

Gains and losses arising on account of roll over/cancellation of forward contracts are recognised as income/expense of the period in which such roll over/cancellation takes place.

f) All the other derivative contracts, including forward contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risks on unexecuted firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions, are recognised in the financial statements at fair value as on the Balance Sheet date, in pursuance of the announcement of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) dated March 29, 2008 on accounting of derivatives. The Company has adopted Accounting Standard (AS) 30 ["Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement"] for accounting of such derivative contracts, not covered under Accounting Standard (AS) 11 ["The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates"], as mandated by the ICAI in the aforesaid announcement.

Accordingly, the resultant gains or losses on fair valuation/settlement of the derivative contracts covered under Accounting Standard (AS) 30 ["Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement"] are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account or Balance Sheet as the case may be after applying the test of hedge effectiveness. Where the hedge is effective, the gains or losses are recognised in the "Hedging Reserve" which forms part of "Reserves and Surplus" in the Balance Sheet, while the same is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account where the hedge is ineffective.The amount recognised in the "Hedging Reserve" is transferred to Profit and Loss Account in the period in which the underlying hedged item affects the Profit and Loss Account.

g) The premium paid/received on a foreign currency forward contract is accounted as expense/income over the period of the contract.


Mar 31, 2010

1. Basis of accounting

The Company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles ["GAAP"] except for the revaluation of certain fixed assets, in compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and the Accounting Standards as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 prescribed by the Central Government. However, certain escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable/acknowledged by customers, are not taken into account.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the Company makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful lives of tangible and intangible fixed assets, provision for doubtful debts/advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans, etc. Difference, if any, between the actual results and estimates is recognised in the period in which the results are known.

2. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised based on nature of activity when consideration can be reasonably measured and there exists reasonable certainty of its recovery.

a) Sales & service

i) Sales and service include excise duty and adjustments made towards liquidated damages and price variation, wherever applicable.

ii) Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when the substantial risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer under the terms of the contract.

iii) Revenue from property development activity is recognised when all significant risks and rewards of ownership in the land and/or building are transferred to the customer and a reasonable expectation of collection of the sale consideration from the customer exists.

iv) Revenue from construction/project related activity and contracts for supply/commissioning of complex plant and equipment is recognised as follows:

a) Cost plus contracts: Contract revenue is determined by adding the aggregate cost plus proportionate margin as agreed with the customer.

b) Fixed price contracts received up to March 31, 2003: Contract revenue is recognised by applying percentage of completion to the contract value. Percentage of completion is determined as follows:

(i) in the case of item rate contracts, as a proportion of the progress billing to contract value; and

(ii) in the case of other contracts, as a proportion of the cost incurred-to-date to the total estimated cost

c) Fixed price contracts received on or after April 1, 2003: Contract revenue represents the cost of work performed on the contract plus proportionate margin, using the percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is determined as a proportion of cost of work performed-to-date to the total estimated contract costs.

Full provision is made for any loss in the period in which it is foreseen. Project and construction related work-in-progress is reflected at cost till such time the outcome of the job cannot be ascertained reliably and at realisable value thereafter.

v) Revenues from construction/project related activity and contracts executed in joint ventures under work-sharing arrangement [being jointly controlled operations, in terms of Accounting Standard (AS) 27 "Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures"], are recognised on the same basis as similar contracts independently executed by the Company.

vi) Revenue from service related activities is recognised using the proportionate completion method.

vii) Commission income is recognised as and when the terms of the contract are fulfilled.

viii) Revenue from engineering and service fees is recognised as per the terms of the contract.

ix) Government subsidy related to shipbuilding contracts is recognised on a prudent basis in the Profit and Loss Account as revenue from operations in proportion to work completed when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions for the grant of subsidy will be fulfilled.

b) Profit/loss on contracts executed by integrated joint ventures under profit-sharing arrangement [being jointly controlled entities, in terms of Accounting Standard (AS) 27 "Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures"] is accounted as and when the same is determined by the joint venture. Revenue from services rendered to such joint ventures is accounted on accrual basis.

c) Other operational income represents income earned from the activities incidental to the business and is recognised when the right to receive the income is established as per the terms of the contract.

d) Interest income is accrued at applicable interest rate.

e) Dividend income is accounted when the right to receive the same is established. Dividends declared by subsidiary companies after the date of the Companys Balance Sheet are also included if they are in respect of accounting period which closed on or before the date of the Companys Balance Sheet.

f) Other items of income are accounted as and when the right to receive arises.

3. Researcn and development

Revenue expenditure on research and development is accounted under respective heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. Capital expenditure on research and development is included as part of fixed assets and depreciated on the same basis as other fixed assets.

4. Employee benefits

a) Short term employee benefits

All employee benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences etc. and the expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

b) Post-employment benefits

i) Defined contribution plans: The Companys superannuation scheme, state governed provident fund scheme, employee state insurance scheme and employee pension scheme are defined contribution plans. The contribution paid/payable under the schemes is recognised during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

ii) Defined benefit plans: The employees gratuity fund schemes, post-retirement medical care scheme, pension scheme and provident fund scheme managed by trust are the Companys defined benefit plans. Wherever applicable, the present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plans is determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation .

The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rate used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans, is based on the market yield on government securities of a maturity period equivalent to the weighted average maturity profile of the related obligations at the Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss Account.

The Interest element implicit in the actuarial valuation of defined benefit plans is classified under interest expense and balance charge is recognised as employee benefits in the Profit and Loss Account.

In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plans. to recognise the obligation on the net basis.

Gains or losses on the curtailment or settlement of any defined benefit plan are recognised when the curtailment or settlement occurs Past service cost is recognised as expense on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested.

c) Long term employee benefits

The obligation for long term employee benefits such as long term compensated absences, long service award etc. is recognised in the similar manner as in the case of defined benefit plans as mentioned in (b) (ii) above.

d) Termination benefits

Termination benefits such as compensation under voluntary retirement-cum-pension scheme is amortised over a defined period. The defined period of amortisation is five years or the period till March 31, 2010, whichever is earlier.

5. Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at original cost net of tax/duty credits availed, if any, less accumulated depreciation, accumulated amortisation and cumulative impairment and those which were revalued as on October 1, 1984, are stated at the values determined by the valuers less accumulated depreciation, accumulated amortisation and cumulative impairment. Assets acquired on hire purchase basis are stated at their cash values. Specific know-how fees paid, if any, relating to plant and machinery is treated as part of cost thereof. Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to construction or acquisition of fixed assets or bringing the fixed assets to working condition are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the fixed assets. Own manufactured assets are capitalised at cost including an appropriate share of overheads. (Also refer to policy on leases, borrowing costs, impairment of assets and foreign currency transactions infra)

6. Leases

a) Lease transactions entered into prior to April 1, 2001:

Assets leased out are stated at original cost. Lease equalisation adjustment is the difference between capital recovery included in the lease rentals and depreciation provided in the books.

Lease rentals in respect of assets acquired under leases are charged to Profit and Loss Account.

b) Lease transactions entered into on or after April 1, 2001: Finance leases:

i) Assets acquired under leases where the Company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Such assets are capitalised at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value or the present value of minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost, so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each period.

ii) Assets given under a finance lease are recognised as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. Lease income is recognised over the period of the lease so as to yield a constant rate of return on the net investment in the lease.

iii) Initial direct costs relating to assets given on finance leases are charged to Profit and Loss Account.

Operating leases:

i) Assets acquired on leases where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals are charged to the Profit and Loss Account on accrual basis.

ii) Assets leased out under operating leases are capitalised. Rental income is recognised on accrual basis over the lease term.

(Also refer to policy on depreciation, infra) 7, Depreciation

a) Owned assets

i) Revalued assets:

Depreciation is provided on straight line method on the values and at the rates given by the valuers. The difference between depreciation provided on revalued amount and on historical cost is transferred from revaluation reserve to Profit and Loss Account.

ii) Assets carried at historical cost:

Depreciation on assets carried at historical cost is provided on the written down value basis on assets acquired up to March 31. 1968 (at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956) and on straight line method on assets acquired subsequently (at the rates prevailing at the time of their acquisition on assets acquired up to September 30, 1987 and at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 on assets acquired after that date). However, in respect of the following asset categories, the depreciation is provided at higher rates in line with their estimated useful life.

iii) Depreciation for additions to/deductions from owned assets is calculated pro rata from/to the month of additions/deductions.

Extra shift depreciation is provided on a location basis. iv) Depreciation charge for impaired assets is adjusted in future periods in such a manner that the revised carrying amount of the asset is allocated over its remaining useful life. b) Leased assets

i) Lease transactions entered into prior to April 1, 2001:

Assets given on lease are depreciated over the primary period of the lease. Accordingly, while the statutory depreciation on such assets is provided for on straight line method as per Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, the difference is adjusted through lease equalisation and lease adjustment account. ii) Lease transactions entered into on or after April 1, 2001:

Assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated on a straight line basis over the lease term. Where there is reasonable certainty that the Company shall obtain ownership of the assets at the end of the lease term, such assets are depreciated at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or at the higher rates adopted by the Company for similar assets. 8. Intangible assets and amortisation

Intangible assets are recognised when it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the enterprise and the cost of the asset can be measured reliably. Intangible assets are amortised as follows:

a) Leasehold land: over the period of lease.

b) Specialised software: Over a period of three years.

c) Lumpsum fees for technical know-how: Over a period of six years in case of foreign technology and three years in the case of indigenous technology.

Administrative and other general overhead expenses that are specifically attributable to acquisition of intangible assets are allocated and capitalised as a part of the cost of the intangible assets.

Amortisation on impaired assets is provided by adjusting the amortisation charges in the remaining periods so as to allocate the assets revised carrying amount over its remaining useful life.

9. Impairment of assets

As at each Balance Sheet date, the carrying amount of assets is tested for impairment so as to determine:

a) the provision for impairment loss, if any; and

b) the reversal of impairment loss recognised in previous periods, if any, .

Impairment loss is recognised when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. Recoverable amount is determined:

a) in the case of an individual asset, at the higher of the net selling price and the value in use; and

b) in the case of a cash generating unit (a group of assets that generates identified, independent cash flows), at the higher of the cash generating units net selling price and the value in use.

(Value in use is determined as the present value of estimated future cash flows from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life.)

10. Investments

Long term investments including interests in incorporated jointly controlled entities, are carried at cost, after providing for any diminution in value, if such diminution is of permanent nature. Current investments are carried at lower of cost or market value. The determination of carrying amount of such investments is done on the basis of specific identification. Investments in integrated joint ventures are carried at cost net of adjustments for Companys share in profits or losses as recognised.

11. Inventories

Inventories are valued after providing for obsolescence, as under:

a) Raw materials, components, construction materials, stores, spares and loose tools at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value.

b) Manufacturing work-in-progress at lower of cost including related overheads or net realisable value.

In the case of qualifying assets, cost also includes applicable borrowing costs vide policy relating to borrowing costs.

c) Finished goods at lower of weighted average cost or net realisable value. Cost includes related overheads and excise duty paid/ payable on such goods.

d) Property development land at lower of cost or net realisable value.

12. Securities premium account

a) Securities premium includes:

i) The difference between the market value and the consideration received in respect of shares issued pursuant to Stock Appreciation Rights Scheme.

ii) The discount allowed, if any, in respect of shares allotted pursuant to Stock Options Scheme.

b) The following expenses are written off against securities premium account: i) Expenses incurred on issue of shares.

ii) Expenses (net of tax) incurred on issue of debentures/bonds.

iii) Premium (net of tax) on redemption of debentures/bonds.

13. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalised as part of cost of such asset till such time as the asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

14. Employee stock ownership schemes

In respect of stock options granted pursuant to the Companys Stock Options Scheme, the intrinsic value of the options (excess of market price of the share over the exercise price of the option) is treated as discount and accounted as employee compensation cost over the vesting period.

15. Miscellaneous expenditure

Lumpsum compensation paid under Voluntary Retirement-cum-Pension Schemes are amortised over a period of five years or the period till March 31, 2010, whichever is earlier. The future pensions under Voluntary Retirement-cum-Pension Scheme are amortised over the period for which pensions are payable.

16. Foreign currency transactions, foreign operations, forward contracts and derivatives

a) The reporting currency of the Company is the Indian rupee.

b) Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency, using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. At each Balance Sheet date, foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items, carried at historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Exchange differences that arise on settlement of monetary items or on reporting of monetary items at each Balance Sheet date at the closing rate are:

i) adjusted in the cost of fixed assets specifically financed by the borrowings contracted up to March 31, 2004 to which the exchange differences relate

ii) adjusted in the cost of fixed assets specifically financed by borrowings contracted between the period April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2007 and to which the exchange differences relate, provided the assets are acquired from outside India

iii) recognised as income or expense in the period in which they arise, in cases other than (i) and (ii) above.

c) Financial statements of foreign operations comprising jobs contracted prior to April 1, 2004, are translated as follows:

i) Closing inventories at rates prevailing at the end of the year.

ii) Fixed assets as at April 1, 1991 at rates prevailing at the end of the year in which the additions were made. Subsequent additions are at rates prevailing on the dates of the additions. Depreciation is accounted at the same rate at which the assets are translated.

iii) Other assets and liabilities at rates prevailing at the end of the year.

iv) Net revenues at the average rate for the year.

d) Financial statements of foreign operations comprising jobs contracted on or after April 1, 2004, are treated as integral operations and translated as in the same manner as foreign currency transactions, as described above. Exchange differences arising on such translation are recognised as income or expense of the period in which they arise.

e) Forward contracts, other than those entered into to hedge foreign currency risk on unexecuted firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions, are treated as foreign currency transactions and accounted accordingly as per Accounting Standard (AS) 11 ["The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates"]. Exchange differences arising on such contracts are recognised in the period in which they arise.

Gains and losses arising on account of roll over/cancellation of forward contracts are recognised as income/expense of the period in which such roll over/cancellation takes place.

f) All the other derivative contracts, including forward contracts entered into, to hedge foreign currency risks on unexecuted firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions, are recognised in the financial statements at fair value as on the Balance Sheet date, in pursuance of the announcement of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) dated March 29, 2008 on accounting of derivatives. The Company has adopted Accounting Standard (AS) 30 ["Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement"] for accounting of such derivative contracts, not covered under Accounting Standard (AS) 11 ["The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates"], as mandated by the ICAI in the aforesaid announcement.

Accordingly, the resultant gains or losses on fair valuation/settlement of the derivative contracts covered under Accounting Standard (AS) 30 ["Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement"] are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account or Balance Sheet as the case may be after applying the test of hedge effectiveness. The gains or losses are recognised in the Balance Sheet where the hedge is effective, while the same is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account where the hedge is ineffective.

g) The premium paid/received on a foreign currency forward contract is accounted as expense/income over the period of the contract. 17. Segment accounting

 
Subscribe now to get personal finance updates in your inbox!