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Accounting Policies of Net 4 India Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

A. Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

b. The financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting principles ("GAAP") under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair value. GAAP comprises mandatory Accounting Standards as prescribe under section 133 of the companies act 2013(Act) read with rule 7 of the companies (Accounts) rules, 2014, the provision of the act (to the extent notified) and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.

c. Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent assets and liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. The management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable.

Where no reliable estimate can be made; a disclosure is made as contingent liability. Actual results could differ from those estimates and the difference between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the periods in which the results are known.

d. Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost (determined on First in First out basis) and estimated net realizable value.

Cost is inclusive of all purchase costs and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and conditions.

e. Fixed Assets and Depreciation

(i) Tangible Assets:

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses if any. Costs directly attributable to the purchase of fixed assets are capitalized until fixed assets are ready for use. Capital work-in-progress comprises of the cost of fixed assets that are not yet ready for their intended use before the balance sheet date.

All assets discarded/ dismantled are written off assuming that the scrap value for the same is Nil. If and when such discarded assets are disposed off partially or fully, the amounts realized during the year are credited to the profit and loss account of that year.

(ii) Depreciation:

Depreciation of Tangible Assets is provided on the written down value method over the useful life of the asset, useful life is same as the useful life prescribed under part C of schedule II of the companies act 2013.

(iii) Intangible Assets and amortization:

Intangible assets are amortized over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available to the company for its use. Management, using reasonable and supportable assumptions, has estimated the useful lives for the intangible assets as follows:

Trademarks 20 years Goodwill 10 years

Trademarks represent the brand image of the company and constitute an asset with no limited useful life. Based on advice received by the management and as per the provisions of the Trade Marks and Merchandise Act of 1999, the company can retain the ownership and registration of the trademarks perpetually by renewing the registration at the end of every ten years, leading to the view that the useful life of its trademarks are unlimited.

However, as a matter of abandon precaution, the cost of the Trademarks is being amortized over a period of 20 years.

f. Impairment of Assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognized, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognized for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

g. Investments

Trade investments are the investments made to enhance the company's business interests. Investments are either classified as current or noncurrent based ori the management's intention at the time of purchase. Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value. Non Current Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in their value is made only if such a decline is other than temporary in the opinion of the management.

h. Revenue Recognition

Sale of Goods

The Company recognizes revenue on accrual basis. Revenue from the sale of hardware/software products is recognized when the sale is completed with the passing of title.

Income from Services

Revenue from services is recognized in the ratio of period expired over the total agreement period. Revenue from Fixed Price Contracts is recognized proportionately over the period in which services are rendered. The consideration received from the customer's in respect of certain online services for an extended period is accounted for as revenue in the financial year in which consideration is received. Costs related to the revenue are also recognized in the same period. Hence the gross margin is not impacted (i.e. not overstatedor understated). This method of revenue recognition and cost related to it is being consistently followed from previous year.

Other Income

Other income is recognized on accrual basis. Dividend income is recognized when the company's right to receive dividend is established.

Profit on sale of investments is recorded on transfer of title from the company and is determined as the difference between the sales price and the carrying value of the investment.

i. Foreign Currency Transactions

Initial recognition

Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the company and its integral foreign operations are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of transaction.

Measurement of foreign currency monetary items at the Balance Sheet date Foreign currency monetary items (other than derivative contracts) of the Company and its net investment in non-integral foreign operations outstanding at the Balance Sheet date are restated at the year-end rates.

In the case of integral operations, assets and liabilities (other than non-monetary items), are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the Balance Sheet date. Non-monetary items are carried at historical cost. Revenue and expenses are translated at the exchange rates on the date of transaction. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Treatment of Exchange Difference

Exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement of short-term foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company and its integral foreign operations are recognized as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The exchange differences on restatement / settlement of loans to non-integral foreign operations that are considered as net investment in such operations are accumulated in a "Foreign currency translation reserve" until disposal / recovery of the net investment.

The exchange differences arising on restatement / settlement of long-term foreign currency monetary items are capitalized as part of the depreciable fixed assets to which the monetary item relates and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets or amortized on settlement / over the maturity period of such items if such items do not relate to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets. The unamortized balance is carried in the Balance Sheet as "Foreign currency monetary item translation difference account" net of the tax effect thereon.

Accounting of forward contracts

Premium / discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amortized over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the Balance Sheet date.

j. Employee Benefits

Employee benefits include provident fund, gratuity fund, compensated absences and long service awards.

Defined contribution plans

The Company's contributions to provident fund are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense as they fall due based on the amount of contribution required to be made.

Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund and leave encashment, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognized immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortized on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognized past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.

k. Research and Development

Revenue expenditure incurred on research and development is expensed as incurred. Capital expenditure is included in the respective heads under fixed assets and depreciation thereon is charged to the profit and loss account.

l. Borrowing Cost

Borrowing costs include interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Costs in connection with the borrowing of funds to the extent not directly related to the acquisition of qualifying assets are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the tenure of the loan. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilized for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset up to the date of capitalization of such asset is added to the cost of the assets. Capitalization of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.

m. Leases

Lease rentals in respect of assets taken on 'Operating Lease' are charged to the profit & loss Account on straight line basis over the lease term.

n. Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share (EPS) is calculated by dividing the net profit after tax for the year (including the post-tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue and share split.

o. Taxes on Income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognized as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company. Deferred tax is recognized on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantially enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses are recognized only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realize such assets. Deferred tax assets are recognized for timing differences of other items only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date for their reliability.

Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from regular revenue generating, financing, and investing activities of the company are segregated.

p. Provision and contingencies

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

The disclosure is made for all possible or present obligations that may but probably will not require outflow of resources as contingent liability. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes.


Mar 31, 2014

A. Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting principles ("GAAP") under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis. GAAP comprises mandatory Accounting Standards issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ("ICAI"), the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. The Management evaluates all recently issued or revised accounting standards on an ongoing basis. The company has prepared its financial statement as per revised Schedule VI notified under the Compa- nies Act 1956.

b. Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent assets and liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. The management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable.

Where no reliable estimate can be made; a disclosure is made as contingent liability. Actual results could differ from those estimates and the difference between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the periods in which the results are known.

c. Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost (determined on First in First out basis) and estimated net realizable value.

Cost is inclusive of all purchase costs and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and conditions.

d. Fixed Assets and Depreciation

(i) Tangible Assets:

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses if any. Costs directly attributable to the purchase of fixed assets are capitalized until fixed assets are ready for use. Capital work-in-progress comprises of the cost of fixed assets that are not yet ready for their intended use before the balance sheet date.

All assets discarded/ dismantled are written off assuming that the scrap value for the same is Nil. If and when such dis- carded assets are disposed off partially or fully, the amounts realized during the year are credited to the profit and loss account of that year.

(ii) Depreciation:

Depreciation of Fixed Assets is provided on a pro-rata basis on the written down value method at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, on all assets, except for the following:

Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the remaining period of lease or 10 years whichever is lesser.

Individual low cost assets (acquired for less than Rs.5,000/-) are depreciated within a year of acquisition.

(iii) Intangible Assets and amortization:

Intangible assets are amortized over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available to the company for its use. Management, using reasonable and supportable assump- tions, has estimated the useful lives for the intangible assets as follows:

Trademarks 20 years

Goodwill 10 years

Trademarks represent the brand image of the company and constitute an asset with no limited useful life. Based on advice received by the management and as per the provisions of the Trade Marks and Merchandise Act of 1999, the company can retain the ownership and registration of the trademarks perpetually by renewing the registration at the end of every ten years, leading to the view that the useful life of its trademarks are unlimited.

However, as a matter of abandon precaution, the cost of the Trademarks is being amortized over a period of 20 years.

e. Impairment of Assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognized, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognized for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

f. Investments

Trade investments are the investments made to enhance the company''s business interests. Investments are either clas- sified as current or noncurrent based on the management''s intention at the time of purchase. Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value. Non Current Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in their value is made only if such a decline is other than temporary in the opinion of the management.

g. Revenue Recognition

Sale of Goods

The Company recognizes revenue on accrual basis. Revenue from the sale of hardware/software products is recognized when the sale is completed with the passing of title.

Income from Services

Revenue from services is recognized in the ratio of period expired over the total agreement period. Revenue from Fixed Price Contracts is recognized proportionately over the period in which services are rendered. The consideration received from the customer''s in respect of certain online services for an extended period is accounted for as revenue in the financial year in which consideration is received. Costs related to the revenue are also recognized in the same period. Hence the gross margin is not impacted (i.e. not overstatedor understated). This method of revenue recognition and cost related to it is being consistently followed from previous year.

Other Income

Other income is recognized on accrual basis. Dividend income is recognized when the company''s right to receive dividend is established.

Profit on sale of investments is recorded on transfer of title from the company and is determined as the difference between the sales price and the carrying value of the investment.

h. Foreign Currency Transactions

Initial recognition

Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the company and its integral foreign operations are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of trans- action.

Measurement of foreign currency monetary items at the Balance Sheet date

Foreign currency monetary items (other than derivative contracts) of the Company and its net investment in non-integral foreign operations outstanding at the Balance Sheet date are restated at the year-end rates.

In the case of integral operations, assets and liabilities (other than non-monetary items), are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the Balance Sheet date. Non-monetary items are carried at historical cost. Revenue and expenses are translated at the exchange rates on the date of transaction. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Treatment of Exchange Difference

Exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement of short-term foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company and its integral foreign operations are recognized as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The exchange differences on restatement / settlement of loans to non-integral foreign operations that are considered as net investment in such operations are accumulated in a "Foreign currency translation reserve" until disposal / recovery of the net investment.

The exchange differences arising on restatement / settlement of long-term foreign currency monetary items are capital- ized as part of the depreciable fixed assets to which the monetary item relates and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets or amortized on settlement / over the maturity period of such items if such items do not relate to acquisi- tion of depreciable fixed assets. The unamortized balance is carried in the Balance Sheet as "Foreign currency monetary item translation difference account" net of the tax effect thereon.

Accounting of forward contracts

Premium / discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amor- tized over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the Balance Sheet date.

i. Employee Benefits

Employee benefits include provident fund, gratuity fund, compensated absences and long service awards.

Defined contribution plans

The Company''s contributions to provident fund are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an ex- pense as they fall due based on the amount of contribution required to be made.

Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund and leave encashment, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognized immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortized on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the Bal- ance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognized past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.

j. Research and Development

Revenue expenditure incurred on research and development is expensed as incurred. Capital expenditure is included in the respective heads under fixed assets and depreciation thereon is charged to the profit and loss account.

k. Borrowing Cost

Borrowing costs include interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Costs in connection with the borrowing of funds to the extent not directly related to the acquisition of qualifying assets are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the tenure of the loan. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilized for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset up to the date of capitalization of such asset is added to the cost of the assets. Capitalization of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.

l. Leases

Lease rentals in respect of assets taken on ''Operating Lease'' are charged to the profit & loss Account on straight line basis over the lease term.

m. Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share (EPS) is calculated by dividing the net profit after tax for the year (including the post-tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares out- standing during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue and share split.

n. Taxes on Income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provi- sions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognized as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognized on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is mea- sured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantially enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses are recognized only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realize such assets. Deferred tax assets are recognized for timing differences of other items only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date for their reliability.

Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from regular revenue generating, financing, and investing activities of the company are segregated.

o. Provision and contingencies

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

The disclosure is made for all possible or present obligations that may but probably will not require outflow of resources as contingent liability. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes.


Mar 31, 2013

A. Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting principles ("GAAP") under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis. GAAP comprises mandatory Accounting Standards issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ("ICAI"), the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. The Management evaluates all recently issued or revised accounting standards on an ongoing basis. The company has prepared its financial statement as per revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act 1956.

b. Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent assets and liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. The management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable.

Where no reliable estimate can be made; a disclosure is made as contingent liability. Actual results could differ from those estimates and the difference between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the periods in which the results are known. .

c. Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost (determined on First in First out basis) and estimated net realizable value.

Cost is inclusive of all purchase costs and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and conditions.

d. Fixed Assets and Depreciation

(i) Tangible Assets:

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses if any. Costs directly attributable to the purchase of fixed assets are capitalized until fixed assets are ready for use. Capital work-in-progress comprises of the cost of fixed assets that are not yet ready for their intended use before the balance sheet date.

All assets discarded/ dismantled are written off assuming that the scrap value for the same is Nil. If and when such discarded assets are disposed off partially or fully, the amounts realized during the year are credited to the profit and loss account of that year. ''

(ii) Depreciation:

Depreciation of Fixed Assets is provided on a pro-rata basis on the written down value method at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, on all assets, except for the following: Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the remaining period of lease or-10 years whichever Is lesser. . :

Individual low cost assets (acquired for less than Rs.5,000/-) are depreciated within a year of acquisition.

(iii) Intangible Assets and amortization:

Intangible assets are amortized over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available to the company for its use. Management, using reasonable and supportable assumptions, has estimated the useful lives for the intangible assets as '' follows:

Trademarks 20years ..

Goodwill 10 years

Trademarks represent the brand Image of the company and constitute an asset with no limited useful life. Based on advice received by the management and as per the provisions of the Trade Marks and Merchandise Act of 1999, the company can retain the ownership and registration of the trademarks perpetually by renewing the registration at the end of every ten years, leading to the view that the useful life of its trademarks are unlimited.

However, as a matter of abandon precaution, the cost of the Trademarks is being amortized over a period of20years. *

e. Impairment of Assets -

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognized, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount.

The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognized for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

f. Investments

Trade investments are the investments made to enhance the company''s business interests. Investments are either classified as current or noncurrent based on the management''s intention at the time of purchase. Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value. Non Current Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in their value is made only if such a decline is other than temporary in the opinion of the management.

g. Revenue Recognition

Sale of Goods

The Company recognizes revenue on accrual basis. Revenue from the sale of hardware/software products is recognized when the sale is completed with the passing of title.

Income from Services

Revenue from services is recognized in the ratio of period expired over the total agreement period. Revenue from Fixed Price Contracts is recognized proportionately over the period in which services are rendered. The consideration received from the customer''s in respect of certain online services for an extended period is accounted for as revenue in the financial year in which consideration is received. Costs related to the revenue are also recognized in the same period. Hence the gross margin is not impacted (i.e. not overstated or understated). This method of revenue recognition and cost related to it is being consistently followed from previous year.

Other Income . ;

Other income is recognized on accrual basis. Dividend income is recognized when the company''s right to receive dividend is established.

Profit on sale of investments is recorded on transfer of title from the company and Is determined as the difference between the sales price and the carrying value of the Investment.

i. Employee Benefits

Employee benefits include provident fund, gratuity fund, compensated absences and long service awards. Defined contribution plans

The Company''s contributions to provident fund are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense as they fall due based on the amount of contribution required to be made.

Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund and leave encashment, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognized immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortized on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the. Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognized past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.

j. Research and Development

Revenue expenditure incurred on research and development is expensed as incurred. Capital expenditure is included in the respective heads under fixed assets and depreciation thereon is charged to the profit and loss account.

k.'' Borrowing Cost

Borrowing costs include interest, amortization, of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the. interest cost. Costs in connection with the borrowing of funds to the extent not directly related to the acquisition of qualifying assets are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the tenure of the loan. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilized for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset up to the date of capitalization of such asset is added to the cost of the assets. Capitalization of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.

I. Leases ''

Lease rentals in respect of assets taken on ''Operating Lease'' are charged to the profit & loss Account on straight line basis over the lease term.

m. Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share (EPS) is calculated by dividing the net profit after tax for the year (including the post-tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average member of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue and share split.

n. Taxes on Income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal Income tax. Accordingly, MAT Is recognized as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognized on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantially enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses are recognized only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realize such assets. Deferred tax assets are recognized for timing differences of other items only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date for their reliability.

Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from regular revenue generating, financing, and investing activities of the company are segregated.

o. Provision and contingencies

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

The disclosure is made for all possible or present obligations that may but probably will not require outflow of resources as contingent liability. Contingent liabilities are disclosed In the Notes.


Mar 31, 2012

A. Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting principles ("GAAP") under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis. GAAP comprises mandatory Accounting Standards issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ("ICAI"), the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. The Management evaluates all recently issued or revised accounting standards on an ongoing basis.

During the year ended 31 March 2012, the revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act 1956, has become applicable to the company, for preparation and presentation of its financial statements.

b. Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent assets and liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. The management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Where no reliable estimate can be made; a disclosure is made as contingent liability. Actual results could differ from those estimates and the difference between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the periods in which the results are known.

c. Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost (determined on First in First out basis) and estimated net realizable value.

Cost is inclusive of all purchase costs and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and conditions.

d. Fixed Assets and Depreciation

(i) Tangible Assets:

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses if any. Costs directly attributable to the purchase of fixed assets are capitalized until fixed assets are ready for use. Capital work-in-progress comprises of the cost of fixed assets that are not yet ready for their intended use before the balance sheet date.

(ii) Depreciation:

Depreciation of Fixed Assets is provided on a pro-rata basis on the written down value method at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, on all assets, except for the following:

Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the remaining period of lease or 10 years whichever is lesser.

Individual low cost assets (acquired for less than Rs.5,000/-) are depreciated within a year of acquisition.

(iii) Intangible Assets and amortization:

Intangible assets are amortized over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available to the company for its use. Management, using reasonable and supportable assumptions, has estimated the useful lives for the intangible assets as follows:

Trademarks 20 years

Goodwill 10 years

Trademarks represent the brand image of the company and constitute an asset with no limited useful life. Based on advice received by the management and as per the provisions of the Trade Marks and Merchandise Act of 1999, the company can retain the ownership and registration of the trademarks perpetually by renewing the registration at the end of every ten years, leading to the view that the useful life of its trademarks are unlimited.

However, as a matter of abandon precaution, the cost of the Trademarks is being amortized over a period of 20 years.

e. Impairment of Assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognized, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognized for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

f. Investments

Trade investments are the investments made to enhance the company''s business interests. Investments are either classified as current or noncurrent based on the management''s intention at the time of purchase. Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value. Non Current Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in their value is made only if such a decline is other than temporary in the opinion of the management.

g. Revenue Recognition

Sale of Goods

The Company recognizes revenue on accrual basis. Revenue from the sale of hardware/software products is recognized when the sale is completed with the passing of title.

Income from Services

Revenue from services is recognized in the ratio of period expired over the total agreement period.

Revenue from Fixed Price Contracts is recognized proportionately over the period in which services are rendered. The consideration received from the customer''s in respect of certain online services for an extended period is accounted for as revenue in the financial year in which consideration is received. Costs related to the revenue are also recognized in the same period. Hence the gross margin is not impacted (i.e. not overstated or understated). This method of revenue recognition and cost related to it is being consistently followed from previous year.

Other Income

Other income is recognized on accrual basis. Dividend income is recognized when the company''s right to receive dividend is established.

Profit on sale of investments is recorded on transfer of title from the company and is determined as the difference between the sales price and the carrying value of the investment.

h. Foreign Currency Transactions

Initial recognition

Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the company and its integral foreign operations are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of transaction.

Measurement of foreign currency monetary items at the Balance Sheet date

Foreign currency monetary items (other than derivative contracts) of the Company and its net investment in non-integral foreign operations outstanding at the Balance Sheet date are restated at the year-end rates.

In the case of integral operations, assets and liabilities (other than non-monetary items), are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the Balance Sheet date. Non-monetary items are carried at historical cost. Revenue and expenses are translated at the exchange rates on the date of transaction. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Treatment of Exchange Difference

Exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement of short-term foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company and its integral foreign operations are recognized as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The exchange differences on restatement / settlement of loans to non-integral foreign operations that are considered as net investment in such operations are accumulated in a "Foreign currency translation reserve" until disposal / recovery of the net investment. The exchange differences arising on restatement / settlement of long-term foreign currency monetary items are capitalized as part of the depreciable fixed assets to which the monetary item relates and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets or amortized on settlement / over the maturity period of such items if such items do not relate to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets. The unamortized balance is carried in the Balance Sheet as "Foreign currency monetary item translation difference account" net of the tax effect thereon.

Accounting of forward contracts

Premium / discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amortized over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the Balance Sheet date.

i. Employee Benefits

Employee benefits include provident fund, gratuity fund, compensated absences and long service awards.

Defined contribution plans

The Company''s contributions to provident fund are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense as they fall due based on the amount of contribution required to be made.

Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund and leave encashment, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognized immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortized on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognized past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.

j. Research and Development

Revenue expenditure incurred on research and development is expensed as incurred. Capital expenditure is included in the respective heads under fixed assets and depreciation thereon is charged to the profit and loss account.

k. Borrowing Cost

Borrowing costs include interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Costs in connection with the borrowing of funds to the extent not directly related to the acquisition of qualifying assets are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the tenure of the loan. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilized for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset up to the date of capitalization of such asset is added to the cost of the assets. Capitalization of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.

l. Leases

Lease rentals in respect of assets taken on ''Operating Lease'' are charged to the profit & loss Account on straight line basis over the lease term.

m. Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share (EPS) is calculated by dividing the net profit after tax for the year (including the post-tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue and share split.

n. Taxes on Income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognized as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognized on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantially enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses are recognized only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realize such assets. Deferred tax assets are recognized for timing differences of other items only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date for their reliability.

o. Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from regular revenue generating, financing, and investing activities of the company are segregated.

p. Provision and contingencies

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

The disclosure is made for all possible or present obligations that may but probably will not require outflow of resources as contingent liability. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes.


Mar 31, 2011

(i) Basis of Accounting

The financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting principles ("GAAP") under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis. GAAP comprises mandatory Accounting Standards issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ("ICAI"), the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.

The Management evaluates all recently issued or revised accounting standards on an ongoing basis.

(ii) Use of Estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent assets and liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. Examples of such estimates include provisions for doubtful debts, future obligations under employee retirement benefit plans, income taxes and the useful lives of fixed assets and intangible assets.

The management periodically assesses using, external and internal sources, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which the asset is identified as impaired. Where no reliable estimate can be made; a disclosure is made as contingent liability. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

(iii) Fixed Assets and Depreciation

a) Tangible Assets:

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Costs directly attributable to the purchase of fixed assets are capitalized until fixed assets are ready for use. Capital work-in- progress comprises of advances paid to acquire fixed assets, and the cost of fixed assets that are not yet ready for their intended use before the balance sheet date.

All assets discarded/ dismantled are written off assuming that the scrap value for the same is Nil. If and when such discarded assets are disposed off partially or fully, the amounts realized during the year are credited to the profit and loss account of that year.

b) Depriciation:

Depreciation of Fixed Assets is provided on a pro-rata basis on the written down value method at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, on all assets, except for the following:

Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the remaining period of lease or 10 years whichever is lesser.

Individual low cost assets (acquired for less than Rs.5,000/-) are depreciated within a year of acquisition.

c) Intangible Assets and Amortization:

Intangible assets are amortized over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available to the company for its use. Management, using reasonable and supportable assumptions, has estimated the useful lives for the intangible assets as follows:

Trademarks 20 years

Goodwill 10 years

Trademarks represent the brand image of the company and constitute an asset with no limited useful life. Based on advice received by the management and as per the provisions of the Trade Marks and Merchandise Act of 1999, the company can retain the ownership and registration of the trademarks perpetually by renewing the registration at the end of every ten years, leading to the view that the useful life of its trademarks are unlimited.

However, as a matter of abandon precaution, the cost of the Trademarks is being amortized over a period of 20 years.

Investments

Trade investments are the investments made to enhance the company's business interests. Investments are either classified as current or long-term based on the management's intention (iv) at the time of purchase. Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in their value is made only if such a decline is other than temporary in the opinion of the management.

Revenue Recognition

The Company recognizes revenue on accrual basis. Revenue from the sale of hardware/software products is recognized when the sale is completed with the passing of title. Revenue from services (v) is recognized in the ratio of period expired over the total agreement period. Revenue from Fixed Price Contracts is recognized proportionately over the period in which services are rendered.

Profit on sale of investments is recorded on transfer of title from the company and is determined as the difference between the sales price and the then carrying value of the investment. Lease rentals are recognized using the time-proportion method, based on rates implicit in the transaction. Dividend income is recognized when the company's right to receive dividend is established.

(vi) Foreign Currency Transactions

Investments in foreign entities are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of making theinvestments.

Expenditure in foreign currency is accounted at the exchange rate prevalent when such expenditure is incurred. Exchange differences are recorded when the amount actually received on sales or actually paid when expenditure is incurred, is converted into Indian Rupees. The exchange differences arising on foreign currency transactions are recognized as income or expense in the period in which they arise except in respect of liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets, where such exchange difference is adjusted in the carrying cost of the respective fixed asset.

Monetary current assets and monetary current liabilities that are denominated in foreign currency are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of the balance sheet. The resulting gain or loss is also recorded in the profit and loss account.

(vii) Inventories

Inventory is valued at lower of cost (determined on First in First out basis) and estimated net realizable value. Cost is inclusive of all purchase costs and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and conditions.

(viii) Retirement Benefits

All employees of the Company are entitled to receive benefits under the Provident Fund, which is a defined contribution plan. Both the employee and the employer make monthly contributions to the plan at a predetermined rate (presently 12.0%) of the employees' basic salary. These contributions are made to the fund administered and managed by the Government of India. In addition, some employees of the Company are covered under the employees' state insurance schemes, which are also defined contribution schemes recognized and administered by the Government of India.

The Company's contributions to both these schemes are expensed in the Profit and Loss Account. The Company has no further obligations under these plans beyond its monthly contributions.

Gratuity has been provided in the Profit and Loss Account as per the provisions of the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972. Provisions for gratuity is based on independent Actuarial Valuation Certificate.

Provision for Leave encashment is made on the basis of unutilized leave due to employees at the end of the year.

(ix) Research and Development

Revenue expenditure incurred on research and development is expensed as incurred. Capital expenditure is included in the respective heads under fixed assets and depreciation thereon is charged to the profit and loss account.

(x) Borrowing Cost

Interest and other costs in connection with the borrowing of funds to the extent related/attributed to the acquisition/construction of qualifying fixed assets are capitalized upto the date when such assets are ready for its intended use and other borrowing costs are charged to Profit & Loss Account.

(xi) Leases

Lease rentals in respect of assets taken on 'Operating Lease' are charged to the profit & loss Account on straight line basis over the lease term.

(xii) Earning per Share

Basic earning per share (EPS) is calculated by dividing the net profit after tax for the year (including the post-tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue and share split.

(xiii) Taxation

Tax expense for the year comprises of current tax and deferred tax.

Income tax is computed using the tax effect accounting method, where tax is accrued in the same period the related revenue and expense arises. Provision is made for income tax annually based on the tax liability computed, after considering tax allowances and exemptions.

The differences that result between the profit considered for income taxes and the profit as per the financial statements are identified, and thereafter a deferred tax asset or deferred tax liability is recorded for timing differences, namely the differences that originate in one accounting period and reverse in another, based on the tax effect of the aggregate amount being considered. The tax effect is calculated on the accumulated timing differences at the end of an accounting period based on prevailing enacted or substantially enacted regulations. Deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is reasonable certainty that they will be realized and are reviewed for the appropriateness of the respective carrying values at each balance sheet date. The income tax provision for the interim period is made based on the best estimate of the annual average tax rate expected to be applicable for the full fiscal year.

(xiv) Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from regular revenue generating, financing, and investing activities of the company are segregated.

(xv) Contingent Liabilities

Depending on the facts of each case, and after evaluation of relevant legal aspects, the Company makes a provision when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event where the outflow of economic resources is probable and a relevant estimate of the amount of obligation can be made. The disclosure is made for all possible or present obligations that may but probably will not require outflow of resources as contingent liability in the financial statement.






Mar 31, 2000

1. Accounting; Conventions

The accounts have been prepared under the historical cost convention.

2. Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less depredation.

3. Depreciation

a) On Assets for own use

Depreciation on assets for own use is provided on written down value method at the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

4. Investments

a) Shares, Debentures, Units, Warrants and Securities are accounted under Investments on trade dates.

b) The cost of Investment includes brokerage and stamp duty.

5. Valuation of Investments

Investments are valued at cost Provision for diminution, if any, in the value of investment is made to recognise a decline, other than temporary. The said diminution is determined for each investment individually.

Determination of Market value of Investment is determined as under-

Quoted scrips are taken at year end closing market rates prevailing at the principal exchange where they are trade.

ii) The rights entitlements of Shares/Debentures are taken at the year end closing market rates applicable for relevant Shares/Debentures less uncalled liability, if any.

iii) Unqoted shares are taken at cost or break-up value of the share as per the last audited Balance Sheet of the company concerned, whichever is lower.

iv) Government Securities are taken on the basis of average of the indicative rates as certified by the independent dealers in such securities.

6. Income

a) Profit or Losses from Investments are recognised on trade date on cost price basis.

7. Taxation

Provision for Income-Tax and Wealth-Tax is made after considering exemptions and deductions available at the rates applicable under the Income-Tax Act, 1961 and Wealth-Tax Act. 1957.

 
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