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Accounting Policies of Neuland Laboratories Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2016

1. COMPANY OVERVIEW

Neuland Laboratories Limited ("the Company" or "NLL") is a public Company domiciled in India and incorporated in accordance with the provisions of Companies Act, 1956. Its shares are listed on two stock exchanges in India. The Company is engaged in manufacturing and selling of bulk drugs and caters to both domestic and international markets.

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

a. Basis of preparation of standalone financial statements

The standalone financial statements are prepared under historical cost convention in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India ("Indian GAAP"), including the Accounting Standards specified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the "Act") read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (as amended), pronouncements of The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (''ICAI''). The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and the accounting policies applied by the Company are consistent with those used in the prior period.

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III to the Act. Based on the nature of business, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as up to twelve months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

b. Use of estimates

The preparation of the standalone financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent assets and liabilities as at the date of the standalone financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. Examples of such estimates include provisions for trade receivables, doubtful loans and advances, future obligations under employee retirement benefit plans, income taxes and the useful lives of fixed assets.

Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognized prospectively in the current and future periods.

c. Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost, except in respect of certain land, buildings, plant and machinery which are shown at re-valued values, less accumulated depreciation, amortization and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprise of purchase price, freight, non-refundable duties, taxes and any other cost attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Assets retired from active use and held for disposal are stated at their estimated net realizable values or net book values, whichever is lower.

Exchange rate variations relating to long-term foreign currency monetary items, which are utilized in acquisition of a depreciable capital assets are added to or deducted from the cost of the asset and depreciated over the remaining useful life of the asset.

d. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition and construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as a part of the cost of the asset. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.

e. Depreciation

Depreciation is provided on straight line method (''SLM'') based on useful lives of the assets as estimated by management which coincides with rates prescribed under Schedule II to the Act.

Depreciation on sale/deduction from fixed assets is provided for up to the date of sale /deduction as the case may be.

f. Intangible assets

Intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortization. Computer software expenditure is amortized over a period of three years on straight line method.

g. Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets, both tangible and intangible, are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital.

h. Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year and current maturities of long-term investments are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the long-term investments.

i. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the collectability is reasonably assured.

Sale of goods:

Revenue from sale of goods is accounted for when significant risks and rewards are transferred to buyers, which generally coincide with the dispatch of goods from the factory premises, or when delivery is delayed at the buyer''s request and the buyer takes title and accepts the invoice. Revenue is inclusive of excise duty but net of sales tax, trade discounts and returns.

Sale of services:

Revenue from sale of services is recognized as per the terms of contracts with customers when the related services are performed, when the agreed milestones are achieved and when the Company completes all its performance obligations.

Export entitlements:

Export entitlement / incentives are recognized when the right to receive credit is established in respect of the exports made and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds and utilization of export incentives within its validity period.

Interest income:

Interest income is recognized on the time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the interest rate applicable.

Dividend income:

Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive the payment is established. j. Inventories

Raw material, stores and spare parts are carried at cost. Cost includes purchase price excluding taxes those are subsequently recoverable from the concerned authorities, freight inwards and other expenditure incurred in bringing such inventories to their present location and condition. Cost of inventories is determined using the weighted average cost method.

The carrying cost of raw materials, stores and spare parts are appropriately written down when there is a decline in replacement cost of such materials and finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold below cost.

Finished goods and work in progress are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost of work in progress and manufactured finished goods is determined on weighted average basis and comprises cost of direct material, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing these inventories to their present location and condition. Excise duty liability is included in the valuation of closing inventory of finished goods.

k. Employee benefits Provident Fund

The Company contributes to the provident fund maintained by the Regional Provident Fund Commissioner, in accordance with the Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provision Act, 1952. The provident fund plan is a defined contribution plan and contribution paid is recognized as an expense in the period in which it becomes due. There are no other obligations of the Company other than the contributions made to the fund.

Gratuity

Gratuity is a post-employment defined benefit obligation. An independent actuary, using the projected unit credit method calculates the defined benefit obligation annually. Actuarial gains or losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are credited or charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which such gains or losses arises.

Employee state insurance

The Company contributes to the Employees State Insurance Fund maintained by the respective state authorities, in accordance with Employees State Insurance Act, 1948. The plan is a defined contribution plan and contribution paid or payable is recognized as an expense in the period in which it becomes due. There are no other obligations of the Company other than the contributions made to the funds.

Compensated absences

The Company measures the expected cost of accumulating compensated absences as the additional amount expected to be paid as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date. An independent actuary, using the projected unit credit method calculates the defined benefit obligation annually. Actuarial gains or losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are credited or charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which such gains or losses arises.

Employee share based payments

Recognition, measurement and disclosures relating to employee stock compensation is done in accordance with the guidance note on accounting for Employee Share-based Payments ("the Guidance Note"), issued by the ICAI. The Company uses intrinsic value method for the purposes of measurement of compensation cost and the fair value method for the purposes of additional disclosures in the financial statements. An independent value determines the intrinsic value of the underlying shares as on the date of the grant and compensation expenses, where applicable, are recognized as deferred employee stock compensation and is charged to statement of profit and loss using the straight line method over the vesting period.

l. Foreign currency transactions

Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported at year-end rates. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of foreign currency monetary items or on reporting monetary items of the Company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

m. Taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax

authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier periods.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is a virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

Unrecognized deferred tax assets of earlier years are re-assessed and recognized to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date.

The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in guidance note issued by the ICAI, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the Statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT credit entitlement.

n. Earnings per equity share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

o. Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event i.e., it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. A disclosure of the contingent liability is made when there is a possible or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources.

p. Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby net profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments.

q. Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the balance sheet comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with original maturity of less than three months.


Mar 31, 2014

A. Basis of Accounting and use of estimates

(i) Financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, on accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India and in compliance with the provisions of Companies Act 1956, and comply with the mandatory accounting standards specified in Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules 2006 (which continue to be applicable in respect Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 in terms of General Circular 15/2013 dated September 13, 2013 of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs).

(ii) The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

B. Revenue Recognition

(i) Sales are recognized on dispatch of products. Sales are inclusive of insurance, freight and exclusive of Sales Tax.

(ii) The export incentive are accrued and accounted on the basis of the actual exports made during the year.

(iii) Income from product development services are recognized when services are rendered or related costs are incurred in accordance with the terms of specific contracts.

C. Excise Duty

Excise Duty recovered is reduced from sale of products. Excise Duty in respect of finished goods is accounted for, as and when goods are cleared from the factory and inventory of finished goods is valued inclusive of excise duty where applicable.

D. Fixed Assets

(i) Fixed Assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Cost of acquisition or construction is inclusive of freight, duties (net of CENVAT and VAT), taxes, incidental expenses relating to acquisition, cost of installation/ erection, attributable interest and financial cost till such time assets are ready for its intended use.

(ii) Foreign Exchange gain/loss on borrowings for acquisition / construction of Fixed Assets have been reduced from/added to the related costs of assets with effect from 1st April 2007 as per Ministry of Corporate Affairs notification dated 31st March 2009 in amendment of accounting standards.

(iii) Certain land, buildings, plant & machinery and fixed assets are shown at re-valued values. Other fixed assets are shown at cost.

(iv) Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on Straight Line Method at the rates prescribed by Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 as amended, and is calculated on a pro-rata basis. Depreciation is charged on pro rata basis for assets purchased / sold during the year. Depreciation on value written up on revalued assets is calculated on SLM basis with reference to the remaining useful life of the asset and the Revaluation Reserve is charged with the difference between the depreciation calculated on such revalued costs and the historical cost.

(v) Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets are capitalized as part of such assets for the period up to the date of put to use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue.

(vi) Expenses on Research & Development equipment are capitalized.

(vii) Intangibles being cost of SAP ERP and software are amortized over a period of three years.

E. Impairment of Assets

In accordance with Accounting Standard 28 (AS 28) on " Impairment of Assets, where there is an indication of impairment of the Company''s assets, the carrying amounts of the Company''s assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss, if any, is recognized in the Statement of Profit & Loss, wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. The recoverable amount of the assets is estimated at the higher of its net selling price and its value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to the present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life. Previously recognized impairment loss is further provided or reversed depending on changes in circumstances.

F. Investments

Long term Investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value if any is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of investments.

G. Foreign currency Transactions

(i) Transactions in foreign exchange are accounted for at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction. Foreign currency monetary items are reported using exchange rates prevailing at the close of the year and exchange difference arising there from is charged/credited to the Statement of Profit & Loss. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

(ii) In case of fixed assets, refer D (ii) above.

(iii) Derivative instruments and hedge accounting:

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. With effect from April 1, 2012, the Company designates such forward contracts in a cash flow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles set out in Accounting Standard 30- Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in Hedging Reserve Account under Reserves and Surplus, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Amounts accumulated in Hedging Reserve Account are reclassified to profit and loss in the same periods during which the forecasted transaction affects proft and loss.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in Hedging Reserve Account is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs.

If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in Hedging Reserve Account is immediately transferred to the statement of profit and loss.

H. Inventories

Inventories are valued at lower of cost and estimated net realizable value, after providing for cost of obsolescence and other anticipated loss whenever considered necessary. Work-in-process is valued at estimated cost on the basis of stage wise completion of the production. Finished goods and work in process include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present level of location and condition. Cost is determined by using the weighted average basis. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty, wherever applicable.

I. Taxation

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefts admissible under the provisions of Income Tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives rise to future economic benefits in the form of adjustment of future income tax liability is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal tax. Accordingly, it is recognized as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company and the asset can be measured reliably.

Deferred tax resulting from "timing differences" between book and taxable profit is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. The deferred tax assets pertaining to carried forward losses and unabsorbed depreciation are recognized only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that these assets are realized. The deferred tax assets pertaining to other items are recognized to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that the same can be realized.

J. Employee Stock Option Schemes (ESOS)

The Company accounts for compensation expense under the Employee Stock Option Schemes using the intrinsic value method as permitted by the Guidance Note on "Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments" issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. The difference between the market price and the exercise price as at the date of the grant is treated as compensation expense and charged over the vesting period.

K. Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

L. Employee Benefits

(i) Defend Contribution Plan

The Company''s Employee''s Provident Fund administered through Government Provident Fund, Employee State Insurance Scheme and Labor Welfare Fund are considered as Defined Contribution Plans. The Company''s contributions paid/payable towards these defined contributions plan are recognised as expense in the statement of Profit and Loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The interest rate payable by the said funds to the beneficiaries every year is being notified by the Government. The Company has no obligation to make good the shortfall, if any between the return from the investment and the interest rate.

(ii) Defend Benefit Plan

Company''s liabilities towards gratuity, long term compensated absences are considered as Defined Benefit Plans. The present value of the obligations under such Defined Benefit Plans are determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to an additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss. The obligation is measured at the present value of estimated future cash flows using a discount rate that is determined by reference to market yields at the balance sheet date on Government securities.

M. Leases

Lease payments under operating lease are recognised as an expense in the statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Lease income on the operating lease is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight- line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss.

N. Contingencies and Provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events. Provisions are not discounted to present value and are determined based on the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.


Mar 31, 2013

A. Basis of Accounting and use of estimates

(i) Financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, on accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India and in compliance with the provisions of Companies Act 1956, and comply with the mandatory accounting standards specified in Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules 2006, prescribed by the Central government.

(ii) The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

B. Revenue Recognition

(i) Sales are recognized on dispatch of products. Sales are inclusive of insurance, freight and exclusive of Sales Tax.

(ii) The export incentive are accrued and accounted on the basis of the actual exports made during the year.

(iii) Income from product development services are recognized when services are rendered or related costs are incurred in accordance with the terms of specific contracts.

C. Excise Duty

Excise Duty recovered is reduced from sale of products. Excise Duty in respect of finished goods is accounted for, as and when goods are cleared from the factory and stocks of finished goods are valued inclusive of excise duty where applicable.

D. Fixed Assets

(i) Fixed Assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Cost of acquisition or construction is inclusive of freight, duties (net of CENVAT and VAT), taxes, incidental expenses relating to acquisition, cost of installation/erection, attributable interest and financial cost till such time assets are ready for its intended use.

(ii) Foreign Exchange gain/loss on borrowings for acquisition / construction of Fixed Assets have been reduced from/added to the related costs of assets with effect from 1st April 2007 as per Ministry of Corporate Affairs notification dated 31st March 2009 in amendment of accounting standards.

(iii) Certain land, buildings, plant & machinery and fixed assets are shown at re-valued values. Other fixed assets are shown at cost.

(iv) Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on Straight Line Method at the rates prescribed by Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 as amended, and is calculated on a pro-rata basis. Depreciation is charged on pro rata basis for assets purchased / sold during the year. Depreciation on value written up on revalued assets is calculated on SLM basis with reference to the remaining useful life of the asset and the Revaluation Reserve is charged with the difference between the depreciation calculated on such revalued costs and the historical cost.

(v) Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets are capitalized as part of such assets for the period up to the date of put to use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue.

(vi) Expenses on Research & Development equipment are capitalized.

(vii) Intangibles being cost of SAP ERP and software are amortized over a period of three years.

E. Impairment of Assets

In accordance with Accounting Standard 28 (AS 28) on " Impairment of Assets, where there is an indication of impairment of the Company''s assets, the carrying amounts of the Company''s assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss, if any, is recognized in the Statement of Profit & Loss, wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. The recoverable amount of the assets is estimated at the higher of its net selling price and its value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to the present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life. Previously recognized impairment loss is further provided or reversed depending on changes in circumstances.

F. Investments

Long term Investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value if any is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of investments.

G. Foreign currency Transactions

(i) Transactions in foreign exchange are accounted for at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction. Foreign currency monetary items are reported using exchange rates prevailing at the close of the year and exchange difference arising there from is charged / credited to the Statement of Profit & Loss. Non- monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

(ii) In case of fixed assets, refer D (ii) above.

(iii) Derivative instruments and hedge accounting:

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. With effect from April 1, 2012, the Company designates such forward contracts in a cash flow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles set out in Accounting Standard 30- Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in Hedging Reserve Account under Reserves and Surplus, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss account.

Amounts accumulated in Hedging Reserve Account are reclassified to profit and loss in the same periods during which the forecasted transaction affects profit and loss.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in Hedging

Reserve Account is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs.

If the forecasted transaction is no Longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or Loss recognised in Hedging Reserve Account is immediately transferred to the statement of profit and Loss account.

H. Inventories

Inventories are valued at Lower of cost and estimated net realizable value, after providing for cost of obsolescence and other anticipated loss whenever considered necessary. Work-in-process is valued at estimated cost on the basis of stage wise completion of the production. Finished goods and work in process include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present level of location and condition. Cost is determined by using the weighted average basis. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty, wherever applicable.

I. Taxation

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of Income Tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives rise to future economic benefits in the form of adjustment of future income tax liability is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal tax. Accordingly, it is recognized as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company and the asset can be measured reliably.

Deferred tax resulting from "timing differences" between book and taxable profit is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. The deferred tax assets pertaining to carried forward losses and unabsorbed depreciation are recognized only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that these assets are realized. The deferred tax assets pertaining to other items are recognized to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that the same can be realized.

J. Employee Stock Option Schemes (ESOS)

The Company accounts for compensation expense under the Employee Stock Option Schemes using the intrinsic value method as permitted by the Guidance Note on "Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments" issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. The difference between the market price and the exercise price as at the date of the grant is treated as compensation expense and charged over the vesting period.

K. Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

L Employee Benefits

(i) Defined Contribution Plan

The Company''s Employee''s Provident Fund administered through Government Provident Fund, Employee State Insurance Scheme and Labour Welfare Fund are considered as Defined Contribution Plans. The Company''s contributions paid/payable towards these defined contributions plan are recognised as expense in the Profit and Loss Account during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The interest rate payable by the said funds to the beneficiaries every year is being notified by the Government. The Company has no obligation to make good the shortfall, if any between the return from the investment and the interest rate.

(ii) Defined Benefit Plan

Company''s liabilities towards gratuity, long term compensated absences are considered as Defined Benefit Plans. The present value of the obligations under such Defined Benefit Plans are determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method, which recognises each period of service as giving rise to an additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss. The obligation is measured at the present value of estimated future cash flows using a discount rate that is determined by reference to market yields at the balance sheet date on Government securities.

M. Leases

Lease payments under operating lease are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account on a straight- line basis over the lease term.

Lease income on the operating lease is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss.

N. Contingencies and Provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events. Provisions are not discounted to present value and are determined based on the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed after careful examination of the facts and legal aspects of the matter involved.


Mar 31, 2012

A. Basis of accounting and use of estimates

i. Financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, on accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India and in compliance with the provisions of Companies Act, 1956 and comply with the mandatory accounting standards specified in Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006 prescribed by the central government.

ii. Till the year ended March 31, 2011 the Company was using pre-revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 for preparation and presentation of its financial statements. During the year ended March 31, 2012 the revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act, 1956, has become applicable to the Company. The Company has reclassified previous year numbers to conform to this year's classification. The adoption of revised Schedule VI does not impact recognition and measurement principles followed for preparation of the financial statements. However, it significantly impacts the presentation and disclosure made in the financial statements, particularly presentation of balance sheet.

iii. The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

B. Revenue recognition

i. Sales are recognized on dispatch of products. Sales are inclusive of insurance, freight and exclusive of sales tax.

ii. The export incentive are accrued and accounted on the basis of the actual exports made during the year.

iii. Income from product development services are recognized when services are rendered or related costs are incurred in accordance with the terms of specific contracts.

C. Excise duty

Excise duty recovered is reduced from sale of products. Excise duty in respect of finished goods is accounted for, as and when goods are cleared from the factory and stocks of finished goods are valued inclusive of excise duty where applicable.

D. Fixed assets

i. Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Cost of acquisition or construction is inclusive of freight, duties (net of CENVAT and VAT), taxes, incidental expenses relating to acquisition, cost of installation/erection, attributable interest and financial cost till such time assets are ready for its intended use.

ii. Foreign exchange gain/loss on borrowings for acquisition/construction of fixed assets have been reduced from/added to the related costs of assets with effect from April 1, 2007 as per Ministry of Corporate Affairs notification dated March 31, 2009 in amendment of accounting standards.

iii. Certain land, buildings, plant & machinery and fixed assets are shown at re-valued values. Other fixed assets are shown at cost.

iv. Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on Straight Line Method at the rates prescribed by Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 as amended, and is calculated on a pro-rata basis. Depreciation is charged on pro rata basis for assets purchased/sold during the year. Depreciation on value written up on revalued assets is calculated on SLM basis with reference to the remaining useful life of the asset and the revaluation reserve is charged with the difference between the depreciation calculated on such revalued costs and the historical cost.

v. Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets are capitalized as part of such assets for the period up to the date of put to use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue.

vi. Expenses on Research & Development equipment are capitalized.

vii. Intangibles being cost of SAP ERP and software are amortized over a period of three years.

E. Impairment of assets

In accordance with Accounting Standard 28 (AS 28) on 'Impairment of Assets,' where there is an indication of impairment of the Company's assets, the carrying amounts of the Company's assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any impairment based on internal/ external factors. An impairment loss, if any, is recognized in the statement of profit and loss, wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. The recoverable amount of the assets is estimated at the higher of its net selling price and its value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to the present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life. Previously recognized impairment loss is further provided or reversed depending on changes in circumstances.

F. Investments

Long term Investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value, if any, is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of investments.

G. Foreign currency transactions

i. Transactions in foreign exchange are accounted for at the average exchange rate for the month of transaction. Foreign currency monetary items are reported using exchange rates prevailing at the close of the year and exchange difference arising there from is charged/credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

ii. The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortized as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognized as income or as expense for the year.

iii. In case of fixed assets, refer D (ii) above.

H. Inventories

Inventories are valued at lower of cost and estimated net realizable value, after providing for cost of obsolescence and other anticipated loss whenever considered necessary. Work-in-process is valued at estimated cost on the basis of stage wise completion of the production. Finished goods and work in process include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present level of location and condition. Cost is determined by using the weighted average basis. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty, wherever applicable.

I. Taxation

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from 'timing differences' between book and taxable profit is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. The deferred tax assets pertaining to carried forward losses and unabsorbed depreciation are recognized only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that these assets are realized. The deferred tax assets pertaining to other items are recognized to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that the same can be realized.

J. Employee Stock Option Schemes (ESOS)

The Company accounts for compensation expense under the Employee Stock Option Schemes using the intrinsic value method as permitted by the Guidance Note on 'Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments' issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. The difference between the market price and the exercise price as at the date of the grant is treated as compensation expense and charged over the vesting period.

K. Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

L. Employee Benefits

i. Defined Contribution Plan

The Company's Employee's Provident Fund administered through Government Provident Fund, Employee State Insurance Scheme and Labour Welfare Fund are considered as Defined Contribution Plans. The Company's contributions paid/payable towards these defined contributions plan are recognized as expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The interest rate payable by the said funds to the beneficiaries every year is being notified by the Government. The Company has no obligation to make good the shortfall, if any between the return from the investment and the interest rate.

ii. Defined Benefit Plan

Company's liabilities towards gratuity, long term compensated absences are considered as Defined Benefit Plans. The present value of the obligations under such Defined Benefit Plans are determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to an additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss. The obligation is measured at the present value of estimated future cash flows using a discount rate that is determined by reference to market yields at the balance sheet date on Government securities.

M. Leases

Lease payments under operating lease are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

N. Contingencies and Provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events. Provisions are not discounted to present value and are determined based on the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed after careful examination of the facts and legal aspects of the matter involved.


Mar 31, 2011

A. BASIS OF ACCOUNTING AND USE OF ESTIMATES

i. Financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, on accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India and in compliance with the provisions of Companies Act 1956, and comply with the mandatory accounting standards specified in Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules 2006, prescribed by the Central Government.

ii. The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

B. REVENUE RECOGNITION

i. Sales are recognized on dispatch of products. Sales are inclusive of insurance, freight and exclusive of sales tax.

ii. The export incentive are accrued and accounted on the basis of the actual exports made during the year.

iii. Income from product development services are recognized when services are rendered or related costs are incurred in accordance with the terms of specific contracts.

C. EXCISE DUTY

Excise Duty recovered is reduced from sale of products. Excise Duty in respect of finished goods is Accounted for, as and when goods are cleared from the factory and stocks of finished goods are valued inclusive of excise duty where applicable.

D. FIXED ASSETS

i. Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Cost of acquisition or construction is inclusive of freight, duties (net of CENVAT and VAT), taxes, incidental expenses relating to acquisition, cost of installation/erection, attributable interest and financial cost till such time assets are ready for its intended use.

ii. Foreign exchange gain/loss on borrowings for acquisition/construction of fixed assets have been reduced from/added to the related costs of assets with effect from April 1, 2007 as per the Ministry of Corporate Affairs notification dated March 31, 2009 in amendment of accounting standards.

iii. Certain land, buildings, plant & machinery and fixed assets are shown at revalued values. Other fixed assets are shown at cost.

iv. Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on Straight Line Method at the rates prescribed by Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 as amended, and is calculated on a pro-rata basis. Depreciation is charged on pro rata basis for assets purchased/sold during the year. Depreciation on value written up on revalued assets is calculated on SLM basis with reference to the remaining useful life of the asset and the Revaluation Reserve is charged with the difference between the depreciation calculated on such revalued costs and the historical cost.

v. Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets are capitalized as part of such assets for the period up to the date of put to use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue.

vi. Expenses on Research & Development equipment are capitalized.

vii. Intangibles being cost of SAP ERP and software is amortized over a period of three years.

E. IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS

In accordance with Accounting Standard 28 (AS 28) on 'Impairment of Assets,' where there is an indication of impairment of the Company's assets, the carrying amounts of the Company's assets are reviewed at each

balance sheet date to determine whether there is any impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss, if any, is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account, wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. The recoverable amount of the assets is estimated at the higher of its net selling price and its value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to the present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life. Previously recognized impairment loss is further provided or reversed depending on changes in circumstances.

F. INVESTMENTS

Long term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value if any is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of investments.

G. FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS

a. Transactions in foreign exchange are accounted for at the average exchange rate for the month of transaction. Gains and losses arising thereon are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account. In respect of items covered by forward exchange contract, the premium or discount arising at the inception of such a forward exchange contract is amortised as an expense or income over the life of the contract;

b. Foreign currency monetary items are reported using exchange rates prevailing at the close of the year and exchange difference arising there from is charged/credited to Profit and Loss Account. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction;

c. In case of fixed assets, refer D (ii) above.

H. INVENTORIES

Inventories are valued at lower of cost and estimated net realizable value, after providing for cost of obsolescence and other anticipated loss whenever considered necessary. Work-in-progress is valued at estimated cost on the basis of stage wise completion of the production. Finished goods and work in process include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present level of location and condition. Cost is determined by using the weighted average basis. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty, wherever applicable.

I. TAXATION

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from 'timing differences' between book and taxable profit is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. The deferred tax assets pertaining to carried forward losses and unabsorbed depreciation are recognized only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that these assets are realized. The deferred tax assets pertaining to other items are recognized to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that the same can be realized.

J. EMPLOYEE STOCK OPTION SCHEMES (ESOP)

The Company accounts for compensation expense under the Employee Stock Option Schemes using the intrinsic value method as permitted by the Guidance Note on 'Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments' issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. The difference between the market price and the exercise price as at the date of the grant is treated as compensation expense and charged over the vesting period.

K. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

a. Defined Contribution Plan

The Company's Employee's Provident Fund administered through Government Provident Fund, Employee State Insurance Scheme and Labour Welfare Fund are considered as Defined Contribution Plans. The Company's contributions paid/payable towards these defined contributions plan are recognised as expense in the Profit and Loss Account during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The interest rate payable by the said funds to the beneficiaries every year is being notified by the government. The Company has no obligation to make good the shortfall, if any between the return from the investment and the interest rate.

b. Defined Benefit Plan

Company's liabilities towards gratuity, long term compensated absences are considered as Defined Benefit Plans. The present value of the obligations under such Defined Benefit Plans are determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method, which recognises each period of service as giving rise to an additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.The obligation is measured at the present value of estimated future cash flows using a discount rate that is determined by reference to market yields at the balance sheet date on government securities.

L. CONTINGENCIES AND PROVISIONS

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events. Provisions are not discounted to present value and are determined based on the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed after careful examination of the facts and legal aspects of the matter involved.


Mar 31, 2010

A. BASIS OF ACCOUNTING AND USE OF ESTIMATES

i. Financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, on accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India and in compliance with the provisions of Companies Act 1956, and comply with the mandatory accounting standards specified in Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules 2006, prescribed by the Central government.

ii. The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon managements best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

B. REVENUE RECOGNITION

i. Sales are recognized on dispatch of products. Sales are inclusive of insurance, freight and exclusive of sales tax.

ii. The export incentive are accrued and accounted on the basis of the actual exports made during the year.

iii. Income from product development services are recognized when.services are rendered or related costs are incurred in accordance with the terms of specific contracts.

C. EXCISE DUTY

Excise duty recovered is reduced from sale of products. Excise duty in respect of finished goods is accounted for, as and when goods are cleared from the factory and stocks of finished goods are valued inclusive of excise duty where applicable.

D. FIXED ASSETS

i. Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Cost of acquisition or construction is inclusive of freight, duties (net of CENVAT and VAT), taxes, incidental expenses relating to acquisition, cost of installation/erection, attributable interest and financial cost tilt such time assets are ready for its intended use.

ii. Foreign exchange gain/loss on borrowings for acquisition/construction of fixed assets have been reduced from/added to the related costs of assets with effect from April 1, 2007 as per Ministry of Corporate Affairs Notification dated March 31, 2009 in amendment of accounting standards.

iii. Certain land, buildings, plant & machinery and fixed assets are shown at re-valued values. Other fixed assets are shown at cost.

iv. Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on Straight Line Method at the rates prescribed by Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 as amended, and is calculated on a pro-rata basis. Depreciation is charged on pro rata basis for assets purchased/sold during the year. Depreciation on value written up on revalued assets is calculated on SLM basis with reference to the remaining useful life of the asset and the Revaluation Reserve is charged with the difference between the depreciation calculated on such revalued costs and the historical cost.

v. Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets are capitalized as part of such assets for the period up to the date of put to use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue.

vi. Expenses on Research & Development equipment are capitalized.

vii. Intangibles being cost of SAP ERP and software is amortized over a period of three years.

E. IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS

In accordance with Accounting Standard 28 (AS 28) on Impairment of Assets, where there is an indication of impairment of the Companys assets, the carrying amounts of the Companys assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss, if any, is recognized in the Profit & Loss Account, wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. The recoverable amount of the assets is estimated at the higher of its net selling price and its value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to the present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life. Previously recognized impairment loss is further provided or reversed depending on changes in circumstances.

F. INVESTMENTS

Long term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value if any is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of investments.

G. FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS

a. Transactions in foreign exchange are accounted for at the average exchange rate for the month of transaction. Gains and losses arising thereon are recognized in the Profit & Loss Account. In respect of items covered by forward exchange contract, the premium or discount arising at the inception of such a forward exchange contract is amortized as an expense or income over the life of the contract.

b. Foreign currency monetary items are reported using exchange rates prevailing at the close of the year and exchange difference arising there from is charged/credited to Profit & Loss Account. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction;

c. In case of fixed assets, refer D (ii) above.

H. INVENTORIES

Inventories are valued at lower of cost and estimated net realizable value, after providing for cost of obsolescence and other anticipated loss whenever considered necessary. Work-in-progress is valued at estimated cost on the basis of stage wise completion of the production. Finished goods and work in process include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present level of location and condition. Cost is determined by using the weighted average basis. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty, wherever applicable.

I. TAXATION

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from timing differences between book and taxable profit is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. The deferred tax assets is recognized and carried forward only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that asset will be realized in future.

J. EMPLOYEE STOCK OPTION SCHEMES (ESOP)

The Company accounts for compensation expense under the Employee Stock Option Schemes using the intrinsic value method as permitted by the Guidance Note on Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. The difference between the market price and the exercise price as at the date of the grant is treated as compensation expense and charged over the vesting period.

K. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

a. Defined Contribution Plan

The Companys Employees Provident Fund administered through Government Provident Fund, Employee State Insurance Scheme and Labour Welfare Fund are considered as Defined Contribution Plans. The Companys contributions paid/payable towards these defined contributions plan are recognized as expense in the Profit and Loss Account during the period in which the employee renders the related service. The interest rate payable by the said funds to the beneficiaries every year is being notified by the government. The Company has no obligation to make good the shortfall, if any between the return from the investment and the interest rate.

b. Defined Benefit Plan

Companys Liabilities towards gratuity, long term compensated absences are considered as Defined Benefit Plans. The present value of the obligations under such Defined Benefit Plans are determined based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to an additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss. The obligation is measured at the present value of estimated future cash flows using a discount rate that is determined by reference to market yields at the balance sheet date on government securities.

L. CONTINGENCIES AND PROVISIONS

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events. Provisions are not discounted to present value and are determined based on the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed after careful examination of the facts and legal aspects of the matter involved.

 
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