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Accounting Policies of Nitesh Estates Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2014

1. Background

Nitesh Estates Limited (the Company or ''NEL'') was incorporated on 20 February 2004. NEL is a real estate developer engaged in the business of development, sale, management and operation of residential buildings, retail and hotel projects, commercial premises and other related activities.

2. Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis of accounting and comply with Accounting Standards ("AS") prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules 2006, other pronouncements of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ("ICAI") and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, to the extent applicable and the Companies Act, 1956, to the extent applicable.

All assets and liabilities have been classifed as current or non-current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956.

3. Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in India requires management to make estimates and assumptions that afect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements. Actual results could difer from those estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

4. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will fow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue from operations is net of sales tax/ value added tax and net of adjustments on account of cancellation/returns.

a) Recognition of revenue from contractual projects

If the outcome of the contractual contract can be reliably measured, revenue associated with the construction contract is recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the contract activity at year end (the percentage of completion method).

b) Recognition of revenue from property development

Projects in progress as on 1 April 2012 where revenues were partially recognised in earlier years

Revenue from real estate development is recognised upon transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership of such real estate/ property, as per the terms of the contracts entered into with buyers, which generally coincides with the firming of the sales contracts/ agreements, except for contracts where the Company still has obligations to perform substantial acts even after the transfer of all significant risks and rewards. In such cases, the revenue is recognised on percentage of completion method. Revenue is recognised in proportion that the contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs. Land costs are not included for the purpose of computing the percentage of completion.

Projects in progress where revenue recognition commenced on or after 1 April 2012

Revenue from real estate development is recognised upon transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership of such real estate/property, as per the terms of contract entered into with the buyers, which generally coincides with the firming of the sales contracts/agreements. Where the Company still has obligations to perform substantial acts even after the transfer of all significant risks and rewards, revenue in such cases is recognised by applying the percentage of completion method only if the following thresholds have been met:

a) all critical approvals necessary for the commencement of the project have been obtained

b) the stage of completion of the project has reached a reasonable level of development, i.e., 25% or more of the construction and development cost related to project has been incurred

c) atleast 25% of the saleable project area is secured by sales contracts/ agreements with buyers

d) atleast 10% of the revenue as per each sales contract/ agreement with buyers are realized at the balance sheet date

When the outcome of a real estate project can be estimated reliably and the conditions above are satisfed project revenue and project costs associated with the real estate project are recognised as revenue and expenses by reference to the stage of completion of the project activity at the reporting date arrived at with reference to the entire project costs incurred (including land costs).

Contract costs include the estimated cost of construction, development and other directly attributable costs of the projects under construction. In cases where the total project cost is estimated to exceed the total estimated revenue from a project, the loss is recognised immediately.

The estimates for saleable area and contract costs are reviewed by the management periodically and the cumulative efect of changes in these estimates are recognised in the period in which these changes may be reliably measured.

c) Share in profits/ (loss) from investments in Association of Person (''AOP'')

The Company''s share in profits from AOP where the Company is a member, is recognised on the basis of such AOP''s audited accounts, as per terms of the agreement.

d) Interest income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

e) Income from Sale of Plots

Sale of land and plots (including development rights) is recognized in the financial year in which the agreement to sell is executed. Where the Company has any remaining substantial obligations as per the agreements, revenue is recognized on the percentage of completion method of accounting.

f) Unbilled revenue

Unbilled receivables represents revenue recognized based on Percentage of Completion Method over and above the amount due as per the payment plans agreed with the customers.

g) Billings in excess of revenue

Billing in excess of revenue represents the amount due as per the payment plans agreed with the customers over and above the revenue recognized based on Percentage of Completion Method.

5. Fixed assets and depreciation

Tangible fixed assets

Fixed assets are carried at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation. The cost of fixed assets includes freight, duties, taxes and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition or construction of the respective assets.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of those fixed assets which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised. Other borrowing costs are expensed as incurred.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each balance sheet date and the cost of the fixed assets not ready for their intended use before such date, are disclosed as capital work-in-progress.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on the written down value method as per the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 are considered as the minimum rates. However, where the management''s estimate of the useful life of a fixed asset at the time of acquisition of the asset or of the remaining useful life on a subsequent review is shorter than that envisaged in the aforesaid Schedule, depreciation is provided at a higher rate based on the management''s estimate of the useful life/ remaining useful life.

Pursuant to this policy, Management''s estimates of depreciation rate of the following assets are as follows:

- Computer equipment : 40%

- Ofce equipment : 13.91%

- Furniture and fixtures : 18.10%

- Vehicles : 25.89%

Pro-rata depreciation is provided on all fixed assets purchased or sold during the year. Assets costing individually Rs 5,000 or less are depreciated fully in the year of acquisition.

Leasehold improvements are amortized over the remaining primary period of lease upto 10 years or their estimated useful life, whichever is shorter, on a straight line basis.

Intangible assets - Computer software is amortized using straight line method over a period of 5 years, which is estimated by the management to be the useful life of the asset.

6. Impairment of assets

The Company periodically assesses whether there is any indication that an asset or a group of assets comprising a cash generating unit may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. For an asset or group of assets that does not generate largely independent cash inflows, the recoverable amount is determined for the cash- generating unit to which the asset belongs. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the profit and loss account. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that if a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is refected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the carrying amount of asset does not exceed the net book value that would have been determined if no impairment loss had been recognized.

7. Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classifed as current investments. All other investments are classifed as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value, if any, is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

8. Inventories

Inventories are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes all applicable costs including borrowing costs incurred in bringing the properties to their present location and condition. The method of determination of cost for various categories of inventories is as follows:

Land

Land is valued at cost of acquisition. Cost includes acquisition cost and related development charges. Finished stocks of constructed properties are valued at their cost of construction / acquisition.

Properties under development

Represents cost incurred in respect of unsold area of the real estate development projects or cost incurred on projects where the revenue is yet to be recognized. Real estate work-in-progress is valued at lower of cost and net realizable value.

The net realisable value of work in progress is determined with reference to the selling prices of related constructed property. Raw materials and other supplies held for use in construction of property are not written below cost except in cases where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of constructed property will exceed their net realisable value.

9. Land held under joint development arrangements

In case of joint development with the land owner on space sharing arrangement, on entering into the joint development agreement and obtaining necessary approvals for commencement of construction, land is initially recorded at the estimated cost of construction for the portion of the building to be transferred to the land owner on completion of construction. Changes in the estimate/ actual cost of construction from the estimated cost are adjusted in the cost of land in the year of such change/ occurrence.

10. Foreign exchange transactions

Foreign exchange transactions are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the dates of the respective transactions. Exchange diference arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognised in the profit and loss account for the year.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies as at the balance sheet date are translated at the closing exchange rate on that date; the resultant exchange diferences are recognised in the profit and loss account.

For derivative contracts entered into by the Company that are not covered by AS-11, the Company follows the guidance in the announcement of The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (''ICAI'') dated 29 March 2008 whereby for each category of derivatives, the Company records the net mark-to-market losses, if any. Net mark-to-market gains are not recorded for such derivatives.

11. Taxation

Income-tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the year determined in accordance with the income-tax law) and deferred tax charge or credit (refecting the tax efects of timing diferences between accounting income and taxable income for the year). Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward business loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets/ liabilities are reviewed as at each balance sheet date and written down or written-up to refect the amount that is reasonably/ virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised.

Minimum Alternative Tax (''MAT'') under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 is recognised as current tax in the Statement of profit and Loss. The credit available under the Act in respect of MAT paid is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the period for which the MAT credit can be carried forward for set-of against the normal tax liability. MAT credit recognised as an asset is reviewed at each balance sheet date and written down to the extent the aforesaid convincing evidence no longer exists.

The Company ofsets, the current tax assets and liabilities (on a year on year basis), where it has a legally enforceable right and where it intends to settle such assets and liabilities on a net basis.

12. Provisions and contingencies

The Company recognises a provision when there is a present obligation as a result of a past obligating event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Provisions for onerous contracts, i.e. contracts where the expected unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it, are recognised when it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle a present obligation as a result of an obligating event, based on a reliable estimate of such obligation.


Mar 31, 2012

A) Change in accounting policy

Presentation and disclosure of financial statements

During the year ended March 31, 2012, the revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act, 1956, has become applicable to the Company, for preparation and presentation of its financial statements. The adoption of revised Schedule VI does not impact recognition and measurement principles followed for preparation of financial statements. However, it has significant impact on presentation and disclosures made in the financial statements. The Company has also reclassified the previous year figures in accordance with the requirements applicable in the current year.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that afect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

c) Fixed assets

i. Tangible fixed assets

Tangible fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of tangible fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of Profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of tangible fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net of disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of Profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

ii. Intangible fixed assets

Intangible fixed assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of intangible fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net of disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of Profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

d) Depreciation / amortisation

Depreciation on assets is provided using written down value method ('WDV') at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956, which is also estimated by the management to be the estimated useful lives of the assets.

Schedule XIV Rates (WDV)

Computers 40.00%

Office Equipment 13.91%

Furniture and Fittings 18.10%

Motor Cars 25.89%

Leasehold improvements are amortised over the remaining primary period of lease upto 10 years or their estimated useful life, whichever is shorter, on a straight-line basis.

Assets individually costing less than or equal to Rs.5,000 are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.

Intangible fixed assets - Computer software is amortised using straight line method over a period of 5 years, which is estimated by the management to be the useful life of the asset.

e) Impairment of tangible and intangible fixed assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset's recoverable amount. An asset's recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's or cash-generating unit's (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash Inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reffects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks Specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identifed, an appropriate valuation model is used.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the Company's cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.

Impairment losses, including impairment on inventories, are recognized in the statement of Profit and loss. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

f) Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classifed as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of Profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

g) Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classifed as current investments. All other investments are classifed as non current investments.

On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in the value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of Profit and loss.

h) Inventories

Inventories are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct and indirect expenditure, which is determined based on Specific identification to the construction activity.

Direct expenditure relating to construction activity is inventorised. Indirect expenditure (including borrowing costs) during construction period is inventorised to the extent the expenditure is related to construction or is incidental thereto. Other indirect expenditure (including borrowing costs) incurred during the construction period which is neither related to the construction activity nor is incidental thereto is charged to the statement of Profit and loss.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

i) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following Specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:

Income from contractual activities

Revenue from fixed price construction contracts is recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the project at the reporting date. The stage of completion of project is determined by the proportion that contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs. When estimated contract costs exceed contract revenue, the expected loss is recognized immediately.

Revenue from cost plus construction contracts is recognized on the basis of an agreed mark up on costs incurred, in accordance with the terms of the agreement entered into by the Company and its customers.

Revenue from other contractual activities is recognized as activities are performed, on an accrual basis, based on arrangements with concerned parties.

Contract revenue earned in excess of billing has been reffected under "Other current assets" and billing in excess of contract revenue has been reffected under "Other current liabilities" in the balance sheet.

Income from property development

Revenue from real estate under development is recognised upon transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership of such real estate, as per the terms of the contracts entered into with buyers, which generally coincides with the firming of the sales contracts/ agreements, except for contracts where the Company still has obligations to perform substantial acts even after the transfer of all significant risks and rewards. In such cases, the revenue is recognised on percentage of completion method, when the stage of completion of each project reaches a reasonable level of progress. Revenue is recognised in proportion that the contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs. Land costs are not included for the purpose of computing the percentage of completion.

Income from sale of developed property

Revenue from sale of developed property is recognised upon transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership of such developed property, as per the terms of the contracts entered into with buyers, which generally coincides with the firming of the sales contracts/ agreements.

Share in Profits of Association of Person ('AOP')

The Company's share in Profits from AOP where the Company is a member, is recognised on the basis of such AOP's audited accounts, as per terms of the agreement.

Interest income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable

j) Foreign currency translation

Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting such monetary items of the Company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

k) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

l) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defned contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the statement of Profit and loss for the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective trusts.

Gratuity liability is a defned benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the reporting date. The gratuity liability is not externally funded. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of Profit and loss and are not deferred.

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond 12 months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purpose. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of Profit and loss and are not deferred. The Company presents the entire leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, since it does not have any unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date.

m) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India and tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where the Company operates. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of Profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes reffect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of Profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable Profits.

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-of current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of Profit and loss as current tax. The Company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under the Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of Profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The Company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

n) Advances/deposits against property

Advances paid by the Company to the seller/ intermediary toward outright purchase of land is recognized as 'Advances against property' under Loans and Advances during the course of obtaining clear and marketable title, free from all encumbrances and transfer of legal title to the Company, whereupon it is transferred to work in progress.

Deposits paid by the Company to the seller towards right for development of land in exchange of constructed area are recognized as deposits under Loans and Advances, unless they are non-refundable, wherein they are transferred to inventories on the launch of project.

o) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reffect the current best estimates.

p) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

q) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net Profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for event of bonus issue.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net Profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

r) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short- term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

s) Measurement of EBITDA

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of Profit and loss. The Company measures EBITDA on the basis of Profit/(loss). In its measurement, the Company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, fnance costs and tax expense.


Mar 31, 2011

A) Basis of preparation

The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the Accounting Standards notified by Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis. The accounting policies have been consistently applied by the Company and are consistent with those used in the previous year.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognized prospectively in the current and future years.

c) Fixed assets including intangible assets

Fixed assets including intangible assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each balance sheet date and the cost of fixed assets not ready for their intended use before such date are disclosed under capital work in progress.

d) Depreciation / Amortisation

Depreciation on assets, other than those described below, is provided using written down value method ('WDV') at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956, which is also estimated by the management to be the estimated useful lives of the assets.

Schedule XIV Rates (WDV)

Computers 40.00%

Office Equipment 13.91%

Furniture and Fittings 18.10%

Motor Cars 25.89%

Assets individually costing less than or equal to Rs.5,000 are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.

Leasehold improvements are amortised over the remaining primary period of lease or their estimated useful life, whichever is shorter, on a straight-line basis.

Intangible assets - Computer software is amortised using straight line method over a period of 5 years, which is estimated by the management to be the useful life of the asset.

e) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital.

f) Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased asset, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

g) Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current Investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term Investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in the value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of investments.

h) Inventories

Inventories comprising of Work in Progress are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct and indirect expenditure, which is determined based on specific identification to the construction activity.

Direct expenditure relating to construction activity is inventorised. Indirect expenditure (including borrowing costs) during construction period is inventorised to the extent the expenditure is related to construction or is incidental thereto. Other indirect expenditure (including borrowing costs) incurred during the construction period which is neither related to the construction activity nor is incidental thereto is charged to the profit and loss account.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

i) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Income from contractual activities

Revenue from fixed price construction contracts is recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the project at the balance sheet date. The stage of completion of project is determined by the proportion that contract costs incurred for work performed up to the balance sheet date bear to the estimated total contract costs. When estimated contract costs exceed contract revenue, the expected loss is recognized immediately.

Revenue from cost plus construction contracts is recognized on the basis of an agreed mark up on costs incurred, in accordance with the terms of the agreement entered into by the Company and its customers.

Revenue from other contractual activities is recognized as activities are performed, on an accrual basis, based on arrangements with concerned parties.

Contract revenue earned in excess of billing has been reflected under"Other Current Assets"and billing in excess of contract revenue has been reflected under"Current Liabilities"in the balance sheet.

Income from property development

Revenue from real estate underdevelopment is recognised upon transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership of such real estate, as per the terms of the contracts entered into with buyers, which generally coincides with the firming of the sales contracts/ agreements, except for contracts where the Company still has obligations to perform substantial acts even after the transfer of all

significant risks and rewards. In such cases, the revenue is recognised on percentage of completion method, when the stage of completion of each project reaches a reasonable level of progress. Revenue is recognised in proportion that the contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs. Land costs are not included for the purpose of computing the percentage of completion.

Income from sale of developed property

Revenue from sale of developed property is recognised upon transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership of such developed property, as per the terms of the contracts entered into with buyers, which generally coincides with the firming of the sales contracts/agreements.

Share in profits of Association of Person ('AOP')

The Company's share in profits from AOP where the Company is a member, is recognised on the basis of such AOP's audited accounts, as perterms of the agreement.

Interest income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

j) Foreign currency translation

Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting such monetary items of the Company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

k) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds.

I) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefits in the form of Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Profit and Loss Account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective trusts.

Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the balance sheet date. The gratuity liability is not externally funded.

Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided based on actuarial valuation performed at the balance sheet date. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to profit and loss account and are not deferred.

m) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax.

Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the profit and loss account and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal IncomeTax during the specified period.

n) Advances/deposits against property

Advances paid by the Company to the seller/ intermediary toward outright purchase of land is recognized as 'Advances against property' under Loans and Advances during the course of obtaining clear and marketable title, free from all encumbrances and transfer of legaltitle to the Company, where upon it is transferred to Work in progress.

Deposits paid by the Company to the seller towards right for development of land in exchange of constructed area are recognized as deposits under Loans and Advances, unless they are non-refundable, wherein they are transferred to Work in progress on the launch of project.

o) Provisions and contingencies

A provision is recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resource to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on the best estimates required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation, in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

p) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for event of bonus issue.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

q) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at bank and in hand and short term investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

3. Related party information a) List of Related parties

Key managerial personnel ('KMP')

Mr. Nitesh Shetty [Managing Director]

Mr. LS.Vaidyanathan [Executive Director]

Subsidiary companies Nitesh Indiranagar Retail Private Limited

Nitesh Housing Developers Private Limited

Nitesh Urban Development Private Limited

(formerly Nitesh Boat Club Development Private Limited)

Nitesh Kochi Projects & Developers Private Limited

Nitesh Property Management Private Limited

Associate company Nitesh Residency Hotels Private Limited

Joint venture enterprise Nitesh Estates - Whitefield [Association of persons]

Enterprises owned or significantly influenced by KMP

Globosport India Private Limited

Lob Media Private Limited

Madison Developers Private Limited

Nisco Ventures Private Limited

Nitesh Agrico Private Limited

Nitesh Airways Private Limited

Winter Lands Developers Private Limited

(formerly Nitesh Devanahalli Township Private Limited)

Southern Hills Developers Private Limited

(formerly Nitesh Estates Projects Private Limited)

Nitesh Energy Private Limited

Nitesh Healthcare Private Limited

Nitesh Hospitals Private Limited

Nitesh Industries Private Limited

Nitesh Infrastructure Private Limited

Nitesh Land Holdings Private Limited

Nitesh Media Private Limited

Nitesh Mylapore Developers Private Limited

Nitesh Pharmacy Private Limited

Nitesh Publishers Private Limited

Nitstone Environment Private Limited

Nitstone Waste Management Private Limited

Nitesh Telecom Private Limited

Nitesh Warehousing Private Limited

Serve & Volley Holdings Private Limited

Grass Outdoor Media Private Limited

Serve & Volley Outdoor Advertising Private Limited

Serve & Volley Signages Private Limited

Nitesh Healthcare

Richmond Trading Enterprises

Nitesh Infrastructure and Construction

Notes:

a. On June 1, 2010, the Company purchased a developed property (apartment) from Southern Hills Developers Private Limited ('SHDPL') for a consideration of Rs.28,400,000 and sold the same to a third party for a consideration of Rs.60,000,000 on June 15,2010. The Company incurred other incidental costs of Rs.2,062,885 towards purchase of the said apartment.

b. On September 30,2009 and October 21,2009, the Company assigned to Nitesh Housing Developers Private Limited, a subsidiary of the Company ('NHDPL'), its rights to joint development arrangements with the owners of land parcels. The Company had paid an advance of Rs. 218,606,995 under such arrangements, which has now been recovered from NHDPL consequent upon the assignment of rights. The Company charged NHDPL an assignment fee of Rs.76,000,000 in respect of the aforesaid assignment of rights.

c. On November 24,2009, the Company purchased a developed property (apartment) from SHDPL for a consideration of Rs.48,000,000 and sold the same to a third party for a consideration of Rs.70,000,000 on December 29,2009.The Company incurred other incidental costs of Rs.2,000,000 towards purchase of the said apartment.

d. Pursuant to the Share Subscription Agreement ('SSA') entered into between AMIFI Limited ('Investors'), Pushpalatha VShetty, Nitesh Shetty, Nitesh Industries Private Limited and the Company, common costs i.e. the salaries, general and administrative and selling overheads incurred by the Company are being shared by SHDPL and the Company in the ratio of their project expenses.

Accordingly, the Company has crossed charged SHDPL expenses amounting to Rs.6,787,397 (Previous year: Rs.29,575,632). Although, the SSA has been terminated effective October 9,2009, the Company and NEPPL continued to share common costs in the ratio of their project expenses up to June 30,2010.

e. The Company has invested a sum of Rs.410,805,790 (Previous year: Rs.280,805,790) towards 29,120,579 (Previous year: 28,080,579) Class A equity shares of Nitesh Residency Hotels Private Limited ('NRHPL').The aforesaid investment has certain transfer restrictions (including consent of another investor) under the Shareholders' Agreement entered into with the other investors in NRHPL. As part of the loan arrangement entered into by NRHPL for funding the hotel project, the Company has provided an undertaking to such lenders not to divest its shares in NRHPL. The aforesaid Class A shares have similar voting rights to the Class B shares held by another investor but have different dividend rights in terms of the shareholders agreement. Effective October 30,2009, NRHPL became an associate of the Company. The Company has a commitment to invest additional share capital in NRHPL along with the other investors. The Company's share of such additional investment as at March 31,2011 is estimated to be Rs.330 Million (Previous year: Rs.460 million).

f. Refer notes to Schedule 3 for loans personally guaranteed by certain directors of the Company.


Mar 31, 2010

A) Basis of preparation

The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the accounting Standards notified by Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis. The accounting policies have been consistently applied by the Company and are consistent with those used in the previous year.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon managements best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognized prospectively in the current and future years.

c) Fixed assets including intangible assets

Fixed assets including intangible assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each balance sheet date and the cost of fixed assets not ready for their intended use before such date are disclosed under capital work in progress.

d) Depreciation / Amortisation

Depreciation on assets, other than those described below, is provided using written down value method (WDV") at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956, which is also estimated by the management to be the estimated useful lives of the assets.

Assets individually costing less than or equal to Rs.5,000 are fully depreciated in the year of purchase. Leasehold improvements are amortised over the remaining primary period of lease or their estimated useful life, whichever is shorter, on a straight-line basis.

Intangible assets - Computer software is amortised using straight line method over a period of 5 years, which is estimated by the management to be the useful life of the asset.

e) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

f) Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased asset, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

g) Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current Investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term Investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in the value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of investments.

h) Inventories

Inventories comprising of Work in Progress are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct and indirect expenditure, which is determined based on specific identification to the construction activity.

Direct expenditure relating to construction activity is inventorised. Indirect expenditure (including borrowing costs) during construction period is inventorised to the extent the expenditure is related to construction or is incidental thereto. Other indirect expenditure (including borrowing costs) incurred during the construction period which is neither related to the construction activity nor is incidental thereto is charged to the profit and loss account.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

i) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Income from contractual activities

Revenue from fixed price construction contracts is recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the project at the balance sheet date. The stage of completion of project is determined by the proportion that contract costs incurred for work performed up to the balance sheet date bear to the estimated total contract costs. When estimated contract costs exceed contract revenue, the expected loss is recognized immediately.

Revenue from cost plus construction contracts is recognized on the basis of an agreed mark up on costs incurred, in accordance with the terms of the agreement entered into by the Company and its customers.

Revenue from other contractual activities is recognized as activities are performed, on an accrual basis, based on arrangements with concerned parties.

Contract revenue earned in excess of billing has been reflected under "Other Current Assets" and billing in excess of contract revenue has been reflected under "Current Liabilities" in the balance sheet.

Income from sale of development rights

Revenue from sale of development rights is recognised upon transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership of such real estate, as per the terms of the contracts entered into with buyers, which generally coincides with the firming of the sales contracts/ agreements.

Income from sale of developed property

Revenue from sale of developed property is recognised upon transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership of such developed property, as per the terms of the contracts entered into with buyers, which generally coincides with the firming of the sales contracts/ agreements,

Share in profits of Association of Person (AOP)

The Companys share in profits from AOP where the Company is a partner, is recognised on the basis of such AOPs audited accounts, as per terms of the agreement.

Interest income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

j) Foreign currency translation

Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting such monetary items of the Company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

k) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of the cost of such asset. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.

l) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefits in the form of Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Profit and Loss Account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective trusts.

Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the balance sheet date. The gratuity liability is not externally funded.

Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided based on actuarial valuation performed at the balance sheet date. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to profit and loss account and are not deferred.

m) income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current, deferred and fringe benefits tax.

Current income tax and fringe benefits tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the profit and loss account and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

n) Advances/deposits against property

Advances paid by the Company to the seller/ intermediary toward outright purchase of land is recognized as Advances against property under Loans and Advances during the course of obtaining clear and marketable title, free from all encumbrances and transfer of legal title to the Company, whereupon it is transferred to Work in progress.

Deposits paid by the Company to the seller towards right for development of land in exchange of constructed area are recognized as deposits under Loans and Advances, unless they are non-refundable, wherein they are transferred to Work in progress on the launch of project.

o) Provisions and contingencies

A provision is recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resource to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on the best estimates required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation, in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

p) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for event of bonus issue.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

q) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at bank and in hand and short term investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

 
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