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Accounting Policies of Orient Cement Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

Depreciation on Fixed Assets

Till the year ended 31st March 2014, Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 prescribed requirements concerning depreciation of fixed assets. From the current year, Schedule XIV has been replaced by Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. Effective from 1st April, 2014, the Company has provided depreciation on fixed assets based on useful lives as provided in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 or as re-assessed by the Company. The management believes that depreciation rates currently used fairly reflect its estimate of the useful lives and residual value of fixed assets, though these rates in certain cases are different from the rates based on the useful lives prescribed under Schedule II.

Further, on application of Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013, the Company has changed the manner of providing depreciation for its fixed assets. Now, the Company identifies and determines separate useful life for each major component of the fixed asset, if they have useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining asset.

Based on transitional provision given in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013, the carrying value of assets whose useful lives are already exhausted amounting to Rs. 498.23 Lacs (net of deferred tax of Rs. 256.54 Lacs) has been charged to opening balance of retained earnings. Had there been no change in useful lives of fixed assets, the charge to the Statement of Profit & Loss would have been higher by Rs. 853.95 Lacs.

(a) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(b) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises the purchase price inclusive of duties (net of cenvat / VAT), taxes, incidental expenses, erection / commissioning expenses etc. and borrowing costs if capitalisation criteria are met and directly attributable cost of brining the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Each part of an item of property, plant and equipment with a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item is depreciated separately. This applies mainly to components for machinery. When significant parts of fixed assets are required to be replaced at intervals, the company recognizes such parts as individual assets with specific useful lives and depreciates them accordingly. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on an existing fixed asset, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset and whose use as per technical assessment is expected to be irregular, are capitalised and depreciated over the residual life of the respective assets.

(c) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

The classification of plant and machinery into continuous and non-continuous process is done as per technical certification and depreciation thereon is provided accordingly.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided under Straight Line basis (except for furniture, fixtures and vehicles valuing Rs. 1,608.23 lacs (31st March, 2014: Rs. 1,215.57 lacs) where Written Down Value method is followed) using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management. The company has used the following rates to provide depreciation on its fixed assets.

Class of Asset Useful Lives estimated by the management (years)

Factory Buildings 30 Non-Factory Buildings 5 to 60

Railway Sidings 15

Plant and equipments 5 to 40

Furnitures & Fixtures 8 to 10

Computers 3

Office Equipments 5

Vehicles 10

Depreciation on fixed assets added / disposed off during the year is provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the date of addition/disposal.

The management has estimated, supported by independent assessment by professionals, the useful lives of certain plant and equipment as 10 to 20 years. These lives are lower than those indicated in schedule II.

(d) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Internally generated intangible assets, excluding capitalized development costs, are not capitalized and expenditure is reflected in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the expenditure is incurred.

Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life of the asset. The Company uses a rebuttable presumption that the useful life of an intangible asset will not exceed ten years from the date when the asset is available for use. If the persuasive evidence exists to the effect that useful life of an intangible asset exceeds ten years, the Company amortizes the intangible asset over the best estimate of its useful life. Such intangible assets and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. All other intangible assets are assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired.

The amortization period and the amortization method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from previous estimates, the amortization period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the amortization method is changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted for in accordance with AS 5 Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

Intangible assets being Specialized Software and Mining Rights are amortised on a straight line basis over a period of 3 years and 10 years respectively.

(e) Leases

Operating Lease:

Where the Company is lessee

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight- line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases. Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income on an operating lease is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

(f) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

(g) Impairment of tangible and intangible assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating unit''s (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the Company''s cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset''s or cash-generating unit''s recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

(h) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that (i) the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them, and (ii) the grant/subsidy will be received.

When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis in the statement of profit and loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate. Where the grant relates to an asset, its value is deducted in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset.

Where the Company receives non-monetary grants, the asset is accounted for on the basis of its acquisition cost. In case a non-monetary asset is given free of cost, it is recognized at a nominal value.

Government grants of the nature of promoters'' contribution are credited to capital reserve and treated as a part of the shareholders'' funds.

(i) Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

(j) Inventories

Raw materials and stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials and stores and spares is determined on annual weighted average method.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labor and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty and is determined on annual weighted average basis.

Saleable scrap, whose cost is not identifiable, is valued at net realisable value.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(k) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

Interest

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head "other income" in the statement of profit and loss.

Claims / Refunds

Insurance & other claims / refunds, due to uncertainty in realisation, are accounted for on acceptance / actual receipt basis.

(l) Foreign currency translation

Foreign currency transactions and balances

Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement/conversion of monetary items are recognized as income or expenses in the period in which they arise.

Forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset / liability

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognized as an expense / income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or as expense for the period.

(m) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of Provident Fund and Superannuation Schemes are defined contribution schemes. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the respective funds. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

Gratuity liability is defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of actuarial valuation done on projected unit credit method at the end of each reporting period. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in full in the period in which they occur in the statement of profit and loss.

The Company treats accumulated leaves expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the end of each financial year. The Company presents the leave as current liability in the Balance Sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement beyond 12 months after the reporting date. Where company has unconditional legal and contractual right to defer the settlement for the period beyond 12 months, the same is presented as non current liability. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

(n) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

In the situations where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognized in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company''s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the Company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the timing differences which originate first are considered to reverse first.

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The Company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under The Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement". The Company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

(o) Segment reporting Identification of segments

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which the customers of the Company are located.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment on a case to case basis applying the ratio, appropriate to each relevant case. Revenue and expenses, which relate to the enterprise as a whole and are not allocable to segment on a reasonable basis, are included under the head "Unallocated".

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment. Segment accounting policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(p) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(q) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(r) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(s) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(t) Derivative instruments

In accordance with the ICAI announcement, derivative contracts, other than foreign currency forward contracts covered under AS 11, are marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the loss, if any, after considering the offsetting effect of gain on the underlying hedged item, is charged to the statement of profit and loss. Gains are ignored as a matter of prudence.

(u) Excise Duty & Custom Duty

Excise duty on Finished goods stock lying at the factories is accounted for at the point of manufacture of goods and accordingly, is considered for valuation of finished goods stock lying in the factories as on the Balance Sheet date. Similarly, customs duty on imported materials in transit / lying in bonded warehouse is accounted for at the time of import / bonding of materials.

(v) Measurement of EBITDA

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. In the measurement of EBITDA, the Company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs and tax expense.


Mar 31, 2013

(a) use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(b) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises the purchase price inclusive of duties (net of cenvat / VAT), taxes, incidental expenses, erection / commissioning expenses etc. and borrowing costs if capitalisation criteria are met and directly attributable cost of brining the assets to its working condition for the intended use.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on an existing fixed asset, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset and whose use as per technical assessment is expected to be irregular, are capitalised and depreciated over the residual life of the respective assets.

(c) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

The classification of plant and machinery into continuous and non-continuous process is done as per technical certification and depreciation thereon is provided accordingly.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided under Straight Line Method (except for furniture, fixtures and vehicles valuing Rs. 1,093.51 lacs (31st March, 2012: Rs. Nil) where Written Down Value method is followed) at the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 or at the rates based on the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management, whichever is higher. Based on this, the Company has depreciated its assets based on rates prescribed in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

Depreciation on fixed assets added / disposed off during the year is provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the date of addition/disposal.

(d) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Internally generated intangible assets, excluding capitalized development costs, are not capitalized and expenditure is reflected in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the expenditure is incurred.

Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life of the asset. The Company uses a rebuttable presumption that the useful life of an intangible asset will not exceed ten years from the date when the asset is available for use. If the persuasive evidence exists to the affect that useful life of an intangible asset exceeds ten years, the Company amortizes the intangible asset over the best estimate of its useful life. Such intangible assets and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. All other intangible assets are assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired.

The amortization period and the amortization method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from previous estimates, the amortization period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the amortization method is changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted for in accordance with AS 5 Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

Intangible assets being Specialized Software and Mining Rights are amortised on a straight line basis over a period of 3 years and 10 years respectively.

(e) Leases Operating Lease:

Where the Company is lessee

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases. Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income on an operating lease is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

(f) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

(g) Impairment of tangible and intangible assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating unit''s (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the Company''s cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.

Impairment losses including impairment on inventories, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset''s or cash-generating unit''s recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

(h) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that (i) the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them, and (ii) the grant/subsidy will be received.

When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis in the statement of profit and loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate. Where the grant relates to an asset, its value is deducted in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset.

Where the Company receives non-monetary grants, the asset is accounted for on the basis of its acquisition cost. In case a non-monetary asset is given free of cost, it is recognized at a nominal value.

Government grants of the nature of promoters'' contribution are credited to capital reserve and treated as a part of the shareholders'' funds.

(i) Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

(j) Inventories

Raw materials and stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials and stores and spares is determined on annual weighted average method.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labor and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty and is determined on annual weighted average basis.

Saleable scrap, whose cost is not identifiable, is valued at net realisable value.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(k) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

Interest

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head "other income" in the statement of profit and Certified emission reduction (CER) credits

Income from certified emission reduction (CER) credits is recognized at estimated realisable value on confirmation of CERs by the concerned authorities.

Claims / Refunds

Insurance & other claims / refunds, due to uncertainty in realisation, are accounted for on acceptance / actual receipt basis.

(l) Foreign currency translation

Foreign currency transactions and balances

Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non- monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement/conversion of monetary items are recognized as income or expenses

in the period in which they arise.

Forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset / liability The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognized as an expense / income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or as expense for the period.

(m) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of Provident Fund and Superannuation Schemes are defined contribution schemes. The company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the respective funds. The company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.and the contributions are charged to the Statement of Profit & Loss of the period when the contributions to the respective funds are due.

Gratuity liability is defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of actuarial valuation done on projected unit credit method at the end of each reporting period. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in full in the period in which they occur in the statement of profit and loss.

The Company treats accumulated leaves expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absesnces are provided for based

on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the end of each financial year. The company presents the leave as current liability in the Balance Sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its setllement beyond 12 months after the reporting date. Where company has unconditional legal and contractual right to defer the settlement for the period beyond 12 months, the same is presented as non current liability.

The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

(n) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

In the situations where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognized in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company''s gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the Company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the timing differences which originate first are considered to reverse first.

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The

Company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under The Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The Company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

(o) Segment reporting

Identification of Segments

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which the customers of the Company are located.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segments on a case to case basis applying the ratio, appropriate to each relevant case. Revenue and expenses, which relate to the enterprise as a whole and are not allocable to segment on a reasonable basis, are included under the head " Unallocated".

unallocated Items

Unallocated Items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any bussiness segment.

Segment accounting policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(p) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(q) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(r) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(s) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short- term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(t) Derivative instruments

In accordance with the ICAI announcement, derivative contracts, other than foreign currency forward contracts covered under AS 11, are marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss, if any, after considering the offsetting effect of gain on the underlying hedged item, is charged to the statement of profit and loss. Net gains, are ignored as a matter of prudence.

(u) Excise Duty & Custom Duty

Excise duty on Finished goods stock lying at the factories is accounted for at the point of manufacture of goods and accordingly, is considered for valuation of finished goods stock lying in the factories as on the Balance Sheet date. Similarly, customs duty on imported materials in transit / lying in bonded warehouse is accounted for at the time of import / bonding of materials.

(v) Measurement of EBITDA

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. In the measurement of EBITDA, the company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs and tax expense.

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