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Accounting Policies of Oswal Overseas Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2014

1. Basis of Accounting

The company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost conventions in accordance with generally accepted Accounting principles (GAAP) and in compliance with the Accounting Standards referred to in section 211(3C) and other requirements of the Companies Act 1956. The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the company makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful life of fixed assets and intangible assets, provisions for doubtful debts/advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans, etc. Actual results could differ from these estimates.

2. Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized based on the nature of activity when consideration can be reasonably measured and there exists reasonable certainty of its recovery.

(a) Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when the substantial risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer under the terms of the contract.

(b) Other income is accounted for on accrual basis as and when the right to receive arises.

3. Inventories Valuation

Inventories except by-products are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value. By-Products are valued at net realisable value. For valuation of finished goods, appropriate overheads are considered. Closing Stock is inclusive of Excise duty. Store inventory is valued at weighted average cost method.

4. Fixed Assets

The fixed assets are stated at cost net of Excise Duty, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss if any. All costs directly related to the acquisition and installation of fixed assets are capitalised and added to the respective assets. Borrowing Costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to put to use. Fixed assets and stores are booked net of Excise Duty to avail the benefit of CENVAT. Un-availed CENVAT is shown under the head "CENVAT Recoverable" under Loans and Advances.

5. Depreciation

Depreciation is provided on all the fixed assets on Straight Line Method basis in accordance with and in the manner specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

6. Foreign Currency Transactions

Transactions denominated in foreign currency are normally recorded at the exchange rates prevailing at the time of the transactions. Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are translated at the year end exchange rates. Any income or expenses on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognized in the Statement of Profit & Loss Account.

7. Expenditure on new projects & substantial expansions

Expenditure directly relating to construction/substantial expansion activity is capitalized. Indirect expenditure incurred during construction period is capitalized as part of the indirect construction cost to the extent to which the expenditure is indirectly related to construction or is incidental thereto. Income earned for during construction period is deducted from the total of the indirect expenditure.

As regards indirect expenditure on expansion, only that portion is capitalized which represents the marginal increase in such expenditure involved as a result of capital expansion. Both direct and indirect expenditure are capitalized only if they increase the value of the asset beyond its original standard of performance.

8. Impairment of Assets

At each balance sheet date, the carrying amounts of fixed assets are reviewed by the management to determine whether there is any indication that those assets suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment loss (recoverable amount is the higher of an assets net selling price or value in use). In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows expected from the continuing use of the assets and from its disposal are discounted to their present value using a pre discounted rate that reflects the current market assessment of time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

Reversal of impairment loss is recognized immediately as income in the profit and Loss account

9. Government Grants and Subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

When grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis with the related cost, which it is intended to compensate. Where grant/subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset against which grant/subsidy has been received and further where the grant/subsidy is in the nature of promoters contribution the amount of grant/subsidy is accounted for as a capital reserve.

10. Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for less then one year are classified as current investments, Current investments are carried at lower of cost or market value, whereas long term investments are carried at historical cost. The provision for diminution in the value of investment other than temporary is provided for.

11. Miscellaneous Expenditure

Preliminary expenses and cost incurred in raising funds are written off to the Statement of profit and loss account in the year in which the same are incurred.

12. Employees Benefits

Provision for Leave encashment liability and Provision for Gratuity is made on Actuarial valuation basis. Provident Fund: Contribution to provident fund is made in accordance with the provisions of the Employees Provident Fund Act, 1952.

13. Tax Expenses

Tax expenses comprises of current and deferred income tax and wealth tax. Current income tax is calculated at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

14. Deferred Tax

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. If the company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax, assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that such deferred tax assets can be realized against further taxable profits. Unrecognized deferred tax assets of earlier years are re-assessed and recognized to the extent that it has become reasonably certain that further taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

15. Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividend & taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Equity shares that are partly paid up are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent they entitled to participate in dividends. The weighted average numbers of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a right issue to the existing shareholders, share split and consolidation of shares.

For the purpose of calculating diluted EPS, the net profit or loss attributable to equity share holders and weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

16. Segment Reporting

a). Segment accounting policies are in line with the accounting policies of the company. In addition, the following specific accounting policies have been followed for segment reporting.

(1) . Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly identifiable with/allocable to the segment including inter segment sales.

(2) Expenses that are directly identifiable with/allocable to segment are considered for determining the segment result. Expenses which relate to the company as a whole and not allocable to segment are included under Un-allocable corporate expenditure.

(3) Income which relates to the company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in un-allocable corporate income.

(4) Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments. Un-allocable corporate assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to company as a whole and not allocable to any segment. Un-allocable assets mainly comprise corporate head office assets, investments and tax deposited with the Income Tax Authorities. Un-allocable liabilities include mainly Unsecured Loans and Tax Payable to Income Tax authorities.

b). Inter Segment transfer pricing

Segment revenue resulting from transactions with other business segments is accounted on the basis of market price.

17. Provisions & Contingent liabilities

A provision is recognized when an enterprise has

(1) A present obligation as a result of past events.

(2) It is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation.

(3) In respect of which a reliable estimate can be made.

The provisions are determined based on the best estimates required to fulfill the obligation on the balance sheet date. The provisions are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events and the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the enterprise: or a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognized.

The Contingent liabilities are not recognized but are disclosed in the notes. The Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in financial statements.

18. Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the balance sheet comprise cash at bank, cash in hand & short term investments.

19. Borrowing Cost

Borrowing Costs that are attributable to the acquisition, Construction or Production of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of cost of such asset till such asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other Borrowing Costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.


Mar 31, 2012

1. Basis of Accounting

The company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost conventions in accordance with generally accepted Accounting principles (GAAP) and in compliance with the Accounting Standards referred to in section 211(3C) and other requirements of the Companies Act 1956.

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management of the company makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of income and expenses of the period, the reported balances of assets and liabilities and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Examples of such estimates include the useful life of fixed assets and intangible assets, provisions for doubtful debts/advances, future obligations in respect of retirement benefit plans, etc. Actual results could differ from these estimates.

2. Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized based on the nature of activity when consideration can be reasonably measured and there exists reasonable certainty of its recovery.

(a) Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when the substantial risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer under the terms of the contract.

(b) Other income is accounted for on accrual basis as and when the right to receive arises.

3. Inventories Valuation

Inventories except by-products are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value. By-Products are valued at net realisable value. For valuation of finished goods, appropriate overheads are considered. Closing Stock is inclusive of Excise duty. Store inventory is valued at weighted average cost method.

4. Fixed Assets

The fixed assets are stated at cost net of Excise Duty, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss if any. All costs directly related to the acquisition and installation of fixed assets are capitalised and added to the respective assets. Borrowing Costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to put to use

5. Depreciation

Depreciation is provided on all the fixed assets on Straight Line Method basis in accordance with and in the manner specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

6. Research & Development

Revenue expenditure on research and development is charged under the respective heads of accounts. Capital expenditure on research and development is included as part of fixed assets and depreciated on the same basis as other fixed assets.

7. Expenditure on new projects & substantial expansions

Expenditure directly relating to construction/substantial expansion activity is capitalized. Indirect expenditure incurred during construction period is capitalized as part of the indirect construction cost to the extent to which the expenditure is indirectly related to construction or is incidental thereto. Income earned for during construction period is deducted from the total of the indirect expenditure.

As regards indirect expenditure on expansion, only that portion is capitalized which represents the marginal increase in such expenditure involved as a result of capital expansion. Both direct and indirect expenditure are capitalized only if they increase the value of the asset beyond its original standard of performance.

10. Cenvat Credit

Fixed assets and stores are booked net of Excise Duty to avail the benefit of CENVAT. Un- availed CENVAT is shown under the head "CENVAT Recoverable" under Loans and Advances.

11. Commercial Tax

Commercial Tax liabilities are accounted for on the basis of Commercial Tax Returns filed by the Company. Any additional liability that arises at the time of assessment is accounted for in the year of finalization of assessment.

12. Borrowing Cost

Borrowing Costs that are attributable to the acquisition, Construction or Production of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of cost of such asset till such asset is ready for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily requires a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other Borrowing Costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

13. Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividend & taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Equity shares that are partly paid up are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent they entitled to participate in dividends. The weighted average numbers of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a right issue to the existing shareholders, share split and consolidation of shares. For the purpose of calculating diluted EPS, the net profit or loss attributable to equity share holders and weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period are adjusted of all dilutive potential equity shares.

14. Taxes on Income

Tax expenses comprises of current, deferred and fringe benefit tax. Current income tax and fringe benefits tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income Tax Act 1961. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing difference between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing difference of earlier years.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient further taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. If the company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty that such deferred tax assets can be realized against further taxable profits. Unrecognized deferred tax assets of earlier years are reassessed and recognized to the extent that it has become reasonably certain that further taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

15. Segment Reporting Policy

(a) Segment accounting policies are in line with the accounting policies of the company. In addition, the following specific accounting policies have been followed for segment reporting.

(1) Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly identifiable with/allocable to the segment including inter segment sales.

(2) Expenses that are directly identifiable with/allocable to segment are considered for determining the segment result. Expenses which relate to the company as a whole and not allocable to segment are included under Unallowable corporate expenditure.

(3) Income which relates to the company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in Unallowable corporate income.

(4) Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments. Unallowable corporate assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to company as a whole and not allocable to any segment. Unallowable assets mainly comprises corporate head office assets, Land , Land & Site Development and Tax Deposited with Income Tax authorities. Unallowable liabilities includes mainly Unsecured Loans and Tax payable to Income Tax authorities.

(b) Inter Segment transfer pricing

Segment revenue resulting from transactions with other business segments is accounted on the basis of Transfer Price agreed between the segments.

16 Intangible' Assets

An intangible asset is recognized if, and only if:

(a) it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the enterprise

(b) the cost of the asset can be measured reliably; An intangible asset is measured initially at cost

The depreciable amount of an intangible asset will be allocated on a systematic basis over the best estimate of its useful life.



The amortization method will be used to reflect the pattern in which the asset's economic benefits are consumed by the enterprise. If that pattern cannot be determined reliably, the straight line method will be used.

17. Impairment of Assets

At each balance sheet date, the carrying amounts of fixed assets are reviewed by the management to determine whether there is any indication that those assets suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment loss (recoverable amount is the higher of an assets net selling price or value in use). In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows expected from the continuing use of the assets and from its disposal are discounted to their present value using a pre discounted rate that reflects the current market assessment of time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

Reversal of impairment loss is recognized immediately as income in the profit and Loss account

18. Provisions

A provision is recognized when an enterprise has

(1) A present obligation as a result of past events.

(2) It is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation.

(3) In respect of which a reliable estimate can be made.

Provisions are determined based on the best estimates required to fulfill the obligation on the balance sheet date. Provisions are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

19. Cash & Cash equivalent

Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprises cash at bank, cash in hand & Short term investment


Mar 31, 2010

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention and the significant accounting policies adopted are as follows:

a) Loans and advances:

Provision is made for doubtful loans and advances. Bad debts are written off as they arise.

b) Pre-operative expenses:

All expenses related to various projects by the company are treated as pre-operative expenses till the commencement of commercial production.

c) Payables and accruals:

Liabilities are recognized for amounts to be paid for goods or services received whether or not invoiced to the company.

d) Staff end of service gratuity:

Staff end of service gratuity is accounted on cash basis.

e) Foreign currency transactions:

Transactions in foreign currencies are converted into US Dollar at the rate of exchange ruling on the date of the transaction.

Assets and liabilities expressed in foreign currencies are translated into US Dollar at the rate of exchange ruling at the balance sheet date.

Resulting exchange gains/losses are taken to the income statement.

 
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