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Accounting Policies of Oudh Sugar Mills Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

Change in Accounting Policy

Depreciation on Fixed Assets

Till the year ended 31st March 2014, Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 prescribed requirements concerning depreciation of fixed assets. From the current year, Schedule XIV has been replaced by Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. Effective from 1st April, 2014, the Company has provided depreciation on fixed assets based on useful lives as provided in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 or as re-assessed by the Company. The management believes that depreciation rates currently used fairly reflect its estimate of the useful lives and residual value of fixed assets, though these rates in certain cases are different from the rates based on the useful lives prescribed under Schedule II.

Further, on application of Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013, the Company has changed the manner of providing depreciation for its fixed assets. Now, the Company identifies and determines separate useful life for each major component of the fixed asset, if they have useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining asset.

Based on transitional provision given in Schedule II to the Companies, 2013, the carrying value of assets whose useful lives are already exhausted amounting to Rs. 243.90 Lacs (net of deferred tax of Rs. 125.60 Lacs) has been added to opening debit balance of the Statement of Profit and Loss. Had there been no change in useful lives of fixed assets, the charge to the Statement of Profit and Loss would have been higher by Rs. 1,307.41 Lacs.

(a) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements inconformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period and the results from operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(b) Tangible Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses determined, if any. The cost comprises the purchase price inclusive of duties (net of CENVAT Credit), taxes, incidental expenses, erection / commissioning expenses and borrowing costs if capitalisation criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the assets to its working condition for the intended use. Each part of an item of property, plant and equipment with a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item is depreciated separately. This applies mainly to components for machinery. When significant parts of fixed assets are required to be replaced at intervals, the company recognizes such

parts as individual assets with specific useful lives and depreciates them accordingly.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on an existing fixed asset, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of tangible fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset and whose use as per technical assessment is expected to be irregular, are capitalised and depreciated over the residual life of the respective assets.

(c) Depreciation on Tangible Fixed Assets

The classification of plant and machinery into continuous and non-continuous process is done as per technical certification and depreciation thereon is provided accordingly.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided under Straight Line basis using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management. The company has used the following rates to provide depreciation on its fixed assets.

Depreciation on fixed assets added / disposed off during the year is provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the date of addition / disposal.

The management has estimated, supported by independent assessment by professionals, the useful lives of certain plant and equipment as 5 to 18 years. These lives are lower than those indicated in Schedule II.

Leasehold properties are depreciated over the primary period of lease or their respective useful lives, whichever is shorter.

(d) Intangible Assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Intangible assets being Specialized Software are amortised on a straight line basis over a period of 5 years.

(e) Leases Operating Lease

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of the ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on straight line basis over the lease term.

Finance Lease

Assets acquired under lease agreements which effectively transfer to the company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased items, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value of the leased property and present value of minimum lease payment at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and the reduction of the

lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of their liability. Finance charges are charged directly to the expenses account.

(f) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

(g) Impairment of Fixed Assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine, if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount which is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

Depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.

(h) Government Grants and Subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable certainty that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

When the grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income

over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate.

Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value of the asset concerned in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset.

Government grants of the nature of promoters' contribution are credited to capital reserve and treated as a part of shareholders' funds.

(i) Investments

I nvestments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

(j) Inventories

Raw Materials, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, these items are considered to be realizable at cost if the finished products, in which they will be used, are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials and stores and spares is determined on annual weighted average method / moving average method.

Goods under process, finished goods (including Power Banked), traded goods and standing

crops, are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Finished goods, Goods under process and Standing Crops include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.

By products, Country crop and Saleable scraps, whose cost is not identifiable, are valued at estimated net realizable value.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(k) Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, which usually coincides with delivery of the goods. The Company collects Sales Tax(s) and Value Added Taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these not being economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty and Cess deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the period.

Income from Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) is recognised at estimated realisable value on confirmation of RECs by the concerned Authorities.

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head "other income" in the statement of profit and loss.

Dividend income is recognized when the shareholders' right to receive the payment is established by the reporting date.

Insurance and other claims, Interest on doubtful loans and advances to cane growers and Compensation receivable in respect of land surrendered to / acquired by the Government due to uncertainty in realisation, are accounted for on acceptance basis.

(l) Foreign Currency Transactions Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction, and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement/ conversion of monetary items are recognized as income or expenses in the period in which they arise.

(m) Retirement and other Employee Benefits

Retirement benefits in the form of Provident and Pension Funds are defined contribution schemes and are charged to the statement of profit and loss of the period when the contributions to the respective funds are due. The Company has no obligation other than contributions to the respective funds. The Company recognises contribution payable to the provident fund

scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the selected service.

Gratuity liability being a defined benefit obligation is provided for on the basis of actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates.

The Company treats accumulated leaves expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the end of each financial year. The company does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for the period beyond 12 months and accordingly entire leave liability is shown as current liability.

Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

(n) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to tax authorities in accordance with Income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income tax reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

The deferred tax for timing differences between the book and tax profit for the period is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as of the reporting date. Deferred tax asset is recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized. If the company has carry forward unabsorbed

depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax asset is recognized only to the extent that there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient taxable income will be available in future against which such deferred tax asset can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date. The company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write- down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient taxable income will be available in future.

At each reporting date, the Company re- assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the period in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in the guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each reporting date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

(o) Segment Reporting Identification of segments

The Company has identified that its operating segments are the primary segments. The Company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which the customers of the Company are located.

Inter Segment Transfers

The Company accounts for inter segment transfers at mutually agreed transfer prices.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment on case to case basis applying the ratio, appropriate to each relevant case. Revenue and expenses which relate to the enterprise as a whole and are not allocable to segments on a reasonable basis are included under the head "Unallocated".

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(p) Earnings Per Share

Basic Earning per Share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earning per share, net profit or loss for the period

attributable to equity share holders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effect of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(q) Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement comprise of cash at bank and on hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(r) Excise Duty

Excise duty is accounted for at the point of manufacture of goods and accordingly, is considered for valuation of stocks as on the reporting date.

(s) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions made in terms of Accounting Standard 29 are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation, at the reporting date. These are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current management estimates.

(t) Contingent Liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non- occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2014

(a) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period and the results from operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(b) Fixed Assets and Depreciation on Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses determined, if any. The cost comprises the purchase price inclusive of duties (net of CENVAT Credit), taxes, incidental expenses, erection / commissioning expenses and borrowing costs if capitalisation criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the assets to its working condition for the intended use.

Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of tangible fixed asset and whose use as per technical assessment is expected to be irregular, are capitalised and depreciated over the residual life of the respective assets.

The classification of plant and machinery into continuous and non-continuous process is done as per technical certification and depreciation thereon is provided accordingly.

Depreciation on tangible fixed assets is provided under Straight Line Method at the rates prescribed in Schedule Xiv of the Companies Act, 1956 or at the rates based on the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management, whichever is higher. Based on this, the Company has depreciated its assets based on the rates prescribed in the Schedule Xiv of the Companies Act, 1956.

Leasehold properties are depreciated over the primary period of lease or their respective useful lives, whichever is shorter.

Intangible assets are amortised on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life of the asset. The Company uses a rebuttable presumption that the useful life of an intangible asset will not exceed ten years from the date when the asset is available for use.

Intangible assets being Specialised Software are amortised on a straight line basis over a period of 5 years.

(c) Leases

Operating Lease

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of the ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases. operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on straight line basis over the lease term.

Finance Lease

Assets acquired under lease agreements which effectively transfer to the company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased items, are capitalised at the lower of the fair value of the leased property and present value of minimum lease payment at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and the reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of their liability. Finance charges are charged directly to the expenses account.

(d) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing cost includes interest and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalised as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

(e) Impairment of Fixed Assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine, if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognised wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount which is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

Depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.

(f) Government Grants and Subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

When the grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate.

Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value of the asset concerned in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset.

Government grants of the nature of promoters'' contribution are credited to capital reserve and treated as a part of shareholders'' funds.

(g) Investments

Investments, which are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. however, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

(h) Inventories

Raw Materials, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, these items are considered to be realisable at cost if the finished products, in which they will be used, are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials and stores and spares is determined on annual weighted average method / moving average method.

Goods under process, finished goods (including Power Banked), traded goods and standing crops, are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Finished goods, Goods under process and Standing Crops include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.

By products, Country crop and Saleable scraps, whose cost is not identifiable, are valued at estimated net realisable value.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(i) Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, which usually coincides with delivery of the goods. The Company collects Sales Tax(s) and value Added Taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these not being economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty and Cess deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the period.

Income from Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) is recognised at estimated realisable value on confirmation of RECs by the concerned Authorities.

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head "other income" in the statement of profit and loss.

Dividend income is recognised when the shareholders'' right to receive the payment is established by the reporting date.

Insurance and other claims, Interest on doubtful loans and advances to cane growers and Compensation receivable in respect of land surrendered to / acquired by the Government due to uncertainty in realisation, are accounted for on acceptance basis.

(j) Foreign Currency Transactions

Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction, and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement/ conversion of monetary items are recognised as income or expenses in the period in which they arise.

(k) Retirement and other Employee Benefits

Retirement benefits in the form of Provident and Pension Funds are defined contribution schemes and are charged to the statement of profit and loss of the period when the contributions to the respective funds are due. The Company has no obligation other than contributions to the respective funds. The Company recognises contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the selected service.

Gratuity liability being a defined benefit obligation is provided for on the basis of actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates.

The Company treats accumulated leaves expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the end of each financial year. The company does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for the period beyond 12 months and accordingly entire leave liability is shown as current liability.

Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

(l) Income Taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to tax authorities in accordance with income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in india. deferred income tax reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

The deferred tax for timing differences between the book and tax profit for the period is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as of the reporting date. Deferred tax asset is recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realised. If the company has carry forward unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax asset is recognised only to the extent that there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient taxable income will be available in future against which such deferred tax asset can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date. The company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient taxable income will be available in future.

At each reporting date, the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. in the period in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognised as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in the guidance Note issued by the institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each reporting date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal income Tax during the specified period.

(m) Segment Reporting

Identification of Segments

The Company has identified that its operating segments are the primary segments. The Company''s operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which the customers of the Company are located.

Inter Segment Transfers

The Company accounts for inter segment transfers at mutually agreed transfer prices.

Allocation of Common Costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment on case to case basis applying the ratio, appropriate to each relevant case. Revenue and expenses which relate to the enterprise as a whole and are not allocable to segments on a reasonable basis are included under the head "unallocated".

Unallocated Items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment Accounting Policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(n) Earnings Per Share

Basic Earning per Share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earning per share, net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity share holders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effect of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(o) Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement comprise of cash at bank and on hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(p) Derivative Instruments

As per the announcement made by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Derivative contracts, other than those covered under AS-11, are marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss after considering the offsetting effect of the underlying hedged item is charged to the statement of profit and loss. Net gains are ignored as a matter of prudence.

(q) Excise Duty

Excise duty is accounted for at the point of manufacture of goods and accordingly, is considered for valuation of stocks as on the reporting date.

(r) Shares Issue Expenses

Shares issue expenses are adjusted against Securities Premium Account.

(s) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions made in terms of Accounting Standard 29 are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation, at the reporting date. These are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current management estimates.

(t) Contingent Liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognise a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2013

(a) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP reguires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period and the results from operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes reguiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(b) Tangible Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses determined, if any. The cost comprises the purchase price inclusive of duties (net of CENVAT Credit), taxes, incidental expenses, erection/commissioning expenses and borrowing costs if capitalisation criteria are met and directly attributable cost of brining the assets to its working condition for the intended use.

Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of tangible fixed asset and whose use as per technical assessment is expected to be irregular, are capitalised and depreciated over the residual life of the respective assets.

(c) Depreciation on Tangible Fixed Assets

The classification of plant and machinery into continuous and non-continuous process is done as per technical certification and depreciation thereon is provided accordingly.

Depreciation on tangible fixed assets is provided under Straight Line Method at the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956 or at the rates based on the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management, whichever is higher. Based on this, the comapny has depreciated its assets based on the rates prescribed in the Schedule XIV of the Comapnies Act, 1956.

Leasehold properties are depreciated over the primary period of lease or their respective useful lives, whichever is shorter.

In case of impairment, if any, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.

(d) Intangible Assets

Intangible assets acguired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Internally generated intangible assets, excluding capitalised development costs, are not capitalised and expenditure thereof, are reflected in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the expenditure are incurred.

Intangible assets are amortised on a straight line basis overthe estimated useful economic life of the asset. The Company uses a rebuttable presumption that the useful life of an intangible asset will not exceed ten years from the date when the asset is available for use. If the persuasive evidence exists to the affect that useful life of an intangible asset exceeds ten years, the Company amortises the intangible asset over the best estimate of its useful life. Such intangible assets and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. All other intangible assets are assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired.

The amortisation period and the amortisation method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from previous estimates, the amortisation period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the amortisation method is changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted for in accordance with AS 5 Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

Intangible assets being Specialised Software are amortised on a straight line basis over a period of 5 years.

(e) Leases

Operating Lease

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of the ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on straight line basis over the lease term.

Finance Lease

Assets acquired under lease agreements which effectively transfer to the company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased items, are capitalised at the lower of the fair value of the leased property and present value of minimum lease payment at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and the reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of their liability. Finance charges are charged directly to the expenses account.

(f) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing cost includes interest and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalised as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

(g) Impairment of Tangible and Intangible Assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine, if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognised wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount which is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

(h) Government Grants and Subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

When the grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate.

Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value of the asset concerned in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset.

Government grants of the nature of promoters'' contribution are credited to capital reserve and treated as a part of shareholders'' funds.

(i) Investments

Investments, which are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term/non-current investments.

Current investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term/Non-current investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

(j) Inventories

Raw Materials, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, these items are considered to be realisable at cost if the finished products, in which they will be used, are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials and stores and spares is determined on annual weighted average method.

Goods under process, finished goods (including Power Banked), traded goods and standing crops, are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Finished goods, Goods under process and Standing Crops include cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.

By products, Country crop and Saleable scraps, whose cost is not identifiable, are valued at estimated net realisable value.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(k) Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, which usually coincides on delivery of the goods. The Company collects Sales Tax(s) and Value Added Taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these not being economic benefits flowing to the Company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty and Cess deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the period.

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head "other income" in the statement of profit and loss.

Dividend income is recognised when the shareholders'' right to receive the payment is established by the reporting date.

Insurance and other claims, Interest on doubtful loans and advances to cane growers and Compensation receivable in respect of land surrendered to/acquired by the Government due to uncertainty in realisation, are accounted for on acceptance/ actual receipt basis.

(I) Foreign Currency Transactions

Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non- monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction, and non- monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement/conversion of monetary items are recognised as income or expenses in the period in which they arise.

Forward Exchange Contracts entered into hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset/liability

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expenses or income over the life of the respective contracts. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contracts is recognised as income or expense for the period.

(m) Retirement and other Employee Benefits

Retirement benefits in the form of Provident and Pension Funds are defined contribution schemes and are charged to the statement of profit and loss of the period when the contributions to the respective funds are due. The Company has no obligation other than contributions to the respective funds.

Gratuity liability being a defined benefit obligation is provided for on the basis of actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates.

The Company treats accumulated leaves expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the end of each financial year. The company presents the leave as current liability in the Balance Sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement beyond 12 months after the reporting date. Where the company has unconditional legal and contractual right to defer the settlement for the period beyond 12 months, the same is presented as non current liability.

Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

(n) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to tax authorities in accordance with Income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income tax reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

The deferred tax for timing differences between the book and tax profit for the period is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as of the reporting date. Deferred tax asset is recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realised. If the company has carry forward unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax asset is recognised only to the extent that there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient taxable income will be available in future against which such deferred tax asset can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date. The company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient taxable income will be available in future.

At each reporting date, the Company re- assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the period in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognised as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in the guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each reporting date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

(o) Segment Reporting

Identification of segments The Company has identified that its operating segments are the primary segments. The Company''s operating businesses are organised and managed

separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which the customers of the Company are located.

Inter Segment Transfers

The Company accounts for inter segment transfers at mutually agreed transfer prices

Allocation of common costs Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment on case to case basis applying the ratio, appropriate to each relevant case. Revenue and expenses which relate to the enterprise as a whole and are not allocable to segments on a reasonable basis are included under the head "Unallocated"

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(p) Earnings Per Share

Basic Earning per Share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earning per share, net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity share holders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effect of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(q) Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement comprise of cash at bank and on hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(r) Derivative Instruments

As per the announcement made by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Derivative contracts, other than those covered under AS-11, are marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss after considering the offsetting effect of the underlying hedged item is charged to the statement of profit and loss. Net gains are ignored as a matter of prudence.

(s) Excise Duty

Excise duty is accounted for at the point of manufacture of goods and accordingly, is considered for valuation of stocks as on the reporting date.

(t) Shares Issue Expenses

Shares issue expenses are adjusted against Securities Premium Account.

(u) Provisions

A provision is recognised when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions made in terms of Accounting Standard 29 are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation, at the reporting date. These are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current management estimates.

(v) Contingent Liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non- occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognise a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

 
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