Home  »  Company  »  Reliance Inds.  »  Quotes  »  Accounting Policy
Enter the first few characters of Company and click 'Go'

Accounting Policies of Reliance Industries Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2017

A. CORPORATE INFORMATION

Reliance Industries Limited ("the Company") is a listed entity incorporated in India.

The addresses of its registered office and principal place of business are disclosed in the introduction to the annual report.

B. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

B.1 BASIS OF PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION

The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for following assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value amount:

i) Certain financial assets and liabilities (including derivative instruments),

ii) Defined benefit plans - plan assets and

iii) Equity settled share based payments

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared to comply with the Indian Accounting standards (''Ind AS''), including the rules notified under the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.

Up to the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company has prepared its financial statements in accordance with the requirement of Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), which includes Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and considered as "Previous GAAP"

These financial statements are the Company''s first Ind AS standalone financial statements.

Company''s financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (''), which is also its functional currency.

B.2 SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

(a) Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, net of recoverable taxes, trade discount and rebates less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes purchase price, borrowing cost and any cost directly attributable to bringing the assets to its working condition for its intended use, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the assets.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset''s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity and the cost can be measured reliably.

Expenses incurred relating to project, net of income earned during the project development stage prior to its intended use, are considered as pre - operative expenses and disclosed under Capital Work - in - Progress.

Depreciation on property, plant and equipment is provided using written down value method except in case of certain assets from Refining segment and Petrochemical segment & SEZ units / developer which are depreciated using straight line method. Depreciation is provided based on useful life of the assets as prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following assets, where useful life is different than those prescribed in Schedule II;

The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of a property, plant and equipment are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognized.

(b) Leases

Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease, transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

Leased assets: Assets held under finance leases are initially recognized as assets of the Company at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the less or is included in the balance sheet as a finance lease obligation.

Lease payments are apportioned between finance expenses and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance expenses are recognized immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized. Contingent rentals are recognized as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.

A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term except where another systematic basis is more representative of time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased assets are consumed.

(c) Intangible assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes, trade discount and rebates less accumulated amortization/depletion and impairment loss, if any. Such cost includes purchase price, borrowing costs, and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset''s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity and the cost can be measured reliably.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognized.

(d) Research and Development Expenditure

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a product''s technological and commercial feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalized

(e) Finance Cost

Borrowing costs include exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use.

Interest income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalization.

All other borrowing costs are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period for which they are incurred.

(f) Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realizable value after providing for obsolescence, if any, except in case of by-products which are valued at net realizable value. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads net of recoverable taxes incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition.

Cost of raw materials, chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis.

(g) Impairment of non-financial assets - property, plant and equipment and intangible assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that any property, plant and equipment and intangible assets or group of assets, called cash generating units (CGU) may be impaired. If any such indication exists the recoverable amount of an asset or CGU is estimated to determine the extent of impairment, if any. When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the CGU to which the asset belongs.

An impairment loss is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss to the extent, asset''s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is higher of an asset''s fair value less cost of disposal and value in use. Value in use is based on the estimated future cash flows, discounted to their present value using pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risk specific to the assets.

The impairment loss recognized in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

(h) Provisions

Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.

Decommissioning liability

The Company records a provision for decommissioning costs towards site restoration activity. Decommissioning costs are provided at the present value of future expenditure using a current pre-tax rate expected to be incurred to fulfill decommissioning obligations and are recognized as part of the cost of the underlying assets. Any change in the present value of the expenditure, other than unwinding of discount on the provision, is reflected as adjustment to the provision and the corresponding asset. The change in the provision due to the unwinding of discount is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(i) Employee Benefits Expense Short Term Employee Benefits

The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognized as an expense during the period when the employees render the services.

Post-Employment Benefits Defined Contribution Plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the Company pays specified contributions to a separate entity. The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Provident Fund, Superannuation Fund and Pension Scheme. The Company''s contribution is recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined Benefit Plans

The Company pays gratuity to the employees whoever has completed five years of service with the Company at the time of resignation/superannuation. The gratuity is paid @15 days salary for every completed year of service as per the Payment of Gratuity Act 1972.

The gratuity liability amount is contributed to the approved gratuity fund formed exclusively for gratuity payment to the employees. The gratuity fund has been approved by respective IT authorities.

The liability in respect of gratuity and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the Projected Unit Credit Method and spread over the period during which the benefit is expected to be derived from employees'' services.

Re-measurement of defined benefit plans in respect of post-employment are charged to the Other Comprehensive Income.

Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is payable in the year of exercise of option by the employee. The Company recognizes the employee separation cost when the scheme is announced and the Company is demonstrably committed to it.

(j) Tax Expenses

The tax expense for the period comprises current and deferred tax. Tax is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss, except to the extent that it relates to items recognized in the comprehensive income or in equity. In which case, the tax is also recognized in other comprehensive income or equity.

- Current tax

Current tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities, based on tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance sheet date.

- Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit.

Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realized, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period. The carrying amount of Deferred tax liabilities and assets are reviewed at the end of each reporting period.

(k) Share based payments

Equity-settled share based payments to employees and others providing similar services are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date. Details regarding the determination of the fair value of equity-settled share based payments transactions are set out in Note 26.3.

The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share based payments is expensed on a straight line basis over the vesting period, based on the Company''s estimate of equity instruments that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in equity. At the end of each reporting period, the Company revises its estimate of the number of equity instruments expected to vest. The impact of the revision of the original estimates, if any, is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss such that the cumulative expenses reflects the revised estimate, with a corresponding adjustment to the Share Based Payments Reserve.

The dilutive effect of outstanding options is reflected as additional share dilution in the computation of diluted earnings per share.

(l) Foreign currencies transactions and translation

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency closing rates of exchange at the reporting date.

Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss except to the extent of exchange differences which are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on foreign currency borrowings that are directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets, are capitalized as cost of assets. Additionally, exchange gains or losses on foreign currency borrowings taken prior to April 1, 2016 which are related to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are adjusted in the carrying cost of such assets.

Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are recorded using the exchange rates at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was measured. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e., translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognized in OCI or Statement of Profit and Loss are also recognized in OCI or Statement of Profit and Loss, respectively).

(m) Revenue recognition

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated cost can be estimated reliably, there is no continuing effective control or managerial involvement with the goods, and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably.

Revenue from rendering of services is recognized when the performance of agreed contractual task has been completed.

Revenue from sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government.

Revenue from operations includes sale of goods, services, service tax, excise duty and adjusted for discounts (net), and gain/ loss on corresponding hedge contracts.

Interest income

Interest income from a financial asset is recognized using effective interest rate method.

Dividends

Revenue is recognized when the Company''s right to receive the payment has been established.

(n) Financial instruments

i) Financial Assets

A. Initial recognition and measurement

All financial assets and liabilities are initially recognized at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities, which are not at fair value through profit or loss, are adjusted to the fair value on initial recognition. Purchase and sale of financial assets are recognized using trade date accounting.

B. Subsequent measurement

a) Financial assets carried at amortized cost (AC)

A financial asset is measured at amortized cost if it is held within a business model whose objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

b) Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

A financial asset is measured at FVTOCI if it is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

c) Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

A financial asset which is not classified in any of the above categories are measured at FVTPL.

C. Investment in subsidiaries, Associates and Joint Ventures

The Company has accounted for its investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint venture at cost.

D. Other Equity Investments

All other equity investments are measured at fair value, with value changes recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss, except for those equity investments for which the Company has elected to present the value changes in ''Other Comprehensive Income''.

E. Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company uses ''Expected Credit Loss'' (ECL) model, for evaluating impairment of financial assets other than those measured at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL).

Expected credit losses are measured through a loss allowance at an amount equal to:

- The 12-months expected credit losses (expected credit losses that result from those default events on the financial instrument that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date); or

Full lifetime expected credit losses (expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the life of the financial instrument)

For trade receivables Company applies ''simplified approach'' which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognized from initial recognition of the receivables. The Company uses historical default rates to determine impairment loss on the portfolio of trade receivables. At every reporting date these historical default rates are reviewed and changes in the forward looking estimates are analyzed.

For other assets, the Company uses 12 month ECL to provide for impairment loss where there is no significant increase in credit risk. If there is significant increase in credit risk full lifetime ECL is used.

ii) Financial liabilities

A. Initial recognition and measurement

All financial liabilities are recognized at fair value and in case of loans, net of directly attributable cost. Fees of recurring nature are directly recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as finance cost.

B. Subsequent measurement

Financial liabilities are carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method. For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.

iii) Derivative financial instruments and Hedge Accounting

The Company uses various derivative financial instruments such as interest rate swaps, currency swaps, forwards & options and commodity contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in interest rates, exchange rates and commodity prices. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are also subsequently measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to Statement of Profit and Loss, except for the effective portion of cash flow hedges which is recognized in Other Comprehensive Income and later to Statement of Profit and Loss when the hedged item affects profit or loss or treated as basis adjustment if a hedged forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial assets or non-financial liability.

Hedges that meet the criteria for hedge accounting are accounted for as follows:

a) Cash flow hedge

The Company designates derivative contracts or non derivative financial assets / liabilities as hedging instruments to mitigate the risk of movement in interest rates and foreign exchange rates for foreign exchange exposure on highly probable future cash flows attributable to a recognized asset or liability or forecast cash transactions. When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedging instrument, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized in the cash flow hedging reserve being part of other comprehensive income. Any ineffective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the hedging relationship no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognized in cash flow hedging reserve till the period the hedge was effective remains in cash flow hedging reserve until the underlying transaction occurs. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the cash flow hedging reserve is transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss upon the occurrence of the underlying transaction. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, then the amount accumulated in cash flow hedging reserve is reclassified in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

b) Fair Value Hedge

The Company designates derivative contracts or non derivative financial assets / liabilities as hedging instruments to mitigate the risk of change in fair value of hedged item due to movement in interest rates, foreign exchange rates and commodity prices.

Changes in the fair value of hedging instruments and hedged items that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the hedging relationship no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, the adjustment to the carrying amount of a hedged item for which the effective interest method is used is amortized to Statement of Profit and Loss over the period of maturity.

iv) Derecognition of financial instruments

The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or it transfers the financial asset and the transfer qualifies for derecognition under Ind AS 109. A financial liability (or a part of a financial liability) is derecognized from the Company''s Balance Sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires.

(o) Accounting For Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Successful Efforts Method (SEM) of accounting for its Oil and Gas activities. The policy of recognition of exploration and evaluation expenditure is considered in line with the principle of SEM. Seismic costs, geological and geophysical studies, petroleum exploration license fees and general and administration costs directly attributable to exploration and evaluation activities are expensed off. The costs incurred on acquisition of interest in oil and gas blocks and on exploration and evaluation other than those which are expensed off are accounted for as Intangible Assets under Development. All development costs incurred in respect of Proved reserves are also capitalized under Intangible Assets under Development. Untill a well is ready to commence commercial production, the costs accumulated in Intangible Assets under Development are classified as Intangible Assets corresponding to proved developed oil and gas reserves. The exploration and evaluation expenditure which does not result in discovery of proved oil and gas reserves and all cost pertaining to production are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The Company used technical estimation of reserves as per the Petroleum Resources Management System guidelines 2011 and standard geological and reservoir engineering methods. The reserve review and evaluation is carried out annually.

Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of joint operations. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the Company''s financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

C. CRITICAL ACCOUNTING JUDGMENTS AND KEY SOURCES OF ESTIMATION UNCERTAINTY

The preparation of the Company''s financial statements requires management to make judgment, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities and the accompanying disclosures. Uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of assets or liabilities affected in future periods.

a) Estimation of oil and gas reserves

The determination of the Company''s estimated oil and natural gas reserves requires significant judgments and estimates to be applied and these are regularly reviewed and updated. Factors such as the availability of geological and engineering data, reservoir performance data, acquisition and divestment activity, drilling of new wells, and commodity prices all impact on the determination of the Company''s estimates of its oil and natural gas reserves. The Company bases its proved reserves estimates on the requirement of reasonable certainty with rigorous technical and commercial assessments based on conventional industry practice and regulatory requirements.

Estimates of oil and natural gas reserves are used to calculate depletion charges for the Company''s oil and gas properties. The impact of changes in estimated proved reserves is dealt with prospectively by amortizing the remaining carrying value of the asset over the expected future production. Oil and natural gas reserves also have a direct impact on the assessment of the recoverability of asset carrying values reported in the financial statements.

Details on proved reserves and production both on product and geographical basis are provided in Note 31.2.

b) Decommissioning Liabilities

The liability for decommissioning costs are recognized when the Company has obligation to perform site restoration activity. The recognition and measurement of decommissioning provisions involves the use of estimates and assumptions. These include; the timing of abandonment of well and related facilities which would depend upon the ultimate life of the field, expected utilization of assets by other fields, the scope of abandonment activity and pre-tax rate applied for discounting.

c) Depreciation / amortization and useful lives of property plant and equipment / intangible assets

Property, plant and equipment / intangible assets are depreciated / amortized over their estimated useful lives, after taking into account estimated residual value. Management reviews the estimated useful lives and residual values of the assets annually in order to determine the amount of depreciation / amortization to be recorded during any reporting period. The useful lives and residual values are based on the Company''s historical experience with similar assets and take into account anticipated technological changes. The depreciation / amortization for future periods is revised if there are significant changes from previous estimates.

d) Recoverability of trade receivable

Judgments are required in assessing the recoverability of overdue trade receivables and determining whether a provision against those receivables is required. Factors considered include the credit rating of the counterparty, the amount and timing of anticipated future payments and any possible actions that can be taken to mitigate the risk of non-payment.

e) Provisions

Provisions and liabilities are recognized in the period when it becomes probable that there will be a future outflow of funds resulting from past operations or events and the amount of cash outflow can be reliably estimated. The timing of recognition and quantification of the liability requires the application of judgment to existing facts and circumstances, which can be subject to change. The carrying amounts of provisions and liabilities are reviewed regularly and revised to take account of changing facts and circumstances.

f) Impairment of non-financial assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, the Company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or Cash Generating Units (CGU''s) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. It is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or a groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account, if no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

g) Impairment of financial assets

The impairment provisions for financial assets are based on assumptions about risk of default and expected cash loss rates.

The Company uses judgment in making these assumptions and selecting the inputs to the impairment calculation, based on Company''s past history, existing market conditions as well as forward looking estimates at the end of each reporting period.

D. FIRST TIME ADOPTION OF IND AS

The Company has adopted Ind AS with effect from 1st April 2016 with comparatives being restated. Accordingly the impact of transition has been provided in the Opening Reserves as at 1st April 2015. The figures for the previous period have been restated, regrouped and reclassified wherever required to comply with the requirement of Ind AS and Schedule III.

a) Exemptions from retrospective application

(i) Business combination exemption

The Company has applied the exemption as provided in Ind AS 101 on non-application of Ind AS 103, "Business Combinations" to business combinations consummated prior to April 1, 2015 (the "Transition Date"), pursuant to which goodwill/capital reserve arising from a business combination has been stated at the carrying amount prior to the date of transition under Indian GAAP. The Company has also applied the exemption for past business combinations to acquisitions of investments in subsidiaries / associates / joint ventures consummated prior to the Transition Date.

(ii) Share-based payment transactions

Ind AS 101 encourages, but does not require, first time adopters to apply Ind AS 102 Share based Payment to equity instruments that were vested before the date of transition to Ind AS. The Company has elected not to apply Ind AS 102 to options that vested prior to April 1, 2015.

(iii) Fair value as deemed cost exemption

The Company has elected to measure items of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets at its carrying value at the transition date except for certain class of assets which are measured at fair value as deemed cost.

(iv) Cumulative translation differences

The Company has elected to apply Ind AS 21 - The Effects of changes in Foreign Exchange Rate prospectively. Accordingly all cumulative gains and losses recognized are reset to zero by transferring it to retained earnings.

(v) Long Term Foreign Currency Monetary Items

The Company continues the policy of capitalizing exchange differences arising on translation of long term foreign currency monetary items.

(vi) Investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates

The Company has elected to measure investment in subsidiaries, joint venture and associate at cost.

(vii) Decommissioning liabilities

The Company has elected to apply the transitional provision with respect to recognition of Decommissioning, Restoration and Similar Liabilities.

1.1 Leasehold Land includes Rs, 778 crore (Previous Year Rs, 777 crore) in respect of which lease-deeds are pending execution.

1.2 Buildings includes :

i) Cost of shares in Co-operative Societies Rs, 2,00,200 (Previous Year Rs, 1,99,950).

ii) Rs, 135 crore (Previous Year Rs, 135 crore) in shares of Companies / Societies with right to hold and use certain area of Buildings.

1.3 Intangible Assets - Others includes :

i) Jetties amounting to Rs, 812 crore (Previous Year Rs, 812 crore), the Ownership of which vests with Gujarat Maritime Board.

ii) Rs, 7,403 crore (Previous Year Rs, 8,367 crore) in preference shares of subsidiaries and lease premium paid with right to hold and use Land and Buildings.

1.4 Capital Work-in-Progress and Intangible Assets under Development includes :

i) Rs, 15,544 crore (Previous Year Rs, 11,022 crore) on account of project development expenditure.

ii) Rs, 11,526 crore (Previous Year Rs, 18,646 crore) on account of cost of construction materials at site.

1.6 Additions in plant and machinery, Capital work-in-progress, Intangible Assets - Development Rights and Intangible assets under Development includes Rs, 2,166 crore (net loss) [Previous Year Rs, 8,605 crore (net loss)] on account of exchange difference during the year.

1.7 For Properties pledged as security - refer note 15.1.

These plans typically expose the Company to actuarial risks such as: investment risk, interest risk, longevity risk and salary risk.

Investment risk The present value of the defined benefit plan liability is calculated using a discount rate which is determined by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds.

Interest risk A decrease in the bond interest rate will increase the plan liability; however, this will be partially offset by an increase in the return on the plan debt investments.

Longevity risk The present value of the defined benefit plan liability is calculated by reference to the best estimate of the mortality of plan participants both during and after their employment. An increase in the life expectancy of the plan participants will increase the plan''s liability.

Salary risk The present value of the defined plan liability is calculated by reference to the future salaries of plan participants. As such, an increase in the salary of the plan participants will increase the plan''s liability.

26.2 The Company had announced Voluntary Separation Scheme (VSS) for the employees of Allahabad & Nagpur Manufacturing Divisions in the previous year. A sum of Rs, 156 crore had been paid during the previous year and debited to the Statement of Profit and Loss under the head "Employee Benefits Expense"

26.3 Share based payments

a) Scheme details

Company has an Employee Stock Option Scheme under which the maximum quantum of options was granted at Rs, 642 (face value Rs, 10 each) with options to be vested from time to time on the basis of performance and other eligibility criteria.

c) Fair Value on the grant date

The fair value at grant date is determined using Black Scholes Model which takes into account the exercise price, the term of the option, the share price at grant date and expected price volatility of the underlying share, the expected dividend yield and the risk free interest rate for the term of the option.

The model inputs for options granted during the year ended March 31, 2017 included;

a. Weighted average exercise price Rs, 1,096 (March 31, 2016 Rs, 887)

b. Grant date: 05.10.2016 & 10.10.2016 (March 31, 2016: 10.10.2015)

c. Vesting year: 2017-18 to 2020-21 (March 31, 2016: 2016-17 to 2019-20)

d. Share price at grant date: Rs, 1,089 at 05.10.2016 & 1,096 at 10.10.2016)

e. Expected price volatility of Company''s share: 25.1 % to 26.5%

f. Expected dividend yield: 1.07 %

g. Risk free interest rate: 7 %

The expected price volatility is based on the historic volatility (based on remaining life of the options).

The reserve estimates for producing fields are revised based on the performance of producing fields and with respect to discovered fields, the revision are based on the revised geological and reservoir simulation studies.


Mar 31, 2016

A. BASIS OF PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

These financial statements have been prepared to comply with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP), including the Accounting Standards notified under the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.

The financial statements are prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention, except for certain Fixed Assets which are carried at revalued amounts. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded of to the nearest rupees in crore.

B. USE OF ESTIMATES

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires judgments, estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/materialised. The management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable.

C. FIXED ASSETS

Tangible Assets

Tangible Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes, trade discounts and rebates and include amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. The cost of Tangible Assets comprises its purchase price, borrowing cost and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the assets.

Subsequent expenditures related to an item of Tangible Asset are added to its book value only if they increase the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use are disclosed under Capital Work-in-Progress.

Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation/depletion and impairment loss, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs, and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use and net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets.

D. LEASES

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed on a straight line basis with reference to the lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as Fixed Assets with corresponding amount disclosed as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss Statement.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above, pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the asset are capitalised.

E. DEPRECIATION, AMORTISATION AND DEPLETION

Tangible Assets

Depreciation on Fixed Assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on the Written Down Value (WDV) Method except in case of assets pertaining to Refining segment, SEZ units / developer and Petrochemical Plants capitalised after April 1, 2015 where depreciation is provided on Straight Line Method (SLM). Depreciation is provided based on useful life of the assets as prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following assets, where useful life is different than those prescribed in Schedule II are used;

In respect of additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing assets and insurance spares, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of Fixed Assets, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective assets.

F. IMPAIRMENT

The Company assesses at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that an asset (tangible and intangible) may be impaired. An asset is treated as impaired, when the carrying cost of the asset exceeds its recoverable amount. Recoverable amount is higher of an asset''s or cash generating unit''s net selling price and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life.

An impairment loss is charged to Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

G. FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS

a. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

b. Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

c. Non-monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

d. In respect of integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

e. Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss Statement, except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of Fixed Assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

H. INVESTMENTS

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category-wise. Non Current investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of Non Current investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than 12 months from the date of acquisition are classified as current investment. All other investments are classified as non-current investments.

I. INVENTORIES

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any, except in case of by-products which are valued at net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads net of recoverable taxes incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition.

Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis.

J. REVENUE RECOGNITION

Revenue is recognised only when risks and rewards incidental to ownership are transferred to the customer, it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Revenue from operations includes sale of goods, services, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), and gain/loss on corresponding hedge contracts.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the interest rate applicable.

Excise Duty / Service Tax

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided and provisions made for goods lying in bonded warehouses.

K. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

Short Term Employee Benefits

The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised as an expense during the period when the employees render the services.

Post-Employment Benefits

Defined Contribution Plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the Company pays specified contributions to a separate entity. The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Provident Fund, Superannuation Fund and Pension Scheme. The Company''s contribution is recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Statement during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined Benefit Plans

The liability in respect of defined benefit plans and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the Projected Unit Credit Method and spread over the period during which the benefit is expected to be derived from employees'' services.

Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post-employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement.

Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss Statement in the year of exercise of option by the employee.

L. BORROWING COSTS

Borrowing costs include exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement in the period in which they are incurred.

M. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Profit and Loss Statement. Development costs of products are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement unless a product''s technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised.

N. FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES AND COMMODITY HEDGING TRANSACTIONS

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains/losses on settlement and losses on restatement are recognised in the Profit and Loss Statement except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of Fixed Assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

O. INCOME TAXES

Tax expense comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities, using the applicable tax rates. Deferred income tax reflect the current period timing differences between taxable income and accounting income and reversal of timing differences of earlier years/period. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future income will be available except that deferred tax assets, in case there are unabsorbed depreciation or losses, are recognised if there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise the same.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax law that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

P. PREMIUM ON REDEMPTION OF BONDS / DEBENTURES

Premium on redemption of bonds/debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Reserve.

Q. PROVISIONS, CONTINGENT LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENT ASSETS

Provision is recognised in the accounts when there is a present obligation as a result of past event(s) and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed unless the possibility of outflow of resources is remote.

Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

R. ACCOUNTING FOR OIL AND GAS ACTIVITY

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its'' Oil and Gas activities and all costs incurred are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Costs incurred on acquisition of interest in oil and gas blocks and on exploration and evaluation are accounted for as Intangible Assets under Development. Upon a reserve being either ''proved'' or deemed to be ''dry'', the costs accumulated in Intangible Assets under Development are capitalised to intangible assets. Development costs incurred thereafter in respect of ''proved'' reserves are capitalised to the said intangible asset. All costs relating to production are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement.

Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the Company''s financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.


Mar 31, 2015

A. BASIS OF PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

These financial statements have been prepared to comply with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP), including the Accounting Standards notified under the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.

The financial statements are prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention, except for certain Fixed Assets which are carried at revalued amounts. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded off to the nearest rupees in crore.

B. USE OF ESTIMATES

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires judgements, estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/materialised.

C. FIXED ASSETS

Tangible Assets

Tangible Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes, trade discounts and rebates and include amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. The cost of Tangible Assets comprises its purchase price, borrowing cost and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the assets.

Subsequent expenditures related to an item of Tangible Asset are added to its book value only if they increase the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use are disclosed under Capital Work-in-Progress.

Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation/depletion and impairment loss, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs, and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use and net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets.

D. LEASES

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed on a straight line basis with reference to the lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as Fixed Assets with corresponding amount disclosed as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss Statement.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above, pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the asset are capitalised.

E. DEPRECIATION, AMORTISATION AND DEPLETION

Tangible Assets

Depreciation on Fixed Assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on the Written Down Value (WDV) Method except in case of assets pertaining to Refining segment and SEZ units / developer where depreciation is provided on Straight Line Method (SLM). Depreciation is provided based on useful life of the assets as prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following assets, where useful life is different than those prescribed in Schedule II are used;

In respect of additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing assets and insurance spares, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of Fixed Assets, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective assets.

F. IMPAIRMENT

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Statement in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

G. FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS

a. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

b. Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

c. Non-monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

d. I n respect of integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

e. Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss Statement, except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of Fixed Assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

H. INVESTMENTS

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category-wise. Non Current investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of Non Current investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

I. INVENTORIES

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any, except in case of by-products which are valued at net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition.

Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis.

J. REVENUE RECOGNITION

Revenue is recognised only when risks and rewards incidental to ownership are transferred to the customer, it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Revenue from operations includes sale of goods, services, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), and gain/loss on corresponding hedge contracts.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

I nterest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the interest rate applicable.

EXCISE DUTY / SERVICE TAX

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided and provisions made for goods lying in bonded warehouses.

K. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

Short Term Employee Benefits

The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised as an expense during the period when the employees render the services. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences.

Post-Employment Benefits Defined Contribution Plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the Company pays specified contributions to a separate entity. The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Provident Fund, Superannuation Fund and Pension Scheme. The Company's contribution is recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Statement during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined Benefit Plans

The liability in respect of defined benefit plans and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the Projected Unit Credit Method and spread over the period during which the benefit is expected to be derived from employees' services.

Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post-employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement.

Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss Statement in the year of exercise of option by the employee.

L. BORROWING COSTS

Borrowing costs include exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement in the period in which they are incurred.

M. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Profit and Loss Statement. Development costs of products are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement unless a product's technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised.

N. FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES AND COMMODITY HEDGING TRANSACTIONS

I n respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains/losses on settlement and losses on restatement are recognised in the Profit and Loss Statement except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of Fixed Assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

O. INCOME TAXES

Tax expense comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities, using the applicable tax rates. Deferred income tax reflect the current period timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier years/period. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future income will be available except that deferred tax assets, in case there are unabsorbed depreciation or losses, are recognised if there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise the same.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax law that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

P. PREMIUM ON REDEMPTION OF BONDS / DEBENTURES

Premium on redemption of bonds/debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Reserve.

Q. PROVISIONS, CONTINGENT LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENT ASSETS

Provision is recognised in the accounts when there is a present obligation as a result of past event(s) and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed unless the possibility of outflow of resources is remote.

Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

R. ACCOUNTING FOR OIL AND GAS ACTIVITY

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its' Oil and Gas activities and all costs incurred are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Costs incurred on acquisition of interest in oil and gas blocks and on exploration and evaluation are accounted for as Intangible Assets under Development. Upon a reserve being either 'proved' or deemed to be 'dry', the costs accumulated in Intangible Assets under Development are capitalised to intangible assets. Development costs incurred thereafter in respect of 'proved' reserves are capitalised to the said intangible asset. All costs relating to production are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement.

Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the Company's financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.


Mar 31, 2014

A. BASIS OF PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

These financial statements have been prepared to comply with Accounting Principles Generally accepted in India (Indian GAAP), the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

The financial statements are prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are carried at revalued amounts. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded off to the nearest rupees in crore.

B. USE OF ESTIMATES

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires judgments, estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/materialised.

C. FIXED ASSETS

Tangible Assets

Tangible Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes, trade discounts and rebates and include amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. The cost of tangible assets comprises its purchase price, borrowing cost and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the assets.

Subsequent expenditures related to an item of tangible asset are added to its book value only if they increase the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use are shown as Capital Work-in-Progress.

Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation/depletion and impairment loss, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs, and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use and net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets.

D. LEASES

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed on a straight line basis with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above, pertaining to the period up to the date of commissioning of the asset are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the period in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. DEPRECIATION, AMORTISATION AND DEPLETION

Tangible Assets

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on the Written Down Value (WDV) Method except in case of assets pertaining to Refining segment and SEZ units / developer where depreciation is provided on Straight Line Method (SLM). Depreciation is provided at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 except in respect of the following assets, where rates higher than those prescribed in Schedule XIV are used;

F. IMPAIRMENT

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

G. FOREIGN CURRENCYTRANSACTIONS

a. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

b. Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the yearend rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

c. Non-monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

d. In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

e. Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

H. INVESTMENTS

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category-wise. Long-term investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

I. INVENTORIES

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any, except in case of by-products which are valued at net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition.

Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis.

J. REVENUE RECOGNITION

Revenue is recognised only when risks and rewards incidental to ownership are transferred to the customer, it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Revenue from operations includes sale of goods, services, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), and gain/loss on corresponding hedge contracts.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the interest rate applicable.

EXCISE DUTY / SERVICE TAX

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided and provisions made for goods lying in bonded warehouses.

K. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

Short term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised as an expense during the period when the employees render the services. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences.

Post-employment benefits

Defined contribution plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the Company pays specified contributions to a separate entity The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Provident Fund, Superannuation Fund and Pension Scheme. The Companys contribution is recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined benefit plans

The liability in respect of defined benefit plans and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the Projected Unit Credit Method and spread over the period during which the benefit is expected to be derived from employees services.

Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post-employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year of exercise of option by the employee.

L. BORROWING COSTS

Borrowing costs include exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.

M. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a products technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised.

N. FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES AND COMMODITY HEDGING TRANSACTIONS

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains/losses on settlement and losses on restatement are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

O. INCOME TAXES

Tax expense comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities, using the applicable tax rates. Deferred income tax reflect the current period timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier years/ period. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future income will be available except that deferred tax assets, in case there are unabsorbed depreciation or losses, are recognised if there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise the same.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax law that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

P. PREMIUM ON REDEMPTION OF BONDS / DEBENTURES

Premium on redemption of bonds/debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Reserve.

Q. PROVISIONS, CONTINGENT LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENT ASSETS

Provision is recognised in the accounts when there is a present obligation as a result of past event(s) and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed unless the possibility of outflow of resources is remote.

Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

R. ACCOUNTING FOR OIL AND GAS ACTIVITY

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activities and all costs incurred are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Costs incurred on acquisition of interest in oil and gas blocks and on exploration and evaluation are accounted for as capital work-in-progress. Upon a reserve being either proved or deemed to be dry, the costs accumulated in capital work-in-progress are capitalised to intangible assets. Development costs incurred thereafter in respect of proved reserves are capitalised to the said intangible asset. All costs relating to production are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the Companys financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.


Mar 31, 2013

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued, in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation / depletion. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets are capitalised.

F. Depreciation and Amortisation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except, on fixed assets pertaining to refining segment and SEZ units, depreciation is provided on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more, depreciation is provided over its useful life; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years, 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease; technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets and computer software is amortised over a period of 5 years; on intangible assets - development rights, depletion is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of India''s share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; intangible assets - others are amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided in case of jetty the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the Company; on amounts added on revaluation, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the values on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April 2001, depreciation is provided over the lease term.

G. Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H. Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the yearend rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value.

K. Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized only when it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Revenue from operations includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts. Dividend income is recognized when right to receive is established. Interest income is recognized on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and rate applicable.

L. Excise Duty / Service Tax and Sales Tax / Value Added Tax

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax / Value added tax paid is charged to Profit and Loss account.

M. Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Profit and Loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amounts payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss account.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss account.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains / losses on settlement and losses on restatement are recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on line by line basis with similar items in the Company''s financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R. Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from "timing difference" between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of bonds / debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2012

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued, in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation / depletion. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets are capitalised.

F. Depreciation and Amortisation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except,: on fixed assets pertaining to refining segment and SEZ units, depreciation is provided on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more, depreciation is provided over its useful life; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years, 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease; technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets and computer software is amortised over a period of 5 years; on intangible assets - development rights, depletion is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of India's share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; intangible assets - others are amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided in case of jetty the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the Company; on amounts added on revaluation, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the valuers'; on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April 2001, depreciation is provided over the lease term.

G Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value.

K Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized only when it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Revenue from operations includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts. Dividend income is recognized when right to receive is established. Interest income is recognized on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and rate applicable.

L. Excise Duty / Service Tax and Sales Tax / Value Added Tax

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax / Value added tax paid is charged to Profit and Loss account.

M Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the profit and loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amounts payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss account.

(iii) In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant over the exercise price is recognised as deferred compensation cost amortised over the vesting period.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss account.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains / losses on settlement and losses on restatement are recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on line by line basis with similar items in the Company's financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from 'timing difference-between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of Bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of bonds / debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2011

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued, in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation / depletion. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets are capitalised.

F. Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except,: on fixed assets pertaining to refining segment and SEZ units, depreciation is provided on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more, depreciation is provided over its useful life; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years, 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; premium on leasehold land is amortised over

the period of lease; technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets and computer software is amortised over a period of 5 years; on intangible assets - development rights, depletion is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of Indias share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; intangible assets - others are amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided in case of jetty the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the Company; on amounts added on revaluation, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the valuers; on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April 2001, depreciation is provided over the lease term.

G. Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H. Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value.

K. Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized only when it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Turnover includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts. Dividend income is recognized when right to receive is established. Interest income is recognized on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and rate applicable.

L. Excise Duty / Service Tax and Sales Tax / Value Added Tax

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax / Value added tax paid is charged to Profit and Loss account.

M. Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the profit and loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amounts payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss account.

(iii) In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant over the exercise price is recognised as deferred compensation cost amortised over the vesting period.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss account.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid and gains / losses on settlement are recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on line by line basis with similar items in the Companys financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R. Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from "timing difference" between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of Bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of bonds / debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2010

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of cenvat / value added tax and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortisation.

F. Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except,: on fixed assets pertaining to refining segment and SEZ units, depreciation is provided on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more, depreciation is provided over its useful life; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years, 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; on development rights and producing properties, depreciation is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of India’s share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease; technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets and computer software is amortised over a period of 5 years; intangible assets - others are amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided in case of jetty the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the company; on amounts added on revaluation, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the valuers’; on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April 2001, depreciation is provided over the lease term.

G. Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H. Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value. Cost of work-in-progress and finished stock is determined on absorption costing method.

K. Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized only when it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Turnover includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts. Dividend income is recognized when right to receive is established. Interest income is recognized on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and rate applicable.

L. Excise Duty and Sales Tax / Value Added Tax

Excise duty is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax / Value added tax paid is charged to Profit and Loss account.

M. Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the profit and loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amounts payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss account.

(iii) I n respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant over the exercise price is recognised as deferred compensation cost amortised over the vesting period.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss account.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains / losses on settlement and provision for losses for cash flow hedges are recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on line by line basis with similar items in the Company’s financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R. Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from “timing difference” between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of Bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of bonds / debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognized but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2009

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of cenvat / value added tax and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to profit and loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortisation.

F. Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except,: on fixed assets pertaining to refining segment, depreciation is provided on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more, depreciation is provided over its useful life ; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years, 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; on development rights and producing properties, depreciation is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of India’s share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease; technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets and computer software is amortised over a period of 5 years; intangible assets - others are amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided in case of jetty the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the Company; on amounts added on revaluation, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the valuers’; on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April 2001, depreciation is provided over the lease term.

G. Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of assets exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H. Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the profit and loss account except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at lower of cost or quoted/ fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost or net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value. Cost of work-in-progress and finished stock is determined on absorption costing method.

K. Turnover

Turnover includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts.

L. Excise Duty and Sales Tax / Value Added Tax

Excise duty is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax / Value added tax paid is charged to profit and loss account.

M. Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the profit and loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the profit and loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amounts payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the profit and loss account.

(iii) I n respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant over the exercise price is recognised as deferred compensation cost amortised over the vesting period.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the profit and loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to profit and loss account.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains / losses on settlement and provision for losses for cash flow hedges are recognised in the profit and loss account except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on line by line basis with similar items in the Company’s financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R. Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from “timing difference” between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. The deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of Bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of bonds / debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provision, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2008

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued, in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known / materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of cenvat / value added tax and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases : Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001 : The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to profit and loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalized.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortisation. Technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets. Computer Software is amortised over a period of 5 years. Amortisation is done on written down value basis except in respect of crude oil refining where it is amortised on straight-line basis.

F. Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except, on fixed assets pertaining to crude oil refining and marketing infrastructure for petroleum products where depreciation is charged on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more depreciation is provided over its useful life; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; on development rights and producing properties depreciation is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of India’s share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease; cost of jetty is amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided however that the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the Company; on amounts added on revaluation depreciation is charged as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the valuers; on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April, 2001 depreciation is spread over the lease term.

G. Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of assets exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the profit and loss account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognized in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H. Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognized as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognized over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate on the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the profit and loss account except in cases where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at the lower of cost or quoted / fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost or net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value. Cost of work-in-progress and finished stock is determined on absorption costing method.

K. Turnover

Turnover includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts.

L. Excise Duty and Sales Tax

Excise duty is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax paid is charged to profit and loss account.

M. Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the profit and loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognized as an expense in the profit and loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognized at the present value of the amount payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the profit and loss account.

(iii) In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant over the exercise price is recognized as deferred compensation cost amortised over vesting period.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the profit and loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that takes necessarily substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains / losses on settlement and provision for losses for cash flow hedges are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account, except in case where they relate to borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted, on the basis of available information, on line by line basis with similar items in the Company’s financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R. Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from “timing differences” between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. The deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of Bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of Bonds / Debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provision, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

Find IFSC