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Accounting Policies of Reliance Industries Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2016

A. BASIS OF PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

These financial statements have been prepared to comply with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP), including the Accounting Standards notified under the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.

The financial statements are prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention, except for certain Fixed Assets which are carried at revalued amounts. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded of to the nearest rupees in crore.

B. USE OF ESTIMATES

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires judgments, estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/materialised. The management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable.

C. FIXED ASSETS

Tangible Assets

Tangible Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes, trade discounts and rebates and include amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. The cost of Tangible Assets comprises its purchase price, borrowing cost and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the assets.

Subsequent expenditures related to an item of Tangible Asset are added to its book value only if they increase the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use are disclosed under Capital Work-in-Progress.

Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation/depletion and impairment loss, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs, and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use and net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets.

D. LEASES

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed on a straight line basis with reference to the lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as Fixed Assets with corresponding amount disclosed as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss Statement.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above, pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the asset are capitalised.

E. DEPRECIATION, AMORTISATION AND DEPLETION

Tangible Assets

Depreciation on Fixed Assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on the Written Down Value (WDV) Method except in case of assets pertaining to Refining segment, SEZ units / developer and Petrochemical Plants capitalised after April 1, 2015 where depreciation is provided on Straight Line Method (SLM). Depreciation is provided based on useful life of the assets as prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following assets, where useful life is different than those prescribed in Schedule II are used;

In respect of additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing assets and insurance spares, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of Fixed Assets, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective assets.

F. IMPAIRMENT

The Company assesses at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that an asset (tangible and intangible) may be impaired. An asset is treated as impaired, when the carrying cost of the asset exceeds its recoverable amount. Recoverable amount is higher of an asset''s or cash generating unit''s net selling price and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life.

An impairment loss is charged to Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

G. FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS

a. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

b. Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

c. Non-monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

d. In respect of integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

e. Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss Statement, except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of Fixed Assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

H. INVESTMENTS

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category-wise. Non Current investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of Non Current investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than 12 months from the date of acquisition are classified as current investment. All other investments are classified as non-current investments.

I. INVENTORIES

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any, except in case of by-products which are valued at net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads net of recoverable taxes incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition.

Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis.

J. REVENUE RECOGNITION

Revenue is recognised only when risks and rewards incidental to ownership are transferred to the customer, it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Revenue from operations includes sale of goods, services, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), and gain/loss on corresponding hedge contracts.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the interest rate applicable.

Excise Duty / Service Tax

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided and provisions made for goods lying in bonded warehouses.

K. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

Short Term Employee Benefits

The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised as an expense during the period when the employees render the services.

Post-Employment Benefits

Defined Contribution Plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the Company pays specified contributions to a separate entity. The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Provident Fund, Superannuation Fund and Pension Scheme. The Company''s contribution is recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Statement during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined Benefit Plans

The liability in respect of defined benefit plans and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the Projected Unit Credit Method and spread over the period during which the benefit is expected to be derived from employees'' services.

Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post-employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement.

Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss Statement in the year of exercise of option by the employee.

L. BORROWING COSTS

Borrowing costs include exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement in the period in which they are incurred.

M. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Profit and Loss Statement. Development costs of products are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement unless a product''s technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised.

N. FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES AND COMMODITY HEDGING TRANSACTIONS

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains/losses on settlement and losses on restatement are recognised in the Profit and Loss Statement except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of Fixed Assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

O. INCOME TAXES

Tax expense comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities, using the applicable tax rates. Deferred income tax reflect the current period timing differences between taxable income and accounting income and reversal of timing differences of earlier years/period. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future income will be available except that deferred tax assets, in case there are unabsorbed depreciation or losses, are recognised if there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise the same.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax law that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

P. PREMIUM ON REDEMPTION OF BONDS / DEBENTURES

Premium on redemption of bonds/debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Reserve.

Q. PROVISIONS, CONTINGENT LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENT ASSETS

Provision is recognised in the accounts when there is a present obligation as a result of past event(s) and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed unless the possibility of outflow of resources is remote.

Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

R. ACCOUNTING FOR OIL AND GAS ACTIVITY

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its'' Oil and Gas activities and all costs incurred are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Costs incurred on acquisition of interest in oil and gas blocks and on exploration and evaluation are accounted for as Intangible Assets under Development. Upon a reserve being either ''proved'' or deemed to be ''dry'', the costs accumulated in Intangible Assets under Development are capitalised to intangible assets. Development costs incurred thereafter in respect of ''proved'' reserves are capitalised to the said intangible asset. All costs relating to production are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement.

Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the Company''s financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.


Mar 31, 2015

A. BASIS OF PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

These financial statements have been prepared to comply with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP), including the Accounting Standards notified under the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.

The financial statements are prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention, except for certain Fixed Assets which are carried at revalued amounts. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded off to the nearest rupees in crore.

B. USE OF ESTIMATES

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires judgements, estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/materialised.

C. FIXED ASSETS

Tangible Assets

Tangible Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes, trade discounts and rebates and include amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. The cost of Tangible Assets comprises its purchase price, borrowing cost and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the assets.

Subsequent expenditures related to an item of Tangible Asset are added to its book value only if they increase the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use are disclosed under Capital Work-in-Progress.

Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation/depletion and impairment loss, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs, and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use and net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets.

D. LEASES

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed on a straight line basis with reference to the lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as Fixed Assets with corresponding amount disclosed as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss Statement.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above, pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the asset are capitalised.

E. DEPRECIATION, AMORTISATION AND DEPLETION

Tangible Assets

Depreciation on Fixed Assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on the Written Down Value (WDV) Method except in case of assets pertaining to Refining segment and SEZ units / developer where depreciation is provided on Straight Line Method (SLM). Depreciation is provided based on useful life of the assets as prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following assets, where useful life is different than those prescribed in Schedule II are used;

In respect of additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing assets and insurance spares, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of Fixed Assets, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective assets.

F. IMPAIRMENT

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Statement in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

G. FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS

a. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

b. Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

c. Non-monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

d. I n respect of integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

e. Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss Statement, except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of Fixed Assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

H. INVESTMENTS

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category-wise. Non Current investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of Non Current investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

I. INVENTORIES

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any, except in case of by-products which are valued at net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition.

Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis.

J. REVENUE RECOGNITION

Revenue is recognised only when risks and rewards incidental to ownership are transferred to the customer, it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Revenue from operations includes sale of goods, services, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), and gain/loss on corresponding hedge contracts.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

I nterest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the interest rate applicable.

EXCISE DUTY / SERVICE TAX

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided and provisions made for goods lying in bonded warehouses.

K. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

Short Term Employee Benefits

The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised as an expense during the period when the employees render the services. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences.

Post-Employment Benefits Defined Contribution Plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the Company pays specified contributions to a separate entity. The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Provident Fund, Superannuation Fund and Pension Scheme. The Company's contribution is recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Statement during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined Benefit Plans

The liability in respect of defined benefit plans and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the Projected Unit Credit Method and spread over the period during which the benefit is expected to be derived from employees' services.

Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post-employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement.

Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss Statement in the year of exercise of option by the employee.

L. BORROWING COSTS

Borrowing costs include exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement in the period in which they are incurred.

M. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Profit and Loss Statement. Development costs of products are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement unless a product's technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised.

N. FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES AND COMMODITY HEDGING TRANSACTIONS

I n respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains/losses on settlement and losses on restatement are recognised in the Profit and Loss Statement except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of Fixed Assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

O. INCOME TAXES

Tax expense comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities, using the applicable tax rates. Deferred income tax reflect the current period timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier years/period. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future income will be available except that deferred tax assets, in case there are unabsorbed depreciation or losses, are recognised if there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise the same.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax law that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

P. PREMIUM ON REDEMPTION OF BONDS / DEBENTURES

Premium on redemption of bonds/debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Reserve.

Q. PROVISIONS, CONTINGENT LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENT ASSETS

Provision is recognised in the accounts when there is a present obligation as a result of past event(s) and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed unless the possibility of outflow of resources is remote.

Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

R. ACCOUNTING FOR OIL AND GAS ACTIVITY

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its' Oil and Gas activities and all costs incurred are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Costs incurred on acquisition of interest in oil and gas blocks and on exploration and evaluation are accounted for as Intangible Assets under Development. Upon a reserve being either 'proved' or deemed to be 'dry', the costs accumulated in Intangible Assets under Development are capitalised to intangible assets. Development costs incurred thereafter in respect of 'proved' reserves are capitalised to the said intangible asset. All costs relating to production are charged to the Profit and Loss Statement.

Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the Company's financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.


Mar 31, 2014

A. BASIS OF PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

These financial statements have been prepared to comply with Accounting Principles Generally accepted in India (Indian GAAP), the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

The financial statements are prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are carried at revalued amounts. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded off to the nearest rupees in crore.

B. USE OF ESTIMATES

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires judgments, estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/materialised.

C. FIXED ASSETS

Tangible Assets

Tangible Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes, trade discounts and rebates and include amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. The cost of tangible assets comprises its purchase price, borrowing cost and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the assets.

Subsequent expenditures related to an item of tangible asset are added to its book value only if they increase the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use are shown as Capital Work-in-Progress.

Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation/depletion and impairment loss, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs, and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use and net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets.

D. LEASES

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed on a straight line basis with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above, pertaining to the period up to the date of commissioning of the asset are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the period in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. DEPRECIATION, AMORTISATION AND DEPLETION

Tangible Assets

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on the Written Down Value (WDV) Method except in case of assets pertaining to Refining segment and SEZ units / developer where depreciation is provided on Straight Line Method (SLM). Depreciation is provided at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 except in respect of the following assets, where rates higher than those prescribed in Schedule XIV are used;

F. IMPAIRMENT

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

G. FOREIGN CURRENCYTRANSACTIONS

a. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

b. Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the yearend rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

c. Non-monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

d. In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

e. Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

H. INVESTMENTS

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category-wise. Long-term investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

I. INVENTORIES

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any, except in case of by-products which are valued at net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition.

Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis.

J. REVENUE RECOGNITION

Revenue is recognised only when risks and rewards incidental to ownership are transferred to the customer, it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Revenue from operations includes sale of goods, services, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), and gain/loss on corresponding hedge contracts.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the interest rate applicable.

EXCISE DUTY / SERVICE TAX

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided and provisions made for goods lying in bonded warehouses.

K. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

Short term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised as an expense during the period when the employees render the services. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences.

Post-employment benefits

Defined contribution plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the Company pays specified contributions to a separate entity The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Provident Fund, Superannuation Fund and Pension Scheme. The Companys contribution is recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined benefit plans

The liability in respect of defined benefit plans and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the Projected Unit Credit Method and spread over the period during which the benefit is expected to be derived from employees services.

Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post-employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year of exercise of option by the employee.

L. BORROWING COSTS

Borrowing costs include exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.

M. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a products technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised.

N. FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES AND COMMODITY HEDGING TRANSACTIONS

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains/losses on settlement and losses on restatement are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

O. INCOME TAXES

Tax expense comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities, using the applicable tax rates. Deferred income tax reflect the current period timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the period and reversal of timing differences of earlier years/ period. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future income will be available except that deferred tax assets, in case there are unabsorbed depreciation or losses, are recognised if there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise the same.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax law that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

P. PREMIUM ON REDEMPTION OF BONDS / DEBENTURES

Premium on redemption of bonds/debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Reserve.

Q. PROVISIONS, CONTINGENT LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENT ASSETS

Provision is recognised in the accounts when there is a present obligation as a result of past event(s) and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed unless the possibility of outflow of resources is remote.

Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

R. ACCOUNTING FOR OIL AND GAS ACTIVITY

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activities and all costs incurred are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Costs incurred on acquisition of interest in oil and gas blocks and on exploration and evaluation are accounted for as capital work-in-progress. Upon a reserve being either proved or deemed to be dry, the costs accumulated in capital work-in-progress are capitalised to intangible assets. Development costs incurred thereafter in respect of proved reserves are capitalised to the said intangible asset. All costs relating to production are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the Companys financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.


Mar 31, 2013

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued, in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation / depletion. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets are capitalised.

F. Depreciation and Amortisation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except, on fixed assets pertaining to refining segment and SEZ units, depreciation is provided on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more, depreciation is provided over its useful life; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years, 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease; technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets and computer software is amortised over a period of 5 years; on intangible assets - development rights, depletion is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of India''s share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; intangible assets - others are amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided in case of jetty the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the Company; on amounts added on revaluation, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the values on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April 2001, depreciation is provided over the lease term.

G. Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H. Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the yearend rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value.

K. Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized only when it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Revenue from operations includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts. Dividend income is recognized when right to receive is established. Interest income is recognized on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and rate applicable.

L. Excise Duty / Service Tax and Sales Tax / Value Added Tax

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax / Value added tax paid is charged to Profit and Loss account.

M. Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Profit and Loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amounts payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss account.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss account.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains / losses on settlement and losses on restatement are recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on line by line basis with similar items in the Company''s financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R. Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from "timing difference" between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of bonds / debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2012

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued, in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation / depletion. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets are capitalised.

F. Depreciation and Amortisation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except,: on fixed assets pertaining to refining segment and SEZ units, depreciation is provided on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more, depreciation is provided over its useful life; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years, 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease; technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets and computer software is amortised over a period of 5 years; on intangible assets - development rights, depletion is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of India's share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; intangible assets - others are amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided in case of jetty the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the Company; on amounts added on revaluation, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the valuers'; on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April 2001, depreciation is provided over the lease term.

G Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value.

K Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized only when it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Revenue from operations includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts. Dividend income is recognized when right to receive is established. Interest income is recognized on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and rate applicable.

L. Excise Duty / Service Tax and Sales Tax / Value Added Tax

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax / Value added tax paid is charged to Profit and Loss account.

M Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the profit and loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amounts payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss account.

(iii) In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant over the exercise price is recognised as deferred compensation cost amortised over the vesting period.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss account.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains / losses on settlement and losses on restatement are recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on line by line basis with similar items in the Company's financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from 'timing difference-between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of Bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of bonds / debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2011

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued, in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of recoverable taxes and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes less accumulated amortisation / depletion. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the intangible assets are capitalised.

F. Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except,: on fixed assets pertaining to refining segment and SEZ units, depreciation is provided on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more, depreciation is provided over its useful life; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years, 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; premium on leasehold land is amortised over

the period of lease; technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets and computer software is amortised over a period of 5 years; on intangible assets - development rights, depletion is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of Indias share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; intangible assets - others are amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided in case of jetty the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the Company; on amounts added on revaluation, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the valuers; on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April 2001, depreciation is provided over the lease term.

G. Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H. Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value.

K. Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized only when it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Turnover includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts. Dividend income is recognized when right to receive is established. Interest income is recognized on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and rate applicable.

L. Excise Duty / Service Tax and Sales Tax / Value Added Tax

Excise duty / Service tax is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared / services provided as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax / Value added tax paid is charged to Profit and Loss account.

M. Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the profit and loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amounts payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss account.

(iii) In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant over the exercise price is recognised as deferred compensation cost amortised over the vesting period.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss account.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid and gains / losses on settlement are recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on line by line basis with similar items in the Companys financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R. Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from "timing difference" between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of Bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of bonds / debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2010

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of cenvat / value added tax and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to Profit and Loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortisation.

F. Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided to the extent of depreciable amount on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except,: on fixed assets pertaining to refining segment and SEZ units, depreciation is provided on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more, depreciation is provided over its useful life; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years, 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; on development rights and producing properties, depreciation is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of India’s share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease; technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets and computer software is amortised over a period of 5 years; intangible assets - others are amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided in case of jetty the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the company; on amounts added on revaluation, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the valuers’; on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April 2001, depreciation is provided over the lease term.

G. Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H. Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and quoted/fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value. Cost of work-in-progress and finished stock is determined on absorption costing method.

K. Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized only when it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Turnover includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts. Dividend income is recognized when right to receive is established. Interest income is recognized on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and rate applicable.

L. Excise Duty and Sales Tax / Value Added Tax

Excise duty is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax / Value added tax paid is charged to Profit and Loss account.

M. Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the profit and loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amounts payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the Profit and Loss account.

(iii) I n respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant over the exercise price is recognised as deferred compensation cost amortised over the vesting period.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the Profit and Loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss account.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains / losses on settlement and provision for losses for cash flow hedges are recognised in the Profit and Loss account except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on line by line basis with similar items in the Company’s financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R. Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from “timing difference” between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of Bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of bonds / debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognized but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2009

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of cenvat / value added tax and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001: The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to profit and loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalised.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortisation.

F. Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except,: on fixed assets pertaining to refining segment, depreciation is provided on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more, depreciation is provided over its useful life ; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years, 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; on development rights and producing properties, depreciation is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of India’s share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease; technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets and computer software is amortised over a period of 5 years; intangible assets - others are amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided in case of jetty the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the Company; on amounts added on revaluation, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the valuers’; on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April 2001, depreciation is provided over the lease term.

G. Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of assets exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Profit and Loss Account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H. Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognised as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognised over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the profit and loss account except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at lower of cost or quoted/ fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost or net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value. Cost of work-in-progress and finished stock is determined on absorption costing method.

K. Turnover

Turnover includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts.

L. Excise Duty and Sales Tax / Value Added Tax

Excise duty is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax / Value added tax paid is charged to profit and loss account.

M. Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the profit and loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognised as an expense in the profit and loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognised at the present value of the amounts payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the profit and loss account.

(iii) I n respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant over the exercise price is recognised as deferred compensation cost amortised over the vesting period.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the profit and loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to profit and loss account.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains / losses on settlement and provision for losses for cash flow hedges are recognised in the profit and loss account except in case where they relate to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on line by line basis with similar items in the Company’s financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R. Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from “timing difference” between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. The deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of Bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of bonds / debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provision, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.


Mar 31, 2008

A. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, except for certain fixed assets which are revalued, in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known / materialised.

C. Own Fixed Assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost net of cenvat / value added tax and includes amounts added on revaluation, less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss, if any. All costs, including financing costs till commencement of commercial production, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the fixed assets are capitalised.

D. Leased Assets

a) Operating Leases : Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

b) (i) Finance leases prior to 1st April, 2001: Rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms and other considerations.

(ii) Finance leases on or after 1st April, 2001 : The lower of the fair value of the assets and present value of the minimum lease rentals is capitalised as fixed assets with corresponding amount shown as lease liability. The principal component in the lease rental is adjusted against the lease liability and the interest component is charged to profit and loss account.

c) However, rentals referred to in (a) or (b) (i) above and the interest component referred to in (b) (ii) above pertaining to the period upto the date of commissioning of the assets are capitalized.

d) All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the year in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

E. Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortisation. Technical know how is amortised over the useful life of the underlying assets. Computer Software is amortised over a period of 5 years. Amortisation is done on written down value basis except in respect of crude oil refining where it is amortised on straight-line basis.

F. Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on written down value method (WDV) at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 over their useful life except, on fixed assets pertaining to crude oil refining and marketing infrastructure for petroleum products where depreciation is charged on Straight Line method (SLM) over their useful life; on fixed bed catalyst with a life of 2 years or more depreciation is provided over its useful life; on fixed bed catalysts having life of less than 2 years 100% depreciation is provided in the year of addition; on additions or extensions forming an integral part of existing plants, including incremental cost arising on account of translation of foreign currency liabilities for acquisition of fixed assets and insurance spares, depreciation is provided as aforesaid over the residual life of the respective plants; on development rights and producing properties depreciation is provided in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis the proved reserves (net of reserves to be retained to cover abandonment costs as per the production sharing contract and the Government of India’s share in the reserves) considering the estimated future expenditure on developing the reserves as per technical evaluation; premium on leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease; cost of jetty is amortised over the period of agreement of right to use, provided however that the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the Company; on amounts added on revaluation depreciation is charged as aforesaid over the residual life of the assets as certified by the valuers; on assets acquired under finance lease from 1st April, 2001 depreciation is spread over the lease term.

G. Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of assets exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the profit and loss account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. The impairment loss recognized in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

H. Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction.

(b) Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies at the year end are restated at year end rates. In case of items which are covered by forward exchange contracts, the difference between the year end rate and rate on the date of the contract is recognized as exchange difference and the premium paid on forward contracts is recognized over the life of the contract.

(c) Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(d) In respect of branches, which are integral foreign operations, all transactions are translated at rates prevailing on the date of transaction or that approximates the actual rate on the date of transaction. Branch monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end rates.

(e) Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the profit and loss account except in cases where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

I. Investments

Current investments are carried at the lower of cost or quoted / fair value, computed category wise. Long Term Investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long-term investments is made only if such a decline is other than temporary.

J. Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost or net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. Cost of raw materials, process chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis. By-products are valued at net realisable value. Cost of work-in-progress and finished stock is determined on absorption costing method.

K. Turnover

Turnover includes sale of goods, services, sales tax, service tax, excise duty and sales during trial run period, adjusted for discounts (net), Value Added Tax (VAT) and gain / loss on corresponding hedge contracts.

L. Excise Duty and Sales Tax

Excise duty is accounted on the basis of both, payments made in respect of goods cleared as also provision made for goods lying in bonded warehouses. Sales tax paid is charged to profit and loss account.

M. Employee Benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the profit and loss account of the year in which the related service is rendered.

(ii) Post employment and other long term employee benefits are recognized as an expense in the profit and loss account for the year in which the employee has rendered services. The expense is recognized at the present value of the amount payable determined using actuarial valuation techniques. Actuarial gains and losses in respect of post employment and other long term benefits are charged to the profit and loss account.

(iii) In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant over the exercise price is recognized as deferred compensation cost amortised over vesting period.

N. Employee Separation Costs

Compensation to employees who have opted for retirement under the voluntary retirement scheme of the Company is charged to the profit and loss account in the year of exercise of option.

O. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that takes necessarily substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue.

P. Financial Derivatives and Commodity Hedging Transactions

In respect of derivative contracts, premium paid, gains / losses on settlement and provision for losses for cash flow hedges are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account, except in case where they relate to borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of fixed assets, in which case, they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.

Q. Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Full Cost Method of accounting for its Oil and Gas activity and all costs incurred in acquisition, exploration and development are accumulated considering the country as a cost centre. Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of Jointly Controlled Assets. Accordingly assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted, on the basis of available information, on line by line basis with similar items in the Company’s financial statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

R. Provision for Current and Deferred Tax

Provision for current tax is made after taking into consideration benefits admissible under the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred tax resulting from “timing differences” between taxable and accounting income is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. The deferred tax asset is recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

S. Premium on Redemption of Bonds / Debentures

Premium on redemption of Bonds / Debentures, net of tax impact, are adjusted against the Securities Premium Account.

T. Provision, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the notes. Contingent Assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

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