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Accounting Policies of Ruchi Strips & Alloys Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

A) Basis of Accounting

The financial statements are prepared as a going concern under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis of accounting and in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India. These financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material aspects with Accounting Standard notified under Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rule 2014 in respect of section 133 of the Companies Act 2013 and other recognized accounting practices and policies.

b) Use of Estimates

The preparation and presentation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reported period. Difference between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known/ materialized.

c) Revenue recognition

The Company follows mercantile system of the accounting and recognises income and expenditure on accrual basis except those with significant uncertainties.

Sales revenue is recognised on transfer of the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods to the buyer and stated net of sales tax, VAT, trade discounts.

Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis.

Income from services is recognised as they are rendered (based on arrangement / agreement with the concern customers).

Dividend income on investments is accounted for as and when the right to receive the payment is established.

The Export incentives are accounted for on accrual basis taking into account certainty of realisation or its subsequent utilisation.

d) Fixed Assets i. Fixed Assets

Fixed assets (Tangible ) are stated at cost of acquisition or construction or development, net of tax /duty credit availed if any, including any cost attributable for bringing the assets to its working condition for its intended use, less depreciation, amortization and impairments, if any.

ii. Capital Expenditure

Assets under erection/installation are shown as "Capital work in progress", Expenditure during construction period are shown as "pre-operative expenses" to be capitalized on erection/installations of the assets.

e) Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided in the manner specified in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013.Depreciation of an assets in the difference between original cost/ revalued amount and the estimated residual value and is charged to the statement of profit and loss over the useful life of an asset on straight line basis. The estimated useful life of assets and estimated residual value is taken as prescribed under Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013.

Depreciation on addition during the year is provided on pro rata basis with reference to date of addition / installation . Depreciation on assets disposed / discarded is charged up to the date on which such assets is sold.

f) Borrowing cost

Borrowing cost attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are added to / capitalized as part of the cost of such asset up to the date when such assets is ready for its intended use. Other borrowing costs are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss as expense in the year in which they are incurred.

g) Valuation of inventories

Inventories are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value on FIFO basis. Cost of inventory generally comprises of cost of purchases and other cost incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

h) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and are intended to be held for not more than one year, are classified as current investments.

All other investments are classified as non current investments. Current Investments are carried at lower of cost or market/fair value.

Non current investments are carried at cost of acquisition. However, no provision is made for diminution in the value of investments, where, in the opinion of the Board of Directors such diminution is temporary.

i) Employee Benefits

(a) Post-employment benefit plans

i. Defined Contribution Plan - Contributions to Provident Fund and Family Pension fund are accrued in accordance with applicable statute and deposited with appropriate authorities.

ii. Defined Benefit Plan

a. The liability in respect of leave encashment is determined using actuarial valuation carried out as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in full in Statement of Profit and Loss for the year in which they occur.

b. The Company has opted for scheme with Life Insurance Corporation of India to cover its liabilities towards employees gratuity. The annual premium paid to Life Insurance Corporation of India is charged to Profit and Loss Account. The Company also carries out actuarial valuation of gratuity using Projected Unit Credit Method as required by Accounting Standard 15 "Employee Benefits" (Revised 2005) and difference between fair value of plan assets and liability as per actuarial valuation as at year end is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss.

(b) Short term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered by employees is recognized during the period when the employees render the services. These benefits include compensated absence also.

j) Foreign currency transaction

i. All transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the rates of the exchange prevailing on the dates when the relevant transactions took place; any gain/ loss on account of the fluctuations in the rate of exchange is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

ii. Monetary items in the form of loans, current assets and current liabilities in foreign currencies at the close of the year are converted in the Indian currency at the appropriate rate of exchange prevailing on the dates of the Balance Sheet. Resultant gain or loss on account of fluctuation in the rate of exchange is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

iii. In respect of the Forward Exchange Contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risks, the difference between the Forward Rate and Exchange Rate at the inception of the contract is recognized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Further, the exchange difference arising on such contracts are recognized as income or expense along with the exchange difference on the underlying assets/ liabilities.

k) Lease Accounting

As a Lessee

Leases, where risk and reward of ownership, are significantly retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases and lease rentals thereon are charged to the statement of profit and loss over the period of lease.

l) Provision, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Asset

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is possible that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent liabilities are not recognized but are disclosed in the financial statements. Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.

m) Taxes on Income

Provision for Current Tax is the amount of tax payable on taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Deferred tax is recognised on the timing difference, being the difference between taxable income and the accounting income for the year and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised and carried forward to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized.

n) Impairment of Assets

The carrying amount of assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date, if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/ external factors.

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the statement of profit and loss in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. An impairment loss recognized in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been an indication that impairment loss recognised for an asset no longer exists or may have decreased.

o) Cash Flow Statement

Cash Flows are reported using indirect method, whereby Profit (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effect of transactions of non cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of the past or future cash receipts or payments. The Cash Flow from Operating, Investing and Financial activities of the Company is segregated based on the available information.


Mar 31, 2014

A) Basis of Accounting

The financial statements are prepared as agoing concern under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis of accounting and in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), Accounting Standards Issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, as applicable and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

b) Use of Estimates

The preparation and presentation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reported period. Difference between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known/ materialized.

c) Revenue recognition

The Company follows mercantile system of the accounting and recognises income and expenditure on accrual basis except those with significant uncertainties.

Sales revenue is recognised on transfer of the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods to the buyer and stated net of sales tax, VAT, trade discounts.

Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis.

Income from services is recognised as they are rendered (based on arrangement/agreement with the concern customers).

Dividend income on investments is accounted for as and when the right to receive the payment is established.

The Export incentives are accounted for on accrual basis taking into account certainty of realisation or its subsequent utilisation.

d) Fixed Assets

i. Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction or development, net of tax/duty credit availed if any,including any cost attributable for bringing the assets to its working condition for its intended use, less depreciation, amortization and impairments, if any.

ii. Capital Expenditure

Assets under erection/installation are shown as "Capital work in progress", Expenditure during construction period are shown as "pre-operative expenses" to be capitalized on erection/installations of the assets.

e) Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on straight line method at the rates and in the manner specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. Depreciation on assets added/disposed off during the year has been provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the date of addition /disposal, except for low value items costing Rs. 5,000/- or less are written off fully in the year of purchase.

In respect of addition/extensions forming integral part of existing assets and on revised carrying amount of the assets in dentified as impaired, depreciation has been provided over residual life of the respective fixed assets.

f) Borrowing cost

Borrowing cost attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are added to/capitalized as part of the cost of such asset up to the date when such assets is ready for its intended use. Other borrowing costs are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss as expense in the year in which they are incurred.

g) Valuation of inventories

Inventories are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value on FIFO basis. Cost of Inventory generally comprises of cost of purchases and other cost Incurred In bringing the Inventories to their present location and condition.

h) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and are Intended to be held for not more than one year, are classified as current Investments. All other Investments are classified as non current investments. Current Investments are carried at lower of cost or market/fair value.

Non current investments are carried at cost of acquisition. However, no provision is made for diminution in the value of investments, where, in the opinion of the Board of Directors such diminution is temporary.

i) Employee Benefits

(a) Post-employment benefit plans

i. Defined Contribution Plan - Contributions to Provident Fund and Family Pension fund are accrued in accordance with applicable statute and deposited with appropriate authorities.

ii. Defined Benefit Plan

a. The liability in respect of leave encashment is determined using actuarial valuation carried out as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in full in Statement of Profit and Loss for the year in which they occur.

b. The Company has opted for scheme with Life Insurance Corporation of India to cover its liabilities towards employees gratuity. The annual premium paid to Life Insurance Corporation of India is charged to Profit and Loss Account. The Company also carries out actuarial valuation of gratuity using Projected Unit Credit Method as required by Accounting Standard 15 "Employee Benefits" (Revised 2005) and difference between fair value of plan assets and liability as per actuarial valuation as at year end is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss.

(b) Short term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered by employees is recognized during the period when the employees render the services. These benefits include compensated absence also.

j) Foreign currency transaction

i. All transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the rates of the exchange prevailing on the dates when the relevant transactions took place; any gain/loss on account of the fluctuations in the rate of exchange is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

ii. Monetary items in the form of loans, current assets and current liabilities in foreign currencies at the close of the year are converted in the Indian currency at the appropriate rate of exchange prevailing on the dates of the Balance Sheet. Resultant gain or loss on account of fluctuation in the rate of exchange is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

iii. In respect of the Forward Exchange Contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risks, the difference between the Forward Rate and Exchange Rate at the inception of the contract is recognized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Further, the exchange difference arising on such contracts are recognized as income or expense along with the exchange difference on the underlying assets/ liabilities.

k) Lease Accounting

As a Lessee

Leases, where risk and reward of ownership, are significantly retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases and lease rentals thereon are charged to the statement of profit and loss over the period of lease.

I) Provision, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Asset

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is possible that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent liabilities are not recognized but are disclosed in the financial statements. Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.

m) Taxes on Income

Provision for Current Tax is the amount of tax payable on taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Deferred tax is recognised on the timing difference, being the difference between taxable income and the accounting income for the year and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised and carried forward to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized.

n) Impairment of Assets

The carrying amount of assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date, if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors.

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the statement of profit and loss in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. An impairment loss recognized in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been an indication that impairment loss recognised for an asset no longer exists or may have decreased.

o) Cash Flow Statement

Cash Flows are reported using indirect method, whereby Profit (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effect of transactions of non cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of the past or future cash receipts or payments. The Cash Flow from Operating, Investing and Financial activities of the Company is segregated based on the available information.


Mar 31, 2013

A) Basis of Accounting

The financial statements are prepared as a going concern under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis of accounting and in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), Accounting Standards Issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, as applicable and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

b) Use of Estimates

The preparation and presentation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reported period. Difference between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known/ materialized.

c) Revenue Recognition

The Company follows mercantile system of the accounting and recognises income and expenditure on accrual basis except those with significant uncertainties.

Sales revenue is recognised on transfer of the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods to the buyer and stated net of Sales Tax, Value Added Tax, Trade Discounts and Rebates but includes Excise Duty.

Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis.

Income from services is recognised as they are rendered (based on arrangement / agreement with the concern customers).

Dividend income on investments is accounted for as and when the right to receive the payment is established.

The Export incentives are accounted for on accrual basis taking into account certainty of realisation or its subsequent utilisation.

d) Fixed Assets

i. Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction or development , net of tax /duty credit availed if any, including any cost attributable for bringing the assets to its working condition for its intended use, less depreciation, amortization and impairments, if any.

ii. Capital Expenditure

Assets under erection/installation are shown as "Capital work in progress", Expenditure during construction period are shown as "pre-operative expenses" to be capitalized on erection/installations of the assets.

e) Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on straight line method at the rates and in the manner specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. Depreciation on assets added/disposed off during the year has been provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the date of addition / disposal, except for low value items costing Rs. 0.05 Lacs or less are written off fully in the year of purchase.

In respect of addition / extensions forming integral part of existing assets and on revised carrying amount of the assets indentified as impaired, depreciation has been provided over residual life of the respective fixed assets.

f) Borrowing cost

Borrowing cost attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are added to / capitalized as part of the cost of such asset up to the date when such assets is ready for its intended use. Other borrowing costs are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss as expense in the year in which they are incurred.

g) Valuation of Inventories

Inventories are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value on FIFO basis. Cost of inventory is generally comprises of cost of purchases and other cost incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

h) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and are intended to be held for not more than one year, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as non current investments. Current Investments are carried at lower of cost or market/fair value.

Non current investments are carried at cost of acquisition. However, no provision is made for diminution in the value of investments, where, in the opinion of the Board of Directors such diminution is temporary.

i) Foreign Currency Transaction

i. All transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the rates of the exchange prevailing on the dates when the relevant transactions took place; any gain/ loss on account of the fluctuations in the rate of exchange is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

ii. Monetary items in the form of loans, current assets and current liabilities in foreign currencies at the close of the year are converted in the Indian currency at the appropriate rate of exchange prevailing on the dates of the Balance Sheet. Resultant gain or loss on account of fluctuation in the rate of exchange is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

iii. In respect of the Forward Exchange Contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risks, the difference between the Forward Rate and Exchange Rate at the inception of the contract is recognized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Further, the exchange difference arising on such contracts are recognized as income or expense along with the exchange difference on the underlying assets/ liabilities.

j) Employee Benefits

(a) Post-Employment Benefit Plans

i. Defined Contribution Plan - Contributions to Provident Fund and Family Pension Fund are accrued in accordance with applicable statute and deposited with appropriate authorities.

ii. Defined Benefit Plan

a. The liability in respect of leave encashment is determined using actuarial valuation carried out as at Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in full in Statement of Profit and Loss for the year in which they occur.

b. The Company has opted for scheme with Life Insurance Corporation of India to cover its liabilities towards employees gratuity. The annual premium paid to Life Insurance Corporation of India is charged to Profit and Loss Account. The Company also carries out actuarial valuation of gratuity using Projected Unit Credit Method as required by Accounting Standard 15 "Employee Benefits" (Revised 2005) and difference between fair value of plan assets and liability as per actuarial valuation as at year end is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(b) Short Term Employee Benefits

The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered by employees is recognized during the period when the employees render the services. These benefits include compensated absence also.

k) Lease Accounting As a Lessee

Leases, where risk and reward of ownership, are significantly retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases and lease rentals thereon are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss over the period of lease.

l) Provision, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Asset

Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is possible that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent liabilities are not recognized but are disclosed in the financial statements. Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.

m) Taxes on Income

Provision for Current Tax is the amount of tax payable on taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Deferred tax is recognised on the timing difference, being the difference between taxable income and the accounting income for the year and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted as on the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised and carried forward to the extent that there is a virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized.

n) Impairment of Assets

The carrying amount of assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date, if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/ external factors.

An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairment loss is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. An impairment loss recognized in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been an indication that impairment loss recognised for an asset no longer exists or may have decreased.

o) Cash Flow Statement

Cash Flows are reported using indirect method, whereby Profit (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effect of transactions of non cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of the past or future cash receipts or payments. The Cash Flow from Operating, Investing and Financing activities of the Company is segregated based on the available information.


Mar 31, 2010

A) Accounting concept

i) The Company follows the mercantile system of the accounting and recognises income and expenditure on accrual basis. ii) Financial statement are based on historical cost convention.

b) Sales

Sales are inclusive of income from services, excise duty, export incentives and net of trade discount and rebates.

c) Fixed Assets

i) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciationfexcept free hold land).

Assets which have been revalued are stated at values as per approved valuers report less depreciation. ii) Capital Expenditure

Assets under erection/installation and advances given for capital expenditure are shown as "Capital work in

progress". Expenditure during construction period is shown as "Pre-operative expenses" to be capitalised on

erection/installation of the assets.

d) Depreciation

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on straight line method at the rates and in the manner specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act,1956. Depreciation on assets added/disposed off during the year has been provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the date of addition/disposal.

e) Borrowing cost

Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition and construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such asset upto the date when such asset is ready for its intended use. Other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss Account

f) Inventories

i) Inventories are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value on FIFO basis except goods in transit which is stated at cost and value of stores, spares, consumables and packing materials are arrived at on Moving Average Price basis. Cost of inventories generally comprise all cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other cost incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Finished goods lying in the factory premises are valued inclusive of excise duty.

ii) Scrap at net realisable value.

iii) Custom Duty.

The liability on account of Custom duty on imported materials in transit or in bonded warehouse is recognised on clearance of the goods from the Customs.

g) Investments

Long term investments are stated at cost with an appropriate provision for permanent diminution in value.

h) Export incentives/Benefits

Export incentives or benefits under the Export Import Policy are accounted in the year of exports on accrual basis taking into account certainty of realization and its subsequent utilization.

i) Foreign Currency Transactions

Transaction in Foreign currency are recorded at the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of transaction. Current assets and Current liabilities not covered by forward contract are translated at the year end exchange rate and any gain/loss on account of fluctuation in the rate of exchange is recognised in profit and loss account. Premium / Discount in respect of forward foreign exchange contract is recognised over the life of the contract.

j) Contingent liabilities not provided for and are disclosed by way of notes. k) Segment Accounting

(1) Segment Accounting Policies:-

Accounting policies followed by the company for segment reporting are:-

(a) Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly indentifiablewith/allocable to segment.

(b) Expenses that are directly indentifiable with/allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment results. The expenses, which relate to the company as a whole and not allocable to segment, are included under unallocable expenses.

(c) income which relates to the company as a whole and not allocable to segment is included under unallocable income.

(d) (i)Segment Assets includes those assets directly indentifiable with respective segments and employed by a segment in its operating activities, but does not include income tax assets.

(ii)Segment liabilities includes those liabilities directly indentifiable with respective segments and operating liabilities that results, from operating activities of a segment, but does not include income tax liabilities and financial liabilities.

(iii)Unallocable corporate assets and liabilities represents the assets and liabilities that relate to company as a whole and not al locable to any segment.

(2) The company has disclosed business segment as the primary segment. Segments have been indentified taking into account the type of products, the differing risk and returns and the internal reporting system. The various segments identified by the Company comprised as under.

Name of Segment : Comprised of

Stee! : Steel Manufacturing and Trading

Oils : Crude Oils, refined Oils

Others : DOC , Soyameal, Grains etc. I) Taxes on Income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act,1961. Deferred tax is recognized on timing differences, being the difference between taxable income & accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent period and quantified using tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted as on Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized and carried forward to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future income will be available against wh ich such deferred tax assets can be real ized.

m) Employee Benefits

(a) Post-employment benefit plans

i) Defined Contribution plan- Contributions to provident fund and Family Pension fund are accrued in accordance with applicable statute and deposited with appropriate authorities.

ii) Defined Benefit plan

(a) The liability in respect of leave encashment is determined using acturial valuation carried out as at Balance Sheet date. Acturial gains and losses are recognized in full in Profit and Loss Account for the year in which they occur.

(b) The Company has opted for scheme with Life Insurance Corporation of India to cover its liabilities towards employees gratuity. The annual premium paid to Life Insurance Corporation of India is charged to Profit and Loss Account. The Company also carried out acturial valuation of gratuity using Projected Unit Credit Method as required by Accounting Standard 15 "Employee Benefits" (Revised 2005) and difference between fair value of plan assets and liability as per acturial valuation as at year end is recognized in Profit and Loss Account.

(b) Short term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered by employees is recognized during the period when the employees render the services. These benefits include compensated absence also.

n) Excise duty

The Excise duty in respect of closing inventory of finished goods is included as part of inventory. o) Operating Leases

Lease rental are recognised as an expense on straight line basis over the term of the lease.

p) Impairment of Assets

An asset is treated as impaired when carrying cost of asset exceeds its recoverable value. An impairement loss is charged to the profit & loss account in the year in which an asset is identified as impaired. An impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

q) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets & liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Differences between actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialised.

 
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