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Accounting Policies of Schneider Electric Infrastructure Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2016

1. Nature of operations

Schneider Electric Infrastructure Limited was incorporated on March 12, 2011. It is a public Company domiciled in India and incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. Its shares are listed on three stock exchanges in India. The Company is engaged in the business of manufacturing, designing, building and

2. Basis of preparation

The financial statements of the company have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the servicing technologically advanced products and systems for electricity distribution including products such as distribution transformers, medium voltage switchgears, medium and low voltage protection relays and electricity distribution and automation equipment.

Companies (Accounts) Rules 2014. The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention.

The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of financial statements are consistent with those of previous year.

2.1. Summary of significant accounting policies

(a) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(b) Tangible Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

The Company identifies and determines cost of each component/ part of the asset separately, if the component/ part has a cost which is significant to the total cost of the asset and has useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining asset. Similarly, when significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals or when a major inspection/overhauling is required to be performed, such cost of replacement or inspection is capitalized (if the recognition criteria is satisfied) in the carrying amount of plant and equipment as a replacement cost or cost of major inspection/overhauling, as the case may be and depreciated separately based on their specific useful life.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognized.

c) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

Depreciation on fixed assets is calculated on a straight-line basis using the rates/life arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management on technical evaluation; these rates are in certain cases different from lives prescribed under Schedule II. The Company has used the following rates to provide depreciation on its fixed assets.

Leasehold land is amortized on a straight line basis over the period of the lease. Cost of leasehold improvement is depreciated over their useful life or unexpired lease period, whichever is lower.

(d) Leases

Where the Company is lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the inception of the lease term at the lower of the fair value of the leased property and present value of minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized as finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs of lease are capitalized.

A leased asset is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, the capitalized asset is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Leases, where the less or effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

(e) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

f) Impairment of tangible assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating units (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the Company’s cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.

Impairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset’s or cash-generating unit’s recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(g) Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, components and stores and spares is determined on a weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity Cost of finished goods includes excise duty Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(h) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. The Company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the Company Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year

Income from services

Revenue from maintenance contracts is recognized prorate over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered.

Revenue from engineering and designing services is recognized on the basis of amounts agreed on for the time spent and expenses incurred on the activities.

The Company collects service tax on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.

Interest

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head “Other Income” in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(i) Long-term contracts

Sales revenue and margins on construction contracts and certain services are recognized according to the percentage of completion method ("PCM"), as provided in AS 7 ("Revised") - "Construction contracts". Sales revenue and income from long-term contracts are recognized over the period of performance of the contract on achievement of certain internal milestones. Depending on the contract terms, the percentage of completion is determined based on costs or the stage of physical completion. Under the cost-based PCM formula, the stage of completion is equal to the ratio of costs to the total estimated cost of the contract. Under the physical completion PCM formula, a predetermined percentage of completion is assigned to each stage of completion of the contract. The sales revenue and costs recognized at the end of the period are equal to the percentage of sales revenue and anticipated costs for the stage of completion achieved at that date. Income recognition arising on these contracts is based on estimated overall profitability of individual contracts reviewed periodically.

Direct costs incurred for long term contracts over and above the pro-rata to sales are considered as work-in-progress. Provision for expected loss is recognized immediately when it is probable that the total estimated contract costs will exceed total contract revenue, based on Management''s analysis of the risks and exposures on a case to case basis.

(j) Foreign currency transactions

Foreign currency transactions and balances Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Nonmonetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

Exchange differences

All exchange differences are recognized as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise.

Forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset/ liability

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognized as an expense/ income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or as expense for the period.

(k) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of Superannuation Fund, Provident Fund and ESI are defined contribution schemes. There are no other obligations other than the contributions payable to the respective funds. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the respective fund scheme as expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

Gratuity is the defined benefit plan of the Company for its employees. The costs of providing benefits for gratuity plan are determined on the basis of actuarial valuation at each year-end. Actuarial valuation is carried out for each plan using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses for defined benefit plan are recognized in full in the period in which they occur in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the Statement of Profit and Loss and are not deferred. The company presents the leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for

12 months after the reporting date. Where company has the unconditional legal and contractual right to defer the settlement for a period beyond 12 months, the same is presented as non-current liability.

The company recognizes termination benefit as a liability and an expense when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. If the termination benefits fall due more than 12 months after the balance sheet date, they are measured at present value of future cash flows using the discount rate determined by reference to market yields at the balance sheet date on government bonds.

Expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to the statement of profit and loss immediately (l) Income Taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantially enacted, at the reporting date.

Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

At each reporting date the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the taxable entity and the same taxation authority

Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax. The company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternative Tax under the Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as “MAT Credit Entitlement.” The company reviews the “MAT credit entitlement” asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

(m) Segment Reporting Policies Identification of segments

The Company’s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Inter-segment transfers

The Company generally accounts for intersegment sales and transfers at cost plus appropriate margins.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

(n) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(o) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Where the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to any provision is presented in the Statement of Profit and Loss net of any reimbursement.

Warranty provisions

Provisions for warranty-related costs are recognized when the product is sold or service provided. Provision is based on historical experience. The estimate of such warranty-related costs is revised annually (p) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(q) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(r) Derivative instruments

In accordance with the ICAI announcement, derivative contracts, other than foreign currency forward contracts covered under AS 11, are marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss, if any, after considering the offsetting effect of gain on the underlying hedged item, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Net gain, if any, after considering the offsetting effect of loss on the underlying hedged item, is ignored.

(s) Measurement of EBITDA

The Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit/ (loss) from continuing operations. In its measurement, the Company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs and tax expense.

a. Terms/rights attached to equity shares

The company has equity shares having par value of Rs. 2 per share. Each holder of equity shares is entitled to one vote per share. The company declares and pays dividends in Indian Rupees. The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting.

"During the Current year, the Company issued 172,000,000 Cumulative Redeemable Preference Shares of Rs. 10 each fully paid-up by conversion of loans. Cumulative Redeemable Preference Shares carry cumulative dividend @ 8% p.a. The company declares and pays dividends in Indian rupees. The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting."

In the event of liquidation of the Company the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the company after distribution of all preferential amounts. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.

As per records of the company, including its register of shareholders/members and other declarations received from shareholders regarding beneficial interest, the above shareholding represents both legal and beneficial ownerships of shares.

e. Arrears of cumulative dividends (including dividend distribution tax) on Cumulative Redeemable Preference shares as at March 31, 2016 Rs. 31.11 Millions (March 31, 2015 - Nil)

Loan taken from Schneider Electric IT Business India Private Limited carries interest rate of 7.25% to 7.50% per annum (March 31, 2015 interest rate at 8.30% per annum).The loan is repayable within 15 to 31 months from the date of balance sheet.

Provision for Warranties:

A provision is recognized for expected warranty claims on products sold during the last 18 to 24 months, based on past experience of the level of repairs and returns. It is expected that significant portion of these costs will be paid out in the next financial year and all will have been paid out within two years after the reporting date. Assumptions used to calculate the provision for warranties were based on current sales levels and current information available about returns based on the 18 to 24 months warranty period for products sold.

Provision for Litigation:

Provision for Litigations represent provisions in respect of litigations for sales tax, excise duty and service tax. Although the company continues to contest the cases at different forums, the management believes that outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is probable. Hence, the Company has created a provision towards the same.

a. Cash credit is repayable on demand and carries interest @ 9.50% per annum.

b. Short term loan from bank carries interest rate of 9.05% and payable within 30 days from the balance sheet date.

c. Foreign currency loan from banks carries interest rate of 0.88% to 1.23% and payable within 15 to 150 days from the balance sheet date.

d. Loan taken from Energy Grid Automation Transformers and Switchgears India Private Limited carries interest rate of 7.25% per annum. The loan is repayable within 90 days from the date of loan i.e. March 29, 2016.

* Excise duty on sales amounting to Rupees 1,502.50 Millions (March 31, 2015 - Rupees 1,228.16 Millions) has been reduced from sales in Statement of profit and loss and excise duty on (increase)/decrease in inventory amounting to Rupees 16.82 Millions (March 31, 2015 - Rupees (9.09 Millions) has been considered as (income)/expense in Note 21 of Financial Statements.


Mar 31, 2013

(a) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(b) Tangible Fixed assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

(c) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

Depreciation on fixed assets is calculated on a straight-line basis using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management, which are higher than the rates prescribed under the Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, The company has used the following rates to provide depreciation on its fixed assets.

Buildings 2.5% and 4.0%

Plant and Equipment 10.0%, 15.0%, 20.0%

and 33.3%

EDP Equipments 33.3% and 50.0%

Furniture and Fixtures 10.0%, 15.0%, 20.0%,

(Includes Office and 33.0% Equipments)

Motor vehicles 25.0%

Leasehold land is amortized on a straight line basis over the period not exceeding that of the lease,.

(d) Leases

Where the company is lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the inception of the lease term at the lower of the fair value of the leased property and present value of minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs of lease are capitalized.

A leased asset is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the asset or the useful life envisaged in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, whichever is lower. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, the capitalized asset is depreciated on a straight- line basis over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset, the lease term or the useful life envisaged in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

(e) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur.

(f) Impairment of tangible assets

The company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the company estimates the asset''s recoverable amount. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash-generating unit''s (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

The company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the company''s cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.

Impairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the company estimates the asset''s or cash- generating unit''s recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

(g) Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, components and stores and spares is determined on a weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty and is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(h) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. The company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

Income from services

Revenues from maintenance contracts are recognized pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered. Revenue from engineering and design contracts is recognized on the basis of chargeable time spent on projects and hourly rates set out in the relevant contracts. The company collects service tax on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.

Interest

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate.

(i) Long-term contracts

Sales revenue and margins on construction contracts and certain services are recognized according to the percentage of completion method ("PCM"), as provided in AS 7 ("Revised") - "Construction contracts". Sales revenue and income from long-term contracts are recognized over the period of performance of the contract on achievement of certain internal milestones. Depending on the contract terms, the percentage of completion is determined based on costs or the stage of physical completion. Under the cost- based PCM formula, the stage of completion is equal to the ratio of costs to the total estimated cost of the contract. Under the physical completion PCM formula, a predetermined percentage of completion is assigned to each stage of completion of the contract. The sales revenue and costs recognized at the end of the period are equal to the percentage of sales revenue and anticipated costs for the stage of completion achieved at that date. Income recognition arising on these contracts is based on estimated overall profitability of individual contracts reviewed periodically.

Direct costs incurred for long term contracts over and above the pro-rata to sales are considered as work-in-progress. Provision for expected loss is recognised immediately when it is probable that the total estimated contract costs will exceed total contract revenue, based on Management''s analysis of the risks and exposures on a case to case basis.

(j) Foreign currency transactions

Foreign currency transactions and balances

Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

Exchange differences

All exchange differences are recognized as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise.

Forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset/ liability

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognized as an expense/ income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or as expense for the period.

(k) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of Superannuation Fund and ESI are defined contribution schemes and charged to the statement of profit and loss for the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contributions payable to the respective funds.

The company operates two defined benefit plans for its employees, viz., gratuity and provident fund contribution to recognized provident fund. The costs of providing benefits under these plans are determined on the basis of actuarial valuation at each year-end. Separate actuarial valuation is carried out for each plan using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses for both defined benefit plans are recognized in full in the period in which they occur in the statement of profit and loss.

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short- term employee benefit. The company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year- end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred. The company presents the entire leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, since it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date.

(I) Income Taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantially enacted, at the reporting date.

Deferred income tax reflects the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

At each reporting date the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

(m) Segment Reporting Policies Identification of segments

The company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the company operate.

Inter-segment transfers

The company generally accounts for intersegment sales and transfers at cost plus appropriate margins.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies

The company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.

(n) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(o) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Where the company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to any provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.

Warranty provisions

Provisions for warranty-related costs are recognized when the product is sold or service provided. Provision is based on historical experience. The estimate of such warranty-related costs is revised annually.

(p) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(q) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(r) Derivative instruments

In accordance with the ICAI announcement, derivative contracts, other than foreign currency forward contracts covered under AS 11, are marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss, if any, after considering the offsetting effect of gain on the underlying hedged item, is charged to the statement of profit and loss. Net gain, if any, after considering the offsetting effect of loss on the underlying hedged item, is ignored.

(s) Measurement of EBITDA

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. The company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit/ (loss) from continuing operations. In its measurement, the company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs and tax expense.


Mar 31, 2012

(a) Change in accounting policy

Presentation and disclosure of financial statements

During the year ended 31 March 2012, the revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act 1956, has become applicable to the company, for preparation and presentation of its financial statements. The adoption of revised Schedule VI does not impact recognition and measurement principles followed for preparation of financial statements. However, it has significant impact on presentation and disclosures made in the financial statements. The company has also reclassified the previous year figures in accordance with the requirements applicable in the current year.

(b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(c) Tangible Fixed assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

d) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

Depreciation on fixed assets is calculated on a straight-line basis using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management, which are higher than the rates prescribed under the Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, The company has used the following rates to provide depreciation on its fixed assets.

Buildings 2.5% and 4.0%

Plant and Equipment 10.0%, 20.0% & 33.3%

Office Equipment 33.3% & 50.0%

Furniture and Fixtures 10.0%, 15.0%, & 20.0%

Motor vehicles 25.0%

Leasehold land is amortized on a straight line basis over the period not exceeding that of the lease.

(e) Leases

Where the company is lessee

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the inception of the lease term at the lower of the fair value of the leased property and present value of minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs of lease are capitalized.

A leased asset is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the asset or the useful life envisaged in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act,. 1956, whichever is lower. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, the capitalized asset is depreciated on a straight- line basis over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset, the lease term or the useful life envisaged in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

(f) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur. g) Impairment of tangible assets

The company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the company estimates the asset's recoverable amount. An asset's recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's or cash-generating unit's (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

The company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the company's cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.

Impairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the company estimates the asset's or cash- generating unit's recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset's recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

(h) Research and development costs

Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development expenditure incurred on an individual project is recognized as an intangible asset when the company can demonstrate all the following:

- The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale

- Its intention to complete the asset

- Its ability to use or sell the asset

- How the asset will generate future economic benefits

- The availability of adequate resources to complete the development and to use or sell the asset

- The ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during development

Following the initial recognition of the development expenditure as an asset, the cost model is applied requiring the asset to be carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization of the asset begins when development is complete and the asset is available for use. It is amortized on a straight line basis over the period of expected future benefit from the related project, i.e., the estimated useful life of ten years. Amortization is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. During the period of development, the asset is tested for impairment annually.

(i) Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, components and stores and spares is determined on a weighted average basis.

Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty and is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(j) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. The company collects sales taxes and value added taxes (VAT) on behalf of the government and, therefore, these are not economic benefits flowing to the company. Hence, they are excluded from revenue. Excise duty deducted from revenue (gross) is the amount that is included in the revenue (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

Income from services

Revenues from maintenance contracts are recognized pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered. The company collects service tax on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.

(k) Long-term contracts

Sales revenue and margins on construction contracts and certain services are recognized according to the percentage of completion method ("PCM"), as provided in AS 7 ("Revised")- "Construction contracts". Sales revenue and income from long-term contracts are recognized over the period of performance of the contract on achievement of certain internal milestones. Depending on the contract terms, the percentage of completion is determined based on costs or the stage of physical completion. Under the cost- based PCM formula, the stage of completion is equal to the ratio of costs to the total estimated cost of the contract. Under the physical completion PCM formula, a predetermined percentage of completion is assigned to each stage of completion of the contract. The sales revenue and costs recognized at the end of the period are equal to the percentage of sales revenue and anticipated costs for the stage of completion achieved at that date. Income recognition arising on these contracts is based on estimated overall profitability of individual contracts reviewed periodically.

Direct costs incurred for long term contracts over and above the pro-rata to sales are considered as work-in-progress. Provision for expected loss is recognised immediately when it is probable that the total estimated contract costs will exceed total contract revenue, based on Management's analysis of the risks and exposures on a case to case basis.

(I) Foreign currency transactions

Foreign currency transactions and balances

Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.

Exchange differences

All exchange differences are recognized as income or as expenses in the period in which they arise.

Forward exchange contracts entered into to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset/ liability

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognized as an expense/ income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or as expense for the period.

(m) Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of Superannuation Fund and ESI are defined contribution schemes and charged to the profit and loss account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contributions payable to the respective funds.

The company operates two defined benefit plans for its employees, viz., gratuity and provident fund contribution to recognized provident fund. The costs of providing benefits under these plans are determined on the basis of actuarial valuation at each year-end. Separate actuarial valuation is carried out for each plan using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses for both defined benefit plans are recognized in full in the period in which they occur in the statement of profit and loss.

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short- term employee benefit. The company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year- end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred. The company presents the entire leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, since it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date.

(n) Taxation

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantially enacted, at the reporting date.

Deferred income tax reflects the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

At each reporting date the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

(o) Segment Reporting Policies

Identification of segments

The company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the company operate.

Inter-segment transfers

The company generally accounts for intersegment sales and transfers at cost plus appropriate margins.

Allocation of common costs

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

Unallocated items

Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

Segment accounting policies

The company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.

(p) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(q) Provisions

A provision is recognized when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Where the company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to any provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.

Warranty provisions

Provisions for warranty-related costs are recognized when the product is sold or service provided. Provision is based on historical experience. The estimate of such warranty-related costs is revised annually.

(r) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

(s) Cash and Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

(t) Derivative instruments

In accordance with the ICAI announcement, derivative contracts, other than foreign currency forward contracts covered under AS 11, are marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss, if any, after considering the offsetting effect of gain on the underlying hedged item, is charged to the statement of profit and loss. Net gain, if any, after considering the offsetting effect of loss on the underlying hedged item, is ignored.

(u) Measurement of EBITDA

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. The company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit/loss from continuing operations. In its measurement, the company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs and tax expense.

 
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