Mar 31, 2015
(a) Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.
(b) Tangible fixed assets
Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises of the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.
(c) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets
Till the year ended 31 March 2014, Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, prescribed requirements concerning depreciation of fixed assets. The depreciation rates prescribed under Schedule XIV were treated as minimum rates and the Company was not allowed to charge depreciation at lower rates even if such lower rates were justified by the estimated useful life of the asset. From the current year, Schedule XIV has been replaced by Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. Schedule II prescribes useful lives for fixed assets, which, in many cases, are different from lives prescribed under the erstwhile Schedule XIV. However, Schedule II allows companies to use higher/lower useful lives and residual values if such useful lives and residual values can be technically supported and justification for difference is disclosed in the financial statements.
Considering the applicability of Schedule II, the management has re-estimated useful lives and residual values of all its fixed assets. The management believes that depreciation rates currently used fairly reflect its estimate of the useful lives and residual values of fixed assets. This change in estimate does not have any material impact on financial statements of the Company. Unless stated otherwise, the impact mentioned for the current year is likely to hold good for future years also.
The applicability of Schedule II has resulted in the following changes related to depreciation of fixed assets. Depreciation is provided after impairment, if any, using the straight line method as per the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management, or at rates prescribed under Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013, whichever is higher. Fixed Assets are depreciated equally over estimated useful life as under:-
Asset class Estimated useful life
Computers 3 years
Furniture and Fixtures 10 years
Office Equipments 5 years
Motor Cars 8 years
(d) Intangible assets and amortisation
Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation.
Product registration costs generally comprise of costs incurred towards creating product dossiers, fees paid to registration consultants, application fees to the ministries, data compensation costs, data call-in costs and fees for task force membership.
In situations where consideration for data compensation is under negotiation and is pending finalisation of contractual agreements, cost is determined on a best estimate basis by the management, and revised to actual amounts on conclusion of agreements.
Product registration expenses and Data compensation charges are amortised on a straight line basis over a period of five years.
Expenses on implementation of Computer software are amortised on a straight line basis over a period of four years.
(e) Impairment of tangible and intangible assets
(i) The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed for impairment at each Balance Sheet date to determine if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/ external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using pre tax rate, that reflect current market assessment of the time value of money and the risk specific to the assets.
(ii) After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.
(f) Research and Development costs
Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development expenditure is carried forward when its future recoverability can reasonably be regarded as assured and is amortized over the period of expected future benefit.
Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as non-current investments. current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis.
non-current Investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in nature.
Raw materials, traded goods and finished goods are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost includes direct material and direct expenses. Cost is determined using weighted average method for batches identified on specific identification basis in respective locations. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs necessary to make the sales.
(i) Retirement and other employee benefits
Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme established under a State Plan in India. The contributions to the scheme are charged to the statement of profit and loss during the year in which the employee renders the related service.
Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation which is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit cost method made at the end of each financial year.
Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates.
Actuarial gains/(losses) are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.
(j) Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.
Sale of goods
Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer.
Revenue is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.
Revenue is recognized when the shareholders' right to receive payment is established by the Balance Sheet date.
(k) Foreign currency transactions
Foreign currency transactions and balances
(i) Initial recognition
Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount, the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.
Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate that existed when the values were determined.
(iii) Exchange differences
Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting monetary items of the company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year or reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.
(iv) Forward exchange contracts not intended for trading or speculation purpose
The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contracts is recognized as income or as expense for the year.
(l) Derivative instruments
In accordance with the ICAI announcement, derivative contracts, other than foreign currency forward contracts covered under AS 11, are marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss, if any, after considering the offsetting effect of gain on the underlying hedged item, is charged to the statement of profit and loss. Net gain, if any, after considering the offsetting effect of loss on the underlying hedged item, is ignored.
Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
(n) Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share has been calculated by dividing the net profit / (Loss) after tax for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for events of bonus issue.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit / (Loss) after tax for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
(o) Segment reporting
Identification of segments
the company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the products with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets. the analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the company carry on business.
the company generally accounts for inter segment sales and transfers as if the sales or transfers were to third parties at current market prices.
Allocation of common costs
common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.
It includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.
Segment accounting policies
the company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the company as a whole.
(p) Cash and cash equivalents
cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash on hand, cash at bank and term deposits with banks and also include short term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.
(q) Taxes on Income
tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred tax reflects the impact of current year's timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.
Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities. the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the taxes on income levied by same governing taxation laws. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.
the carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. the company writes down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. any such write down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.
(r) Provisions and Contingencies
Provision is recognized when the company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimates required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. these are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. contingent liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the note to the financial statements unless the possibility of an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is remote.
(s) Measurement of EBITDA
As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the companies Act, 1956, the company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the statement of profit and loss. the company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit/(loss). In its measurement, the company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs and tax expense.