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Accounting Policies of Shivam Autotech Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

I. Basis of Preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the company have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules 2014. The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention, except in case of assets for which revaluation is carried out.

The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of financial statements are consistent with those of previous year.

II. Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates. Difference between the actual result and estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known/ materialized.

III. Fixed Assets

a. Tangible assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Costs include costs of acquisitions or constructions, including incidental expenses thereto and other attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use and are net of available duty/tax credits.

b. Intangible assets

Intangible assets are recognized on the basis of recognition criteria as set out in Accounting Standard (AS- 26)"Intangible assets".

c. Expenditure during construction period

Expenditure related to and incurred during implementation of new/expansion projects is included under capital work -in-progress and the same is allocated to the respective Fixed Assets on completion of its construction/ erection. Interest on borrowing costs relating to the qualifying asset is worked out on the basis of actual utilisation of funds out of project specific loan and/ or other borrowings to the extent identifiable with the qualifying asset and are capitalised with the cost of qualifying assets.

IV. Depreciation/amortisation

Depreciation is provided on pro-rata basis on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives prescribed under Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. Pursuant to this policy, depreciation is provided at the following rates which are in line with the corresponding useful life prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 :

Plant & Machinery 15 years

Building 30 years

Computers 3 years

Office equipment 5 years

Furniture & fixtures 10 years

Vehicles 8 years

Intangible assets 4 years

Lease hold Improvements Amortised over the period of lease

V. Impairment of assets

The carrying amount of assets is reviewed for impairment at each balance sheet date wherever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized for the amount for which the asset's carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount being the higher of the assets net selling price and its value in use. Value in use is based on the present value of the estimated future cash flows relating to the asset. For the purpose of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (i.e. cash generating units). Previously recognized impairment losses are reversed where the recoverable amount increases because of favourable changes in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount since the last impairment was recognized. A reversal of an asset's impairment loss is limited to its carrying amount that would have been determined (net of depreciation or amortization) had no impairment loss been recognized in prior years.

VI. Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

VII. Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost related to a qualifying asset is worked out on the basis of actual utilization of funds project specific loans and/or other borrowings to the extent identifiable with the qualifying asset and is capitalized with the cost of qualifying asset. Other borrowing costs incurred during the period are charged to statement of profit and loss.

VIII. Segment reporting Identification of segments

The Company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products manufactured and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

IX. Employee benefits

a. Employee benefits in the form of the Company's contribution to provident fund, pension fund and ESI are considered as defined contribution plan and charged to the statement of profit and loss of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contributions payable to the respective funds.

b. Retirement benefits in the form of gratuity are defined benefit plans. Gratuity is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

c. Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation at the year end. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

d. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to statement of profit and loss.

X. Valuation of inventories

a. Finished goods are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Scrap is valued at net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty.

b. Work in progress is valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined on average basis.

c. Stores, spares and raw materials are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. However materials & other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of purchases is assessed on first in first out (FIFO) method.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

d. Excise duty liability on finished goods lying in the factory is accounted for and the corresponding amount is considered for the valuation thereof.

XI. Tools & dies

The consumable tools & dies are charged to statement of profit & loss in the year they are put to use.

XII. Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined for each category separately. Long-term investments are carried at cost on individual investment basis. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments in case of long term investments.

XIII. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

a. Sale of goods

Sales is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer and sales is inclusive of excise duty but net of returns, rebates and value added tax (VAT). Materials returned/rejected are accounted for in the year of return/rejection. Excise Duty deducted from turnover (gross) is the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

b. Dividends

Dividend is recognized when the shareholders' right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

c. Insurance claim

Claims lodged with the insurance companies are accounted on accrual basis to the extent these are measurable and ultimate collection is reasonably certain.

XIV. Foreign currency transactions

a. Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

b. Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

c. Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items, or on reporting such monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

d. Forward exchange contracts not intended for trading or speculation purposes

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognized as income or as expense for the year.

XV. Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income tax reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the taxes on income levied by same governing taxation laws. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes- down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

MAT credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the Minimum Alternative tax (MAT) credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

XVI. Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

XVII. Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are shown by way of notes to accounts in respect of obligations where based on the evidence available, their existence at the balance sheet date is considered not probable. Contingent assets are not recognized in the accounts nor disclosed.

XVIII. Leases

Where the Company is the lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

XIX. Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash, bank balances in current account and short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to cash with original maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase.


Mar 31, 2014

I. Basis of Preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the company have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules,2006, (as amended and as applicable from time to time) read with General Circular No. 15/2013 dated 13th September, 2013 and General Circular No. 8/2014 dated 4th April 2014 issued by Ministry of Corporate Affairs and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention on going concern basis.

II. Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates. Difference between the actual result and estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known/ materialized.

III. Fixed Assets

a. Tangible assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Costs include costs of acquisitions or constructions, including incidental expenses thereto and other attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use and are net of available duty/tax credits.

b. Intangible assets

Intangible assets are recognized on the basis of recognition criteria as set out in Accounting Standard (AS-26)"Intangible assets".

c. Expenditure during construction period

Expenditure related to and incurred during implementation of new/expansion projects is included under capital work -in-progress and the same is allocated to the respective Fixed Assets on completion of its construction/ erection. Interest on borrowing costs relating to the qualifying asset is worked out on the basis of actual utilisation of funds out of project specific loan and/ or other borrowings to the extent identifiable with the qualifying asset and are capitalised with the cost of qualifying assets.

IV. Depreciation/amortisation

Depreciation is provided on fixed assets over the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management, which are equivalent to the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. The following methods of depreciation are used by the Company for fixed assets:

V. Impairment of assets

The carrying amount of assets is reviewed for impairment at each balance sheet date wherever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized for the amount for which the asset''s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount being the higher of the assets net selling price and its value in use. Value in use is based on the present value of the estimated future cash flows relating to the asset. For the purpose of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (i.e. cash generating units).

Previously recognized impairment losses are reversed where the recoverable amount increases because of favourable changes in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount since the last impairment was recognized. A reversal of an asset''s impairment loss is limited to its carrying amount that would have been determined (net of depreciation or amortization) had no impairment loss been recognized in prior years.

VI. Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

VII. Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost related to a qualifying asset is worked out on the basis of actual utilization of funds project specific loans and/or other borrowings to the extent identifiable with the qualifying asset and is capitalized with the cost of qualifying asset. Other borrowing costs incurred during the period are charged to statement of profit and loss.

VIII. Segment reporting

Identification of segments

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products manufactured and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

IX. Employee benefits

a. Employee benefits in the form of the Company''s contribution to provident fund, pension fund and ESI are considered as defined contribution plan and charged to the statement of profit and loss of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contributions payable to the respective funds.

b. Retirement benefits in the form of gratuity are defined benefit plans. Gratuity is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

c. Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation at the year end. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

d. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to statement of profit and loss.

X. Valuation of inventories

a. Finished goods are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Scrap is valued at net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty.

b. Work in progress is valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined on average basis.

c. Stores, spares and raw materials are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. However materials & other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of purchases is assessed on first in first out (FIFO) method.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

d. Excise duty liability on finished goods lying in the factory is accounted for and the corresponding amount is considered for the valuation thereof.

XI. Tools & dies

The consumable tools & dies are charged to statement of profit & loss in the year they are put to use.

XII. Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined for each category separately. Long-term investments are carried at cost on individual investment basis. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments in case of long term investments.

XIII. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

a. Sale of goods

Sales is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer and sales is inclusive of excise duty but net of returns, rebates and value added tax (VAT). Materials returned/rejected are accounted for in the year of return/rejection. Excise Duty deducted from turnover (gross) is the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arising during the year.

b. Dividends

Dividend is recognized when the shareholders'' right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

c. Insurance claim

Claims lodged with the insurance companies are accounted on accrual basis to the extent these are measurable and ultimate collection is reasonably certain.

XIV. Foreign currency transactions

a. Initial recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

b. Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

c. Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items, or on reporting such monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

d. Forward exchange contracts not intended for trading or speculation purposes

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognized as income or as expense for the year.

XV. Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income tax reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the taxes on income levied by same governing taxation laws. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

MAT credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the Minimum Alternative tax (MAT) credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

XVI. Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

XVII. Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are shown by way of notes to accounts in respect of obligations where based on the evidence available, their existence at the balance sheet date is considered not probable. Contingent assets are not recognized in the accounts nor disclosed.

XVIII.Leases Where the Company is the lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

XIX. Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash, bank balances in current account and short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to cash with original maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase.


Mar 31, 2013

I Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, on going concern basis and in terms of the Accounting Standards notified by Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 in compliance with Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956. The Company follows the mercantile system of accounting and recognizes income and expenditure on accrual basis to the extent measurable and where there is certainty of ultimate realisation in respect of incomes. Accounting policies not specifically referred to otherwise are consistent and in consonance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India.

The Company has prepared its financial statements in accordance with Schedule VI as inserted by Notification- S.O. 447(E), dated February 28, 2011 (As amended by Notification No F.NO. 2/6/2008-CL-V, Dated March 30,2011).

II Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates. Difference between the actual result and estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known/ materialized.

III Fixed Assets

a) Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Costs include costs of acquisitions or constructions, including incidental expenses thereto and other attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use and are net of available duty/tax credits.

b) Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are recognized on the basis of recognition criteria as set out in Accounting Standard (AS- 26)"Intangible Assets".

c) Expenditure during construction period

Expenditure related to and incurred during implementation of new/expansion projects is included under Capital Work -in-progress and the same is allocated to the respective Fixed Assets on completion of its construction/ errection. Interest on borrowing costs relating to the qualifying asset is worked out on the basis of actual utilisation of funds out of project specfic loan and/ or other borrowings to the extent identifiable with the qualifying asset and are capitalised with the cost of qualifying assets.

IV Depreciation/Amortisation

Depreciation is provided on fixed assets over the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management, which are equivalent to the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. The following methods of depreciation are used by the Company for fixed assets:

Plant and machinery Straight Line Method.

Plant and machinery Amortised over the period of lease

Plant and machinery Amortised over a period of four years on a Straight line basis.

Plant and machinery Straight Line Method.

Fixed Assets costing Rs. 5000/- or less are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

V Impairment of Assets

The carrying amount of assets is reviewed for impairment at each balance sheet date wherever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized for the amount for which the asset''s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount being the higher of the assets net selling price and its value in use. Value in use is based on the present value of the estimated future cash flows relating to the asset. For the purpose of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (i.e. cash generating units).

Previously recognized impairment losses are reversed where the recoverable amount increases because of favorable changes in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount since the last impairment was recognized. A reversal of an asset''s impairment loss is limited to its carrying amount that would have been determined (net of depreciation or amortization) had no impairment loss been recognized in prior years.

VI Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

VII Borrowing Costs

Borrowing cost related to a qualifying asset is worked out on the basis of actual utilization of funds project specific loans and/or other borrowings to the extent identifiable with the qualifying asset and is capitalized with the cost of qualifying asset. Other borrowing costs incurred during the period are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss Account.

VIII Segment Reporting Identification of segments

The Company''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products manufactured and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

IX Employee Benefits

a) Employee benefits in the form of the Company''s contribution to provident fund, pension fund and ESI are considered as defined contribution plan and charged to the Statement of profit and loss account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contributions payable to the respective funds.

b) Retirement benefits in the form of gratuity are defined benefit plans. Gratuity is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

c) Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation at the year end. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

d) Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to statement of profit and loss account.

X Valuation of Inventories

a) Finished goods are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Scrap is valued at net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty.

b) Work in progress is valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined on average basis.

c) Stores, Spares and Raw Materials are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. However materials & other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of purchases is assesed on first in first out (FIFO) method.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

d) Excise duty liability on Finished Goods lying in the factory is accounted for and the corresponding amount is considered for the valuation thereof.

XI Tools & Dies

The consumable Tools & Dies are charged to statement of profit & loss account in the year they are put to use.

XII Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined for each category separately. Long-term investments are carried at cost on individual investment basis. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments in case of long term investments.

XIII Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

a) Sale of goods

Sales is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer and sales is inclusive of excise duty but net of returns, rebates and value added tax (VAT). Materials returned/rejected are accounted for in the year of return/rejection. Excise Duty deducted from turnover (gross) is the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arised during the year.

b) Dividends

Dividend is recognized when the shareholders'' right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

c) Insurance Claim

Claims lodged with the insurance companies are accounted on accrual basis to the extent these are measurable and ultimate collection is reasonably certain.

XIV Foreign Currency Transactions

a) Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

b) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

c) Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items, or on reporting such monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

d) Forward Exchange Contracts not intended for trading or speculation purposes

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognized as income or as expense for the year.

XV Income Taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income tax reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the taxes on income levied by same governing taxation laws. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

MAT credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the Minimum Alternative tax (MAT) credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss account and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

XVI Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

XVII Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are shown by way of Notes to Accounts in respect of obligations where based on the evidence available, their existence at the Balance Sheet date is considered not probable. Contingent assets are not recognized in the accounts nor disclosed

XVIII Leases Where the Company is the lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of Profit and Loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognized in the profit and loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss account. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss account.

XIX Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash, bank balances in current account and short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to cash with original maturities of three months or less at the time of puchase.


Mar 31, 2012

I Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, on going concern basis and in terms of the Accounting Standards notified by Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 in compliance with Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956. The Company follows the mercantile system of accounting and recognizes income and expenditure on accrual basis to the extent measurable and where there is certainty of ultimate realisation in respect of incomes. Accounting policies not specifically referred to otherwise are consistent and in consonance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India.

The Company has prepared its financial statements in accordance with Schedule VI as inserted by Notification- S.O. 447(E), dated February 28, 2011 (As amended by Notification No F.NO. 2/6/2008-CL-V, Dated March 30,2011). The Schedule does not impact recognition and measurement principle followed for the preparation of financial statement. However it has necessitated significant changes in the presentation of and disclosures in financial statements. The Company has reclassified its previous year figures to confirm to the classification as per the aforesaid Schedule.

II Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires manage- ment to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates. Difference between the actual result and estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known/ materialized.

III Fixed Assets

a. Fixed Assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Costs include costs of acquisitions or constructions, including incidental expenses thereto and other attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use and are net of available duty/tax credits.

b. Intangible assets

Intangible Assets are recognized on the basis of recognition criteria as set out in Accounting Standard (AS-26)"Intangible Assets".

c. Expenditure during construction period

Expenditure related to and incurred during implementation of new/expansion projects is included under Capital Work -in-progress and the same is allocated to the respective Fixed Assets on completion of its construction/ errection. Interest on borrowing costs relating to the qualifying asset is worked out on the basis of actual utilisation of funds out of project specfic loan and/ or other borrowings to the extent identifiable with the qualifying asset and are capitalised with the cost of qualifying assets.

Fixed Assets costing Rs.5000/- or less are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

V Impairment of Assets

The carrying amount of assets is reviewed for impairment at each balance sheet date wherever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized for the amount for which the asset's carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount being the higher of the assets net selling price and its value in use. Value in use is based on the present value of the estimated future cash flows relating to the asset. For the purpose of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (i.e. cash generating units).

Previously recognized impairment losses are reversed where the recoverable amount increases because of favorable changes in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount since the last impairment was recognized. A reversal of an asset's impairment loss is limited to its carrying amount that would have been determined (net of depreciation or amortization) had no impairment loss been recognized in prior years.

VI Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/ subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

VII Borrowing Costs

Borrowing cost related to a qualifying asset is worked out on the basis of actual utilization of funds project specific loans and/or other borrowings to the extent identifiable with the qualifying asset and is capitalized with the cost of qualifying asset. Other borrowing costs incurred during the period are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss Account.

VIII Segment reporting

Identification of segments

The Company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products manufactured and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

IX Employee Benefits

a) Employee benefits in the form of the Company's contribution to provident fund, pension fund and ESI are considered as defined contribution plan and charged to the Statement of profit and loss account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contributions payable to the respective funds.

b) Retirement benefits in the form of gratuity are defined benefit plans. Gratuity is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

c) Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation at the year end. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

d) Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to statement of profit and loss account.

X Valuation of Inventories

a) Finished goods are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Scrap is valued at net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty.

b) Work in progress is valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined on a average basis.

c) Stores, Spares and Raw Materials are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. However materials & other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of purchases is assesed on first in first out (FIFO) method.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

d) Excise duty liability on Finished Goods lying in the factory is accounted for and the corresponding amount is considered for the valuation thereof.

XI Tools & Dies

The consumable Tools & Dies are charged to statement of profit & loss account in the year they are put to use.

XII Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined for each category separately. Long-term investments are carried at cost on individual investment basis. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments in case of long term investments.

XIII Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

(a) Sale of goods

Sales is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer and sales is inclusive of excise duty but net of returns, rebates, VAT and sales tax materials returned/rejected are accounted for in the year of return/rejection. Excise Duty deducted from turnover (gross) are the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arised during the year. Sale is net of trade discount and sales tax.

(b) Dividends

Dividend is recognized when the shareholders' right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

(c) Insurance Claim

Claims lodged with the insurance companies are accounted on accrual basis to the extent these are measurable and ultimate collection is reasonably certain.

XIV Foreign Currency Transactions

(a) Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

(b) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

(c) Exchange Differences

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items, or on reporting such monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

(d) Forward Exchange Contracts not intended for trading or speculation purposes

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognized as income or as expense for the year.

XV Income Taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income tax reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the taxes on income levied by same governing taxation laws. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

MAT credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the Minimum Alternative tax (MAT) credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss account and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

XVI Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

XVIIProvisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

A provision is recognised when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are shown by way of Notes to Accounts in respect of obligations where based on the evidence available, their existence at the Balance Sheet date is considered not probable. Contingent assets are not recognised in the accounts nor disclosed.

XVIII Leases

Where the Company is the lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the profit and loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expense in the profit and loss account. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognised immediately in the profit and loss account.

XIX Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short- term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.


Mar 31, 2011

The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the Accounting Standards notified by Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis. The accounting policies have been consistently applied by the Company and are consistent with those used in the previous year.

1) System of Accounting

The Company follows mercantile system of accounting and recognises income & expenditure on accrual basis to the extent measurable and where there is certainty of ultimate realisation in respect of income.

2) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabili- ties at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates. Difference between the actual result and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known/ materialized.

3) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Intangible assets

Assets are recognised on the basis of recognition criteria as set out in the relevant Accounting Standard.

Expenditure during construction period

Expenditure related to and incurred during implementation of new/expansion projects is included under Capital Work -in- progress and the same is allocated to the respective Fixed Assets on completion of its construction/ errection. Interest on borrowing costs relating to the qualifying asset is worked out on the basis of actual utilisation of funds out of project specific loan and/ or other borrowings to the extent identifiable with the qualifying asset and are capitalised with the cost of qualifying assets.

4) Depreciation/Amortisation

Depreciation is provided on fixed assets over the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management, which are equivalent to the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. The following methods of depreciation are used by the Company for fixed assets:

5) Impairment of Assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognised wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital.

After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life. Previously recognised impairment losses are reversed to the extent the recoverable amount exceeds the carrying amounts.

6) Government grants and subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

7) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised as part of the cost of the respective asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds.

8) Segment reporting

Identification of segments

The Company's operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products manufactured and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.

Inter segment transfers

The Company accounts for intersegment sales and transfers as if the sales or transfers were to third parties at current market prices.

Allocation of common costs Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment on reasonable basis.

Unallocated items

It includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocable to any business segment.

Segment Policies

The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

9) Employee Benefits

a) Employee benefits in the form of the Company's contribution to provident fund, pension fund and ESI are considered as defined contribution plan and charged to the profit and loss account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contributions payable to the respective funds.

b) Retirement benefits in the form of gratuity are defined benefit plans. Gratuity is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

c) Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation at the year end. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method.

d) Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to profit and loss account and are not deferred.

10) Inventories

a) Finished goods are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value. Scrap is valued at estimated net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty.

b) Work in progress is valued at lower of cost or net realisable value. Cost is determined on an average basis.

c) Raw Materials, Stores and Spares, Packing Materials and Componenets are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value. However materials & other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of purchases is assesed on first in first out (FIFO) method.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

d) Excise duty liability on Finished Goods lying in factory is accounted for and the corresponding amount is considered for the valuation thereof.

11) Tools & Dies

The consumable Tools & Dies are charged to profit & loss account in the year they are put to use.

12) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined for each category separately. Long-term investments are carried at cost on individual investment basis. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments in case of long term investments.

13) Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of goods

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer. Excise Duty deducted from turnover (gross) are the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arised during the year. Sale is net of trade discount and sales tax.

Dividends

Revenue is recognised when the shareholders' right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

Insurance Claim

Claims lodged with the insurance Companies are accounted on accrual basis to the extent these are measurable and ultimate collection is reasonably certain.

14) Foreign Currency Transactions

(i) Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non- monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.

(iii) Forward Exchange Contracts not intended for trading or speculation purposes

The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognised as income or as expense for the year.

15) Income Taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income tax reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to the taxes on income levied by same governing taxation laws. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.

At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. It recognises unrecognised deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

MAT credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) credit becomes eligible to be recognised as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the profit and loss account and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.

16) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

17) Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

A provision is recognised when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liabilities are shown by way of Notes to Accounts in respect of obligations where based on the evidence available, their existence at the Balance Sheet date is considered not probable. Contingent assets are not recognised in the accounts nor disclosed.

18) Leases

Where the Company is the lessee

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the profit and loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expense in the profit and loss account. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognised immediately in the profit and loss account.

19) Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

 
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