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Accounting Policies of SKF India Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2017

BACKGROUND

SKF India Limited, listed in India on recognized stock exchange, limited by shares, incorporated and domiciled in India . The Company is leading supplier of products, solutions & services within rolling bearing, seals, mechatronics, and lubrication system. The Company''s manufacturing facility is located at Pune, Bangalore & Haridwar.

1 SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

This note provides a list of the significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these financial statements. These policies have been consistently applied to all the years presented, unless otherwise stated.

1.1 Basis of preparation

i) Compliance with Ind AS

The financial statements comply in all material aspects with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the Act) [Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015] and other relevant provisions of the Act.

The financial statements up to year ended 31 March 2016 were prepared in accordance with the accounting standards notified under Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and other relevant provisions of the Act.

These financial statements are the first financial statements of the company under Ind AS. Refer 40 for an explanation of how the transition from previous GAAP to Ind AS has affected the company''s financial position, financial performance and cash flows.

ii) Historical cost convention

The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for the following:

a) certain financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value;

b) assets held for sale - measured at fair value less cost to sell;

c) defined benefit plans - plan assets measured at fair value;

iii) Consequent to change in the financial year of the Company from January - December to April - March with effect from previous year, the previous year''s financial statements are for 15 months from January 1, 2015 to March 31, 2016. The current year''s amounts relate to the 12 months ended March 31, 2017. In view of the above, the current year''s amounts are accordingly not comparable to those of the previous year.

1.2 Segment reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision maker. The chief operating decision maker, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of segments , has been identified as the Board of Directors .

1.3 Foreign currency translation

i) Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of the company are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (‘the functional currency''). The Financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee (INR) which is the company''s functional and presentation currency.

ii) Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at year end exchange rates are recognized in profit or loss.

All other foreign exchange gains and losses are presented in the statement of profit and loss on a net basis within other income.

1.4 Revenue recognition

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Amounts disclosed as revenue are inclusive of excise duty and net of returns, trade allowances, rebates and value added taxes.

Revenue consists of sales of products and services in the normal course of business. Service revenues are defined as business activities, billed to a customer, that do not include physical products or where the supply of any product is subsidiary to the fulfillment of the contract. Sales are recorded net of allowances for volume rebates and sales returns. Accruals for such allowances are recorded at the time of revenue recognition.

Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer. Revenue from the sale of goods and services is generally recognized when:

a) the revenue can be measured reliably,

b) the collection of the amounts due is reasonably assured

c) any costs in respect of the sale are identifiable and can be measured reliably.

Collectability is assessed based primarily on the credit worthiness of the customer as determined by credit limit control and approval procedures, as well as the customer''s payment history.

Revenues from service and/or maintenance contracts where the service is delivered to the customer over time is accounted for on a straight-line basis over the duration of the contract or as per the actual level of completion. Any anticipated losses on contracts are recognized in full in the period in which losses become probable and estimable.

1.5 Government grants

Grants from the government are recognized at their fair value where there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the company will comply with all attached conditions.

1.6 Income tax

The income tax expense or credit for the period is the tax payable on the current period''s taxable income based on the applicable income tax rate adjusted by changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities attributable to temporary differences.

Deferred income tax is provided in full, using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred income tax is determined using tax rates (and laws) that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period and are assumed to continue to apply when the related deferred income tax asset is realized or the deferred income tax liability is settled.

Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences and unused tax losses only if it is probable that future taxable amounts will be available to utilize those temporary differences and losses.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets and liabilities and when the deferred tax balances relate to the same taxation authority. Current tax assets and tax liabilities are offset where the entity has a legally enforceable right to offset and intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Current and deferred tax is recognized in profit or loss, except to the extent that it relates to items recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. In this case, the tax is also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively.

1.7 Leases

As a lessee

Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are not transferred to the company as lessee are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases (net of any incentives received from the less or) are charged to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease unless the payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the less or’s expected inflationary cost increases.

As a less or

Lease income from operating leases where the company is a less or is recognized in income on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the receipts are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the expected inflationary cost increases. The respective leased assets are included in the balance sheet based on their nature.

1.8 Impairment of assets

Assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the asset''s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash inflows which are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets (cash-generating units). Non financial assets that suffered an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at the end of each reporting period.

1.9 Cash and cash equivalents

For the purpose of presentation in the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand, deposits held at call with financial institutions, other short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, and bank overdrafts. Bank overdrafts are shown within borrowings in current liabilities in the balance sheet.

1.10 Trade receivables

Trade receivables are recognized initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

1.11 Inventories

Raw materials and stores, work in progress, traded and finished goods are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost of raw materials and traded goods comprises cost of purchases. Cost of work-in-progress and finished goods comprises direct materials, direct labour and an appropriate proportion of variable and fixed overhead expenditure, the latter being allocated on the basis of normal operating capacity. Cost of inventories also include all other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs are assigned to individual items of inventory on the basis of first-in first-out basis. Costs of purchased inventory are determined after deducting rebates and discounts.

1.12 Financial assets and financial liabilities

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized in the balance sheets when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of a financial instrument. Financial instruments are initially recorded at fair value, which is normally equal to transaction price. Transaction costs are included in the initial measurement of financial assets and liabilities that are not subsequently measured at fair value through the income statement.

Financial assets categorized as loans and receivables are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method. Impairment losses (primarily allowance for doubtful accounts) are recognized if management believes that sufficient objective evidence exists indicating that the asset may not be recovered. For disclosure purposes, fair values have been calculated using valuation techniques, mainly discounted cash flow analyses based on observable market data. For current receivables and liabilities (such as trade receivables and payables) the carrying amount is considered to correspond to fair value.

Where discounted cash flow techniques are used, the future cash flows are determined (if not stated explicit in the contract) based on the best assessment by management and discounted using the market interest rate for similar instruments. Financial liabilities are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

Financial assets are derecognized when the contractual rights to the cash flow have expired or been transferred together with substantially all risks and rewards. Financial liabilities are derecognized when they are extinguished.

Investment in government securities that are held for collection of contractual cash flows where those cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest are measured at amortized cost. Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method. When calculating the effective interest rate, the company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses.

1.13 Property, plant and equipment (PPE), Investment Properties and Intangible assets

Freehold land is carried at historical cost. All other items of property, plant and equipment are stated at historical cost less depreciation. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset''s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as a separate asset is derecognized when replaced. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to profit or loss during the reporting period in which they are incurred.

On transition to Ind AS, the company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment etc recognized as at 1 January 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of the property, plant and equipment.

Gains and losses on disposals are determined by comparing proceeds with carrying amount. These are included in profit or loss within other income.

The useful lives are reviewed by the management at each Balance Sheet date and revised, if appropriate. In case of a revision, the unamortized depreciable amount is charged over the revised remaining useful life.

Investment Properties

Property that is held for long-term rental yields or for capital appreciation or both, and that is not occupied by the company, is classified as investment property. Investment property is measured initially at its cost, including related transaction costs and where applicable borrowing costs. Subsequent expenditure is capitalized to the asset''s carrying amount only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred. When part of an investment property is replaced, the carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognized.

Investment properties are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. Investment properties generally have a useful life of 33 years. The useful life has been determined based on technical evaluation performed by the management''s expert.

On transition to Ind AS, the company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its investment properties recognized as at 1st January 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of investment properties.

Intangible assets

Intangible assets are stated at initial cost less any accumulated amortization and any impairment. Amortization is made on a straight line basis over the estimated useful lives and begins once the asset is ready for its intended use. The useful lives are based to a large extent on historical experience, the expected application, as well as other individual characteristics of the asset. The useful lives are:

- Software in use - 3 years

On transition to Ind AS, the company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of intangible assets recognized as at 1 Jan 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of intangible assets.

1.14 Trade and other payables

These amounts represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the company prior to the end of financial year which are unpaid. The amounts are unsecured and are paid as per the terms of payments. Trade and other payables are presented as current liabilities unless payment is not due within 12 months after the reporting period. They are recognized initially at their fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

1.15 Borrowings

Borrowings are initially recognized at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost.

Borrowings are removed from the balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expired. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognized in profit or loss as other income.

1.16 Provisions

Provisions for legal claims, service warranties, volume discounts and returns are recognized when the company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably estimated. Provisions are not recognized for future operating losses.

Provisions are measured at the present value of management''s best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period. The discount rate used to determine the present value is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as interest expense.

1.17 Post employment benefits Employee benefits

i) Short-term obligations

Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognized in respect of employees'' services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.

ii) Other long-term employee benefit obligations

The liabilities for earned leave and sick leave are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service. They are therefore measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting period using the projected unit credit method. The benefits are discounted using the market yields at the end of the reporting period that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation. Remeasurements as a result of experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognized in profit or loss.

iii) Post-employment obligations

The company operates the following post-employment schemes:

a) defined benefit plans such as gratuity and provident fund (for employees who are members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme)

b) defined contribution plans such as superannuation and provident fund (for other employees who are not members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme)

Defined Benefit Plans

The liability or asset recognized in the balance sheet in respect of gratuity and provident fund is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by actuaries using the projected unit credit method.

With respect to employees who are members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme (‘the Trust'') contribution for provident fund to the Trust is a defined benefit plan as the Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from investments made by the Trust and notified interest rate. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the employee''s salary. The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the trust is being administered by the government.

The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation.

The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss.

Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognized in the period in which they occur, directly in other comprehensive income. They are included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet.

Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognized immediately in profit or loss as past service cost.

Defined contribution plans

Contributions to the Provident Fund and Superannuation Fund which are defined contribution schemes, are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the contribution is due. For employees other than members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme, both the Company''s and employees'' contribution is paid to Regional Provident Fund Commissioner (RPFC) on a monthly basis. The company has no further payment obligations once the contributions have been paid.

iv) Bonus Plans

The company recognizes a liability and an expense for bonuses. The company recognizes a provision where contractually obliged or where there is a past practice that has created a constructive obligation.

v) Termination benefits

Voluntary Retirement Scheme costs are charged off to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

1.18 Contributed Equity

Equity shares are classified as equity

Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.

1.19 Dividends

Provision is made for the amount of any dividend declared, being appropriately authorized and not paid as at the end of the reporting period.

1.20 Earnings per share

The basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the period by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the year by the weighted average number of equity and equivalent diluted equity shares outstanding during the year, except where the result would be anti dilutive.

1.21 Rounding of amounts

All amounts disclosed in the financial statements and notes have been rounded off to the nearest million as per the requirement of Schedule III, unless otherwise stated.


Dec 31, 2014

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to the periods presented in these financial statements.

1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India under the historical cost convention on accrual basis. Pursuant to circular 15/2013 dated 13.09.2013 read with circular 08/2014 dated 04.04.2014, till the Standards of Accounting or any addendum thereto are prescribed by Central Government in consultation and recommendation of the National Financial Reporting Authority, the existing Accounting Standards notified under the Companies Act 1956 shall continue to apply. Consequently, these financial statements have been prepared to comply all material aspects with the accounting standards notified under Section 211(3C) [Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, as amended] and other relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. The estimates and assumptions used in the accompanying financial statements are based upon management''s evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the financial statements. Actual results may differ from the estimates and assumptions used in preparing the accompanying financial statements. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

1.3 Current / Non-Current classification

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current and non-current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956. Based on the nature of products and services and the time between the acquisition of assest for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

1.4 Fixed assets and Depreciation/ Amortization Tangible assets

Tangible assets are carried at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and/or accumulated impairment loss, if any. The cost of an item of tangible fixed asset comprises its purchase price, including import duties and other non- refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use; any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditures related to an item of tangible fixed asset are added to its book value only if they increase the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Exchange differences pertaining to long term foreign currency monetary items that are related to acquisition of depreciable assets are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Depreciation is provided on the straight-line method, over the estimated useful life of each asset as determined by the management. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 are considered as the minimum rates. If the management''s estimate of the useful life of a fixed asset at the time of acquisition of the asset or of the remaining useful life on a subsequent review is shorter than that envisaged in the aforesaid schedule, depreciation is provided at a higher rate based on the management''s estimate of the useful life/remaining useful life. The rates of depreciation used by the Company are as follows:

Depreciation is provided on a pro-rata basis i.e. from the date on which asset is ready for use.

Plant and equipment and furniture and fixtures, costing individually INR 5,000 or less, are depreciated at 100%

Depreciation for the year is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The useful lives are reviewed by the management at each Balance Sheet date and revised, if appropriate. In case of a revision, the unamortised depreciable amount is charged over the revised remaining useful life.

A fixed asset is eliminated from the financial statement on disposal or when no further benefit is expected from its use and disposal.

Losses arising from retirement or gains or losses arising from disposal of fixed assets which are carried at cost are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Intangible assets

Acquired intangible assets representing software is recorded at its acquisition price and is amortised over its estimated useful life on a straight line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available for its use. The management has estimated the useful life for such software as three years. The useful life of the asset is reviewed by the management at each Balance Sheet date. After initial recognition, an intangible asset is carried at its cost less any accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment loss. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits from the specific asset to which it relates. An intangible asset is derecognised on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use and disposal. Losses arising from retirement and gains or losses arising from disposal of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.5 Impairment of Assets

In accordance with AS 28 - Impairment of Assets, the carrying amounts of the Company''s assets including intangible assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the asset''s recoverable amount is estimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating units exceeds its recoverable amount. If at the Balance Sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is assessed at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost.

1.6 Operating lease

Assets acquired under leases other than finance lease are classified as operating lease. The total lease rentals (including scheduled rental increases) in respect of an asset taken on operating lease are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern of the benefit.

Assets given by the Company under operating lease are included in tangible fixed assets. Lease income from operating leases is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which benefit derived from the leased asset is diminished. Costs, including depreciation, incurred in earning the lease income are recognised as expenses.

1.7 Inventories

Inventories which comprise raw materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, stock-in-trade, and stores and spares are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on First-in-First-out (FIFO) basis. In the case of manufactured inventories and work in progress, fixed production overheads are allocated on the basis of normal capacity of production facilities. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. The net realisable value of work-in-progress is determined with reference to the selling prices of related finished products. Raw materials and other supplies held for use in the production of finished products are not written down below cost except in cases where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of the finished products will exceed their net realisable value. The comparison of cost and net realisable value is made on class of item. Excise duty is included in the value of Finished Products.

1.8 Employee Benefits

Short term employee benefits

Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of receiving employee services are classified as short-term employee benefits. These benefits include salaries and wages, bonus and ex-gratia. The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits to be paid in exchange for employee services is recognised as an expense as the related service is rendered by employees.

Post employment benefits (defined benefit plans)

The employees'' gratuity scheme is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined at each Balance Sheet date based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. The liability for gratuity is funded annually to a gratuity fund maintained with an approved trust managed by the Company. Actuarial gains and losses and past service costs are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

With respect to employees who are members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme (''the Trust'') contribution for provident fund to the Trust is a defined benefit plan as the Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from investments made by the Trust and notified interest rate. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the employee''s salary. The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the trust is being administered by the government.

Post employment benefits (defined contribution plans)

Contributions to the Provident Fund and Superannuation Fund which are defined contribution schemes, are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the contribution is due.

For employees other than members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme, both the Company''s and employees'' contribution is paid to Regional Provident Fund Commissioner (RPFC) on a monthly basis.

Compensated absences

The employees can carry-forward a portion of the unutilised accrued compensated absences and utilise it in future service periods or receive cash compensation on termination of employment. Since the compensated absences do not fall due wholly within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service and are also not expected to be utilised wholly within twelve months after the end of such period, the benefit is classified as a long-term employee benefit. The Company records an obligation for such compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increase this entitlement. The obligation is measured on the basis of independent actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at each balance sheet date.

Termination benefits

Voluntary Retirement Scheme costs are charged off to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

1.9 Revenue Recognition

Revenue from sale of goods in the course of ordinary activities is recognised when property in the goods or all significant risks and rewards of their ownership are transferred to the customer and no significant uncertainty exists regarding the amount of the consideration that will be derived from the sale of the goods and regarding its collection. The amount recognised as revenue is exclusive of sales tax, value added taxes (VAT) and service tax, and is net of returns, trade discounts and quantity discounts.

Service Income is recognised on the completion of activity relating to services.

1.10 Foreign Currency Transactions

Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the respective transactions. Monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities remaining unsettled at the Balance Sheet date are translated at the rates of exchange prevailing on that date.

Gains / losses arising on account of realisation / settlement of foreign exchange transactions and on translation of foreign currency assets and liabilities are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.11 Provisions

A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are recognised at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. The provisions are measured on an undiscounted basis.

Warranties

Warranty costs are estimated by the Management on the basis of a technical evaluation and past experience. Provision is made for estimated liability in respect of warranty cost in the year of sale.

Disputed statutory matters

Provision in respect of disputed statutory matters relating to claims, litigation, assessment, fines, penalties, etc. are recognised when it is probable that a liability has been incurred, and the amount can be estimated reliably.

1.12 Contingent liabilities and contingent assets

A contingent liability exists when there is a possible but not probable obligation, or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources, or a present obligation whose amount cannot be estimated reliably. Contingent liabilities do not warrant provisions, but are disclosed unless the possibility of outflow of resources is remote. Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise, the asset and related income are recognised in the period in which the change occurs.

1.13 Income taxes

Income tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income-tax law) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward losses under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised.

1.14 Earnings per share (EPS)

The basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the period by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the year by the weighted average number of equity and equivalent diluted equity shares outstanding during the year, except where the result would be anti dilutive.

1.15 Other Income

Export Incentives are recognised when the right to receive credit as per the terms of Incentives is established in respect of the exports made and when there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.

Interest income is recognised on time proportion base taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

1.16 Cash and Cash Equivalents

In the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, demand deposits with banks, other short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.


Dec 31, 2013

1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements are prepared under historical cost convention as a going concern on accrual basis and to comply in all material aspects withall the applicable accounting principles in India, the applicable accounting standards notified under section 211 (3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. The estimates and assumptions used in the accompanying financial statements are based upon management''s evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the financial statements. Actual results may differ from the estimates and assumptions used in preparing the accompanying financial statements. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

1.3 Current / Non-Current classification

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current and non-current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956. Based on the nature of products and services and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

1.4 Fixed assets and Depreciation/ Amortization Tangible fixed assets

Tangible fixed assets are carried at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and/or accumulated impairment loss, if any. The cost of an item of tangible fixed asset comprises its purchase price, including import duties and other non-refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use; any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditures related to an item of tangible fixed asset are added to its book value only if they increase the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Exchange differences pertaining to long term foreign currency monetary items that are related to acquisition of depreciable assets are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Freehold land is not depreciated.

Depreciation is provided on a pro-rata basis i.e. from the date on which asset is ready for use.

Plant and equipment and furniture and fixtures, costing individually INR 5,000 or less, are depreciated at 100% Depreciation for the year is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The useful lives are reviewed by the management at each Balance Sheet date and revised, if appropriate. In case of a revision, the unamortised depreciable amount is charged over the revised remaining useful life.

A fixed asset is eliminated from the financial statements on disposal or when no further benefit is expected from its use and disposal.

Losses arising from retirement or gains or losses arising from disposal of fixed assets which are carried at cost are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Intangible fixed assets

Acquired intangible assets representing software is recorded at its acquisition price and is amortised over its estimated useful life on a straight line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available for its use. The management has estimated the useful life for such software as three years. The useful life of the asset is reviewed by the management at each Balance Sheet date. After initial recognition, an intangible asset is carried at its cost less any accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment loss. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits from the specific asset to which it relates. An intangible asset is derecognised on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use and disposal. Losses arising from retirement and gains or losses arising from disposal of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.5 Impairment of Assets

In accordance with AS 28 - Impairment of Assets, the carrying amounts of the Company''s assets including intangible assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indications exist, the assets'' recoverable amount is estimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating units exceeds its recoverable amount. If at the Balance Sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is assessed at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost.

1.6 Operating lease

Assets acquired under leases other than finance lease are classified as operating lease. The total lease rentals (including scheduled rental increases) in respect of an asset taken on operating lease are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern of the benefit.

Assets given by the Company under operating lease are included in tangible fixed assets. Lease income from operating leases is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which benefit derived from the leased asset is diminished. Costs, including depreciation, incurred in earning the lease income are recognised as expenses.

1.7 Inventories

Inventories which comprise raw materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, stock-in-trade, and stores and spares are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on First-in-First-out (FIFO) basis. In the case of manufactured inventories and work in progress, fixed production overheads are allocated on the basis of normal capacity of production facilities. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. The net realisable value of work-in-progress is determined with reference to the selling prices of related finished products. Raw materials and other supplies held for use in the production of finished products are not written down below cost except in cases where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of the finished products will exceed their net realisable value. The comparison of cost and net realisable value is made on class of item. Excise duty is included in the value of Finished Products.

1.8 Employee Benefits

Short term employee benefits

Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of receiving employee services are classified as short-term employee benefits. These benefits include salaries and wages, bonus and ex-gratia. The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits to be paid in exchange for employee services is recognised as an expense as the related service is rendered by employees.

Post employment benefits (defined benefit plans)

The employees'' gratuity scheme is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined at each Balance Sheet date based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. The liability for gratuity is funded annually to a gratuity fund maintained with an approved trust managed by the Company. Actuarial gains and losses and past service costs are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. With respect to employees who are members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme (''the Trust'') contribution for provident fund to the Trust is a defined benefit plan as the Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from investments made by the Trust and notified interest rate. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the employee''s salary. The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the trust is being administered by the government.

Post employment benefits (defined contribution plans)

Contributions to the Provident Fund and Superannuation Fund which are defined contribution schemes, are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the contribution is due. For employees other than members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme, both the Company''s and employees'' contribution is paid to Regional Provident Fund Commissioner (RPFC) on a monthly basis.

Compensated absences

The employees can carry-forward a portion of the unutilised accrued compensated absences and utilise it in future service periods or receive cash compensation on termination of employment. Since the compensated absences do not fall due wholly within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service and are also not expected to be utilised wholly within twelve months after the end of such period, the benefit is classified as a long-term employee benefit. The Company records an obligation for such compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increase this entitlement. The obligation is measured on the basis of independent actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at each balance sheet date.

Termination benefits

Voluntary Retirement Scheme costs are charged off to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

1.9 Revenue Recognition

Revenue from sale of goods in the course of ordinary activities is recognised when property in the goods or all significant risks and rewards of their ownership are transferred to the customer and no significant uncertainty exists regarding the amount of the consideration that will be derived from the sale of the goods and regarding its collection. The amount recognised as revenue is exclusive of sales tax, value added taxes (VAT) and service tax, and is net of returns, trade discounts and quantity discounts. Service Income is recognised on the completion of activity relating to services.

Export Incentives are recognised when the right to receive credit as per the terms of Incentives is established in respect of the exports made and when there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds. Interest income is recognised on time proportion base taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

1.10 Foreign Currency Transactions

Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the respective transactions. Monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities remaining unsettled at the Balance Sheet date are translated at the rates of exchange prevailing on that date.

Gains/losses arising on account of realisation/settlement of foreign exchange transactions and on translation of foreign currency assets and liabilities are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.11 Provisions

A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are recognised at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. The provisions are measured on an undiscounted basis.

Warranties

Warranty costs are estimated by the Management on the basis of a technical evaluation and past experience. Provision is made for estimated liability in respect of warranty cost in the year of sale.

Disputed statutory matters

Provision in respect of disputed statutory matters relating to claims, litigation, assessment, fines, penalties, etc. are recognised when it is probable that a liability has been incurred, and the amount can be estimated reliably.

1.12 Contingent liabilities and contingent assets

A contingent liability exists when there is a possible but not probable obligation, or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources, or a present obligation whose amount cannot be estimated reliably. Contingent liabilities do not warrant provisions, but are disclosed unless the possibility of outflow of resources is remote. Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise, the asset and related income are recognised in the period in which the change occurs.

1.13 Income taxes

Income tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income-tax law) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward losses under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain (as the case may be ) to be realised.

1.14 Earnings per share (EPS)

The basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the period by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the year by the weighted average number of equity and equivalent diluted equity shares outstanding during the year, except where the result would be anti dilutive.


Dec 31, 2012

1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

These financial statements have been prepared and presented on the accrual basis of accounting and comply with the Accounting Standards prescribed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central Government, the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and other accounting principles generally accepted in India, to the extent applicable. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees rounded off to the nearest million. This is the first year of application of the revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 for the preparation of the financial statements of the Company. The revised Schedule VI introduces some significant conceptual changes as well as new disclosures. These include classification of all assets and liabilities into current and non-current. The previous year figures have also undergone a major re-classification to comply with the requirements of the revised Schedule VI.

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses and the disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

1.3 Current–non-current classification

All assets and liabilities are classified into current and non-current.

Assets

An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a. it is expected to be realised in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the Company''s normal operating cycle;

b. it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c. it is expected to be realised within 12 months after the reporting date; or

d. it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date

Current assets include the current portion of non-current financial assets.

All other assets are classified as non-current. Liabilities A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a. it is expected to be settled in the Company''s normal operating cycle;

b. it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c. it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or

d. the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

Current liabilities include current portion of non-current financial liabilities.

All other liabilities are classified as non-current.

Operating cycle

Operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents. The Company''s normal operating cycle is less than 12 months.

1.4 Fixed assets and Depreciation/ Amortization Tangible fixed assets

Tangible fixed assets are carried at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and/or accumulated impairment loss, if any. The cost of an item of tangible fixed asset comprises its purchase price, including import duties and other non- refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use; any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.

Subsequent expenditures related to an item of tangible fixed asset are added to its book value only if they increase the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Exchange differences pertaining to long term foreign currency monetary items that are related to acquisition of depreciable assets are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Depreciation is provided on the straight-line method, over the estimated useful life of each asset as determined by the management. The rates of depreciation prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 are considered as the minimum rates. If the management''s estimate of the useful life of a fixed asset at the time of acquisition of the asset or of the remaining useful life on a subsequent review is shorter than that envisaged in the aforesaid schedule, depreciation is provided at a higher rate based on the management''s estimate of the useful life/remaining useful life. The rates of depreciation used by the Company are as follows:

Depreciation is provided on a pro-rata basis i.e. from the date on which asset is ready for use.

Plant & equipment and furniture & fixtures, costing individually INR 5,000 or less, are depreciated fully in the year of purchase.

If the aggregate of such items of plant and equipment constitutes more than 10 percent of the total actual cost of plant and equipment, the depreciation rates applicable to such items are applied.

Depreciation for the year is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The useful lives are reviewed by the management at each financial year-end and revised, if appropriate. In case of a revision, the unamortised depreciable amount is charged over the revised remaining useful life.

A fixed asset is eliminated from the financial statements on disposal or when no further benefit is expected from its use and disposal.

Losses arising from retirement or gains or losses arising from disposal of fixed assets which are carried at cost are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Intangible fixed assets

Acquired intangible assets representing software is recorded at its acquisition price and is amortised over its estimated useful life on a straight line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available for its use. The management has estimated the useful life for such software as three years. The useful life of the asset is reviewed by the management at each Balance Sheet date. After initial recognition, an intangible asset is carried at its cost less any accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment loss. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits from the specific asset to which it relates. An intangible asset is derecognised on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use and disposal. Losses arising from retirement and gains or losses arising from disposal of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.5 Impairment of Assets

In accordance with AS 28 - Impairment of Assets, the carrying amounts of the Company''s assets including intangible assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indications exist, the assets recoverable amount is estimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating units exceeds its recoverable amount. If at the Balance Sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is assessed at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost.

1.6 Operating lease

Assets acquired under leases other than finance leases are classified as operating leases. The total lease rentals (including scheduled rental increases) in respect of an asset taken on operating lease are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern of the benefit.

Assets given by the Company under operating lease are included in fixed assets. Lease income from operating leases is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which benefit derived from the leased asset is diminished. Costs, including depreciation, incurred in earning the lease income are recognised as expenses.

1.7 Inventories

Inventories which comprise raw materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, stock-in-trade, and stores and spares are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined at Standarad Cost adjusted on a FIFO basis for variances. In the case of manufactured inventories and work in progress, fixed production overheads are allocated on the basis of normal capacity of production facilities. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. The net realisable value of work-in- progress is determined with reference to the selling prices of related finished products. Raw materials and other supplies held for use in the production of finished products are not written down below cost except in cases where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of the finished products will exceed their net realisable value. The comparison of cost and net realisable value is made on class of item. Excise duty is included in the value of Finished Products.

1.8 Employee Benefits

Short term employee benefits

Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of receiving employee services are classified as short-term employee benefits. These benefits include salaries and wages, bonus and ex-gratia. The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits to be paid in exchange for employee services is recognised as an expense as the related service is rendered by employees.

Post employment benefits (defined benefit plans)

The employees'' gratuity scheme is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined at each Balance Sheet date based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. The liability for gratuity is funded annually to a gratuity fund maintained with an approved trust managed by the Company. Actuarial gains and losses and past service costs are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. With respect to employees who are members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme (''the Trust'') contribution for provident fund to the Trust is a defined benefit plan as the Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from investments made by the Trust and notified interest rate. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the employee''s salary. The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the trust is being administered by the government.

Post employment benefits (defined contribution plans)

Contributions to the Provident Fund and Superannuation Fund which are defined contribution schemes, are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the contribution is due.

For employees other than members of SKF India Limited Provident Fund Scheme, both the Company''s and employees'' contribution is paid to Regional Provident Fund Commissioner (RPFC) on a monthly basis

Compensated absences

The employees can carry-forward a portion of the unutilised accrued compensated absences and utilise it in future service periods or receive cash compensation on termination of employment. Since the compensated absences do not fall due wholly within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service and are also not expected to be utilised wholly within twelve months after the end of such period, the benefit is classified as a long-term employee benefit. The Company records an obligation for such compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increase this entitlement. The obligation is measured on the basis of independent actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method.

Termination benefits

Voluntary Retirement Scheme costs are charged off to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

1.9 Revenue Recognition

Revenue from sale of goods in the course of ordinary activities is recognised when property in the goods or all significant risks and rewards of their ownership are transferred to the customer and no significant uncertainty exists regarding the amount of the consideration that will be derived from the sale of the goods and regarding its collection. The amount recognised as revenue is exclusive of sales tax, value added taxes (VAT) and service tax, and is net of returns, trade discounts and quantity discounts.

Service Income is recognised on the completion of activity relating to services.

Export Incentives are recognised when the right to receive credit as per the terms of Incentives is established in respect of the exports made and when there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.

Interest income is recognised on time proportion base taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

1.10Foreign Currency Transactions

Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the respective transactions. Monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities remaining unsettled at the Balance Sheet date are translated at the rates of exchange prevailing on that date.

Gains / losses arising on account of realisation / settlement of foreign exchange transactions and on translation of foreign currency assets and liabilities are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.11Provisions

A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are recognised at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. The provisions are measured on an undiscounted basis.

Warranties

Warranty costs are estimated by the Management on the basis of a technical evaluation and past experience. Provision is made for estimated liability in respect of warranty cost in the year of sale.

Disputed statutory matters

Provision in respect of disputed statutory matters relating to claims, litigation, assessment, fines, penalties, etc. are recognised when it is probable that a liability has been incurred, and the amount can be estimated reliably.

1.12 Contingent liabilities and contingent assets

A contingent liability exists when there is a possible but not probable obligation, or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources, or a present obligation whose amount cannot be estimated reliably. Contingent liabilities do not warrant provisions, but are disclosed unless the possibility of outflow of resources is remote. Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise, the asset and related income are recognised in the period in which the change occurs.

1.13 Income taxes

Income tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income-tax law) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward losses under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain (as the case may be ) to be realised.

1.14 Earnings per share (EPS)

The basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the period by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the year by the weighted average number of equity and equivalent diluted equity shares outstanding during the year, except where the result would be anti dilutive.


Dec 31, 2010

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in India and comply with the Accounting Standards (AS) prescribed by the Central Government, in consultation with Naional Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards, under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, (the Act) to the extent applicable. The significant accounting policies are as follows :

(a) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (‘GAAP), requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements. Acual results could differ from those esimates. Any revision to the accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

(c) Intangible assets.

Acquired intangible assets representing software is recorded at its acquisition price and is amorised over is esimated useful life on at sraight line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available for its use. The management has esimated the useful life for such software as three years. The useful life of the assets is reviewed by the management at each Balance Sheet date.

(d) Impairment of Assets

In accordance wih AS 28 Impairment of Assets, the carrying amounts of the Companys asset including intangible asset are reviewed a each Balance Sheet date to detrmine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indications exist, the assest recoverable amount is esimated, as the higher of the net selling price and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an assets or its cash generating units exceeds its recoverable amount. If at the Balance Sheet date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists,the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is assessed at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost.

(e) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss Account.

(f) Inventories

Inventories are valued a the lower of cost and net realisable value. cost is determined at Standard cost adjusted on a FIFO basis for variances. cost includes all cost of purchase and cost incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Excise Duty is included in the value of Finished Products.

(g) Revenue Recognition

(i) Sale of goods is recognised on despach to customers. ‘Net Sales exclude amounts recovered owards excise duty sales tax, octroi and freight and is net of discounts.

(ii) Service Income is recognised on the completion of activity relating to services.

(iii) Export Incentives are recognised when the right to receive credit as per the terms of Incentives is established in respect of the exports made and when here is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collecion of the relevant export proceeds.

(iv) Interest income is recognised on time proportion base taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable

(h) Warranties

Warranty costs are estimated by the Management on the basis of a technical evaluation and past experience. Provision is made for estimated liability in respect of warranty cost in the year of sale.

(i) Employee Benefits

(i) Short term employee benefits

Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

(ii) Post employment benefits (defined benefit plans)

The employees grauity scheme is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined a each Balance Sheet date based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit mehod. The liability for grauity is funded annually to a grauity fund maintained with an approved trust managed by the Company. Actuarial gains and losses and past service costs are recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss Account.

(iii) Post employment benefits (defined contribution plans)

Conributions to the Provident Fund and Superannuation Fund which are defined conribution schemes, are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account in the period in which the contribution is due.

(iv) Long term employee benefits

Long term employee benefits comprise of compensated absences. These are measured based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary using the projected until method a each Balance Sheet date unless they are insignificant. Actuarial gains and losses and pas service costs are recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss Account.

(v) The Company pays contribution to recognized Provident Fund (in respect of employees of Pune unit and Head Office, Mumbai). The guidance on implementing AS 15, Employee Benefits (Revised 2005) issued by the Accounting Standards Board CASB1) states that provident funds set up by the employers, which requires interest shortfall to be met by the employer, needs to be treated as defined benefit plan. Pending the issuance of the guidance note from the Actuarial Society of India, the Companys actuary has expressed his inability to reliably measure the provident fund liabiliy. Accordingly, the Company is unable to exhibit the related disclosures.

(vi) Voluntary Retirement Scheme its are charged off to Profit and Loss Account in the year in which they are incurred.

(j) Foreign Currency Transactions

Foreign currency transacions are recorded at the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the respective transactions. Monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities remaining unsettled at the Balance Sheet date are translaed at the rates of exchange prevailing on that date.

Gains / losses arising on account of realisation / selemen of foreign exchange transacions and on translation of foreign currency assets and liabilities are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

(k) Income Tax

Income tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period deermined in accordance with the incometax law) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences beween accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabiliies or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

Deferred tax asses are recognised only to the extent that here is reasonable cerainty that the assets can be realised in future; however where here is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward losses under taxaion laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual cerainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed a each Balance Sheet date and written down or written up to reflect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised.

(l) Provisions and Contingencies

Provision is recognised in the Balance Sheet when, the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event; it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; and a reliable esimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. A disclosure by way of a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will no, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

(m) Earnings per share

The basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit atributable to the equity shareholders for the period by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing the net profit atributable to the equity shareholders for the year by the weighted average number of equity and equivalent diluted equity shares outstanding during the year, except where the result would be anti dilutive.


Dec 31, 2009

The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis of accounting and comply with the Accounting Standards prescribed by the Central Government, in consultation with National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards, under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, (‘the Act’) to the extent applicable. The significant accounting policies are as follows :

(a) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (‘GAAP’), requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Any revision to the accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in current and future periods.

(b) Fixed assets and Depreciation/ Amortization :

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and provision for impairment. The cost of acquisition includes inward freight, duties, taxes and other directly attributable incidental expenses, net of cenvat credit and excluding foreign exchange fluctuation gains / (loss) on imported assets.

Depreciation is provided on the straight line method, at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 or based on the estimated useful lives of the assets, whichever is higher. The rates of depreciation used by the Company are as follows :

Rate per annum (%)

Buildings 1.63 / 3.34

Plant, Machinery and Tools 4.75 / 10.34 / 16.21

Furniture, Fixture and Office Equipment 4.75 / 6.33

Vehicles 9.50 / 18.00

Intangible Assets 33.33

Assets individually costing less than Rs. 5,000 are depreciated at the rate of 100% per annum.

(c) Intangible assets

Acquired intangible assets representing software is recorded at its acquisition price and is amortised over its estimated useful life on a straight line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available for its use. The management has estimated the useful life for such software as three years. The useful life of the asset is reviewed by the management at each balance sheet date.

(d) Impairment of Assets

Management periodically assesses using external and internal sources whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. An impairment occurs where the carrying value exceeds the recoverable amount. The impairment loss to be expensed is determined as the excess of carrying amount over the higher of the asset’s net selling price or present value of future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of the assets and its eventual disposal.

(e) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to Profit and Loss Account .

(f) Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is determined at Standard Cost adjusted on a FIFO basis for variances. Cost includes all cost of purchase and cost incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Excise Duty is included in the value of Finished Products.

(g) Revenue Recognition

(i) Sale of goods is recognised on despatch to customers. ‘Net Sales’ exclude amounts recovered towards excise duty, sales tax, octroi and freight and is net of discounts.

(ii) Service Income is recognised on the completion of activity relating to services.

(iii) Export Incentives are recognised when the right to receive credit as per the terms of Incentives is established in respect of the exports made and when there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.

(h) Warranties

Warranty costs are estimated by the Management on the basis of a technical evaluation and past experience. Provision is made for estimated liability in respect of warranty cost in the year of sale.

(i) Employee Benefits

(i) Short term employee benefits

Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

(ii) Post employment benefits (defined benefit plans)

The employees’ gratuity scheme is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined at each Balance Sheet date based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses and past service costs are recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss account.

(iii) Post employment benefits (defined contribution plans)

Contributions to the provident fund and Superannuation Fund which are defined contribution schemes, are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss account in the period in which the contribution is due.

(iv) Long term employee benefits

Long term employee benefits comprise of compensated absences. These are measured based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary using the projected unit method at each Balance Sheet date unless they are insignificant. Actuarial gains and losses and past service costs are recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss account.

(v) The Company pays contribution to recognized provident fund (in respect of employees of Pune unit and Head Office, Mumbai). The guidance on implementing AS 15, Employee Benefits (Revised 2005) issued by the Accounting Standards Board (‘ASB’) states that provident funds set up by the employers, which requires interest shortfall to be met by the employer, needs to be treated as defined benefit plan. Pending the issuance of the guidance note from the Actuarial Society of India, the Company’s actuary has expressed his inability to reliably measure the provident fund liability. Accordingly, the Company is unable to exhibit the related disclosures.

(vi) Voluntary Retirement Scheme costs are charged off to Profit and Loss account in the year in which they are incurred.

(j) Foreign Currency Transactions

Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the respective transactions. Monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities remaining unsettled at the balance sheet date are translated at the rates of exchange prevailing on that date.

Gains / losses arising on account of realisation / settlement of foreign exchange transactions and on translation of foreign currency assets and liabilities are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

The premium or discount that arises on entering into a forward exchange contract for underlying transactions, is measured by the difference between the exchange rate at the date of inception of the forward exchange contract and the forward rate. Forward exchange contract gain / loss is the difference between:

(a) the foreign currency amount of the contract translated at the exchange rate at the reporting date, or the settlement date, where the transaction is settled during the reporting period, and

(b) the same foreign currency amount translated at the latter of the date of inception of the forward exchange contract and the last reporting date. These exchange differences are recognised in the statement of the profit and loss in the reporting period in which the exchange rates changes.

The premium or discount arising at the inception of a forward exchange contract is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract.

(k) Income Tax

Income tax expense comprises current tax, fringe benefit tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income-tax law) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future; however where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward losses under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is a virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably/ virtually certain (as the case may be ) to be realised.

(l) Provisions and Contingencies

Provisions are recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible or present obligation that may, but probably will not require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

(m) Earnings per share

The basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the period by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders for the year by the weighted average number of equity and equivalent diluted equity shares outstanding during the year, except where the result would be anti dilutive.

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