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Accounting Policies of Sterling Tools Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2016

NOTE 1: CORPORATE INFORMATION

Sterling Tools Limited (the company) is a public limited company incorporated in the year 1979 under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The shares of the company listed on Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange in India. The Company is engaged in the manufacturing and marketing of high tensile cold forged fasteners. It is one of the progressive Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) suppliers in India with a client base that spans automotive companies in India, Europe and USA.

NOTE 2: SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

a. Basis of Accounting

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with applicable accounting standards and relevant presentation requirements of the Companies Act, 2013 and are based on the historical cost convention. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis and under the historical cost convention. The company has complied in all material respects with Accounting Standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rule 2014 and the provisions of the Act (to the extent notified) .The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those of previous year except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.

b. Uses of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods. Differences between the actual results and estimates are recognized in the year in which the results are known\materialized. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which the changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.

c. Fixed Assets and Depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition inclusive of freight, duties & taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition up to the date of installation. Cost of Fixed assets is further adjusted by the amount of Motivate/Convert credit availed and VAT credit wherever applicable. Interest and finance charges incurred are allocated to the respective fixed assets on installation (wherever applicable). Fixed assets under construction, and cost of assets not put to use before year end are shown as capital work in progress while advance paid towards acquisition of fixed assets are shown as capital advance under the head Loans & Advances.

Gain or loss arising on account of sale of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net proceeds and the carrying amount of assets and are recognized in the statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which the asset is sold.

Software which are not an integral part of related hardware, is treated as intangible asset and amortized over a period of three years or its licensed period, whichever is less. Leasehold Improvements are amortized over the period of lease.

Depreciation is provided as per useful life specified in schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. Depreciation in case of additions is calculated on a pro-rata basis w.e.f. the start of the following month; in which the asset was capitalized. On assets sold, discarded, etc. during the year, depreciation is provided up to

the last day of the preceding month vis-a-vis the actual date of sale. Further, the Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 requires that useful life and depreciation for significant components of an asset should be determined separately. The identification of significant components is matter of technical judgment and is decided on case to case basis; wherever applicable.

d. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Following are the specific revenue recognition criteria:

i) Revenue relating to sale of goods is recognized on dispatch of goods which coincides with the transfer of significant risks and rewards related to goods and are accounted for net of returns. Net sales, as disclosed, are exclusive of sales tax. Domestic and export sales are recognized on transfer of significant risks and rewards to the customer, which takes place on dispatch of goods from the factory/ storage area and port respectively.

ii) Revenue relating to interest income is recognized on time proportionate basis determined by the amount outstanding and the rate applicable and where no significant uncertainty as to measurability or collectability exists.

iii) Income from Export Incentives viz. Duty Drawback and Focus Product Scheme is recognized at year end on accrual basis.

e. Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses were considered necessary. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. The cost of purchase consists of the purchase price including duties and taxes other than those subsequently recoverable by the enterprise from the taxing authorities, freight inwards and other expenditure directly attributable for its acquisition.

The methods of determining cost of various categories of inventories are as under:

Stock in Transit is valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Scrap is valued at estimated net realizable value.

f. Retirement and Employee Benefits

Expenses and Liabilities in respect of employee benefits are recorded in accordance with Revised Accounting Standard 15 - Employees Benefits (Revised 2005) issued by the Company (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

Short Term Employee Benefits: All employees'' benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the services are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences (CL) etc. and the expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related services at undiscounted amount. Terminal Benefits if any, are recognized as an expense immediately.

Defined Contribution Plan

Contributions payable to recognized Provident Fund, Employee State Insurance scheme and labour welfare fund which are substantially defined contribution plans, are recognized as expense in the Statement of Profit & Loss, as they are incurred.

Defined Benefit Plan

The cost of providing defined benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in full in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognized immediately to the extent the benefits are already vested, and otherwise is amortized on a straight line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognized past service cost and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the scheme.

Other Long Term Benefits

Long term compensated absences (EL) are provided for on the basis of actuarial valuation, using the Projected Unit Credit method, at the end of each financial year. Actuarial gains/ losses, if any, are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

g. borrowing Cost

The borrowing costs which are directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying fixed assets, which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, are capitalized as part of cost of the assets. All other borrowing costs are immediately recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

h. foreign Currency Transactions

Initial Recognition: The transactions in foreign currency are initially accounted for at the rate prevailing as on the transaction date.

Conversion: The monetary items denominated in the foreign currency are stated at the exchange rate prevailing at the year end and the overall net gain/ (loss) is adjusted to the Statement of Profit & Loss. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of transaction.

Exchange Difference: The exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or reporting these items at rates different from rates at which these were initially recorded/ reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income/expense in the period in which they arise.

Forward contracts: The Company uses derivative financial instruments such as forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with certain foreign currency transactions. The premium or discount arising at the inception of such a forward exchange contract is amortized as expense or income over the life of the Contract. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such a forward exchange contract is recognized as income or expense for the period.

i. Investments

Investments, which are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as Non-Current Investments. Current Investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value.

Non-Current Investments are carried at Cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the Investments.

j. Taxes on Income: Tax expense comprises current tax and deferred tax Current Tax

Current Tax is measured and expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961, and based on the expected outcome of assessment/appeals. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current Income Tax relating to the items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The provisions of current tax is made after considering impact if any, of provisions contained in Income Computation Disclosure Standards (ICDS) issued by CBDT vide Notification S.O. 892(E) dated March 31, 2015.

Deferred Tax

Deferred tax reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Deferred tax assets subject to consideration of prudence, are recognized and carried forward only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. Such assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date to re-assess realization.

Minimum Alternate Tax

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in the year is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as current tax. The Company recognize MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which Company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternate Tax under the Income Tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the Statement of Profit and Loss and shown as “MAT Credit Entitlement “. The Company reviews the “MAT Credit Entitlement” asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

k. Impairment of Assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset or Cash Generating Unit (CGU) may be impaired. If any indication exists, the recoverable amount of the same is determined. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed in Statement of Profit & Loss only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized.

l. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognized in the accounts in respect of present probable obligations arising as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources, the amount of which can be reliably estimated.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed in respect of possible obligations that arise from past events but their existence is confirmed by the occurrence or non occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company.

Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.

m. Leases

The Lease under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as Finance leases. Such assets are capitalized at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value or the present value of minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost, so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each period. The Assets acquired under leases where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lesser are classified as Operating leases. Lease rentals in case of Operating leases are charged to the Statement of Profit & Loss on accrual basis on straight line basis.

n. Earnings per Share (EPS)

In determining earnings per share, the company considers the net profit after tax and includes the post tax effect of any extra ordinary items.

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating Diluted Earnings per share, the number of shares comprises of weighted average shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and also the weighted average number of equity share which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. A transaction is considered to be ant dilutive if its effect is to increase the amount of EPS, either by lowering the share count or increasing the earnings.

o. Cash Flow Statement (CFS)

The cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and item of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated as specified in Accounting Standard -3 (AS-3) “Cash Flow Statement”.

p. Segment Reporting

Primary Segment: The Company is engaged in manufacture of high tensile fasteners. The entire operations are governed by same set of risk and returns; hence, the same has been considered representing a single primary segment. The said treatment is in accordance with the guiding principles enunciated in the Accounting Standard-17 on Segment Reporting issued by Company (Accounts) Rules, 2014

Geographical Segment: The Company sells its products mostly within India with insignificant export income and does not have any operations in economic environments with different risks and returns; hence, it’s considered operating in single geographical segment.

q. Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

r. Classification of Current/ Non Current Assets & Liabilities

All assets & liabilities are presented as Current or Non- current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in Schedule III of the Companies Act 2013. Based on the nature of products and the time between acquisition of assets and disposal of liabilities, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of Current/ Non-current classification of assets and liabilities.


Mar 31, 2014

A. Basis of Accounting

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP). The company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with accounting standards notified under the Companies ( Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 ("the Act") as adopted consistently by the Company. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis and under the historical cost convention.

b. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

c. Fixed Assets and Depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition inclusive of freight, duties & taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition up to the date of installation. Cost of Fixed assets are further adjusted by the amount of Modvat/Cenvat credit availed and Vat credit wherever applicable. Interest and finance charges incurred are allocated to the respective fixed assets on installation. Fixed assets under construction, and cost of assets not put to use before year end are shown as capital work in progress while advance paid towards acquisition of fixed assets are shown as capital advance under the head long term loans & Advances.

Software which are not an integral part of related hardware, is treated as intangible asset and amortized over a period of three years or its licensed period, whichever is less. Leasehold Improvements are amortized over period of lease.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided, on straight line method, at the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. The depreciation on assets acquired/sold/discarded during the year is provided from/up to the month in which the asset is commissioned/sold/discarded except in case of fixed assets costing up to Rs. 5,000/- where, depreciation is provided for the whole year.

d. Revenue recognition

Domestic and export sales are recognised on transfer of significant risks and rewards to the customer, which takes place on dispatch of goods from the factory/ storage area and port respectively. The sales are accounted for net of trade discount, sales tax; sale returns but includes excise duty and price variations.

Income from Export Incentives viz. Duty Drawback and Focus Product Scheme is recognized at year end on accrual basis.

Interest Income is recognized on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate.

Dividend Income is recognized when the company''s right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.

e. Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost of raw material is determined on the basis of First-in- First-Out (FIFO) method.

The cost of manufactured finished goods and work-in-progress includes raw material value determined on the basis of First-in- First-Out (FIFO) method and includes conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Finished manufactured goods also include excise duty.

Provision is made for cost of obsolescence and other anticipated losses wherever considered necessary.

Stores & Consumables, Packing Materials and Tools & Dies are valued at lower of net realizable value or cost on the basis of Weighted Average Method.

Stock in Transit is valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Scrap is valued at estimated net realizable value.

f. Employee''s Benefits

Expenses and Liabilities in respect of employee benefits are recorded in accordance with Revised Accounting Standard 15 – Employees Benefits (Revised 2005) issued by the Company (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

Short Term Employee Benefits: All employees'' benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the services are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences etc. and the expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related services at undiscounted amount.

Post Employment Benefit Plans: Payments to Defined Contribution Retirements Benefit Schemes are charged as an expense as they fall due. For Defined Benefit Schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in full in the statement profit and loss for the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognized immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, and otherwise is amortized on a straight line basis over the average period until the benefit become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognized past service cost and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets.

Terminal Benefits are recognized as an expense immediately.

g. Borrowing Cost

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition for construction of qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost of such asset. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue. Borrowing Cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

h. Foreign Currency Transactions

Initial Recognition: The transactions in foreign currency are initially accounted for at the rate prevailing as on the transaction date.

Conversion: The monetary items denominated in the foreign currency are stated at the exchange rate prevailing at the year end and the overall net gain/ (loss) is adjusted to the statement of profit & loss . Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of transaction.

Exchange Difference: The Exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or reporting these items at rates different from rates at which these were initially recorded/ reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income/expense in the period in which they arise.

Forward contracts, other than those entered into hedge currency risk on unexpected firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions, are treated as foreign currency transactions and accounted accordingly as per Accounting Standard (AS) 11 ["The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates"}.

i. Investments

Investments , which are readily realizable and intended to be held for more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as Non-Current Investments. Current Investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value. Non-Current Investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the Investments

j. Taxes on Income

Tax expense comprises current and deffered tax

Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India and tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where the company operates. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes (asset/ liability) reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss. Deferred taxassets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

k. Impairment of Assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount and the reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the statement of profit and loss . If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to the maximum of depreciated historical cost and is accordingly reversed in the statement of profit and loss.

l. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognized in the accounts in respect of present probable obligations arising as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources, the amount of which can be reliably estimated.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed in respect of possible obligations that arise from past events but their existence is confirmed by the occurrence or non occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company.

Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.

m. Leases

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incident to the ownership of assets substantially vests with the lessor, are recognized as operating leases. Lease rent under operating leases are recognized under statment of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the lease term.

n. Earning per share

Basic earning per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of calculating Diluted Earning per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

o. Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method as specified in Accounting Standard (AS-3) "Cash Flow Statement".

p. Segmental Reporting

Primary Segment: The Company is engaged in manufacture of high tensile fasteners. The entire operations are governed by same set of risk and returns; hence, the same has been considered representing a single primary segment. The said treatment is in accordance with the guiding principles enunciated in the Accounting Standard-17 on Segment Reporting issued by Company (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

Geographical Segment: The Company sells its products mostly within India with insignificant export income and does not have any operations in economic environments with different risks and returns, hence, its considered operating in single geographical segment.

(b) Terms/rights attached to Equity shares

The company has only one class of equity shares having a par value of Rs. 10 per share. Each holder of Equity shares is entitled to one vote per share. The company declares and pays dividends in Indian rupees. In the event of liquidation of the company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the company, after distribution of all preferential amounts. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.


Mar 31, 2013

A. Basis of Accounting

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP). The company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with accounting standards notified under the Companies ( Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 ("the Act") as adopted consistently by the Company. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis and under the historical cost convention.

b. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

c. Fixed Assets and Depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition inclusive of freight, duties & taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition up to the date of installation. Cost of Fixed assets are further adjusted by the amount of Modvat/Cenvat credit availed and Vat credit wherever applicable. Interest and finance charges incurred are allocated to the respective fixed assets on installation. Fixed assets under construction, and cost of assets not put to use before year end are shown as capital work in progress while advance paid towards acquisition of fixed assets are shown as capital advance under the head long term loans & Advances.

Software which are not an integral part of related hardware, is treated as intangible asset and amortized over a period of three years or its licensed period, whichever is less. Leasehold Improvements are amortized over period of lease.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided, on straight line method, at the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. The depreciation on assets acquired/sold/discarded during the year is provided from/up to the month in which the asset is commissioned/sold/discarded except in case of fixed assets costing up to Rs. 5,000/- where, depreciation is provided for the whole year.

d. Revenue recognition

Domestic and export sales are recognised on transfer of significant risks and rewards to the customer, which takes place on dispatch of goods from the factory/ storage area and port respectively. The sales are accounted for net of trade discount, sales tax; sale returns but includes excise duty and price variations.

Income from Export Incentives viz. Duty Drawback and Focus Product Scheme is recognized at year end on accrual basis.

Interest Income is recognized on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate.

Dividend Income is recognized when the company''s right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.

e. Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost of raw material is determined on the basis of First-in-First-Out (FIFO) method.

The cost of manufactured finished goods and work-in-progress includes raw material value determined on the basis of First-in-First-Out (FIFO) method and includes conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Finished manufactured goods also include excise duty.

Provision is made for cost of obsolescence and other anticipated losses wherever considered necessary.

Stores & Consumables, Packing Materials and Tools & Dies are valued at lower of net realizable value or cost on the basis of Weighted Average Method.

Stock in Transit is valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Scrap is valued at estimated net realizable value.

f. Employee''s Benefits

Expenses and Liabilities in respect of employee benefits are recorded in accordance with Revised Accounting Standard 15 - Employees Benefits (Revised 2005) issued by the''Company (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

Short Term Employee Benefits: All employees'' benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the services are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences etc. and the expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related services at undiscounted amount.

Post Employment Benefit Plans: Payments to Defined Contribution Retirements Benefit Schemes are charged as an expense as they fall due. For Defined Benefit Schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in full in the statement profit and loss for the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognized immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, and otherwise is amortized on a straight line basis over the average period until the benefit become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognized past service cost and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets.

Terminal Benefits are recognized as an expense immediately.

g. Borrowing Cost

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition for construction of qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost of such asset. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue. Borrowing Cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

h. Foreign Currency Transactions

Initial Recognition: The transactions in foreign currency are initially accounted for at the rate prevailing as on the transaction date.

Conversion: The monetary items denominated in the foreign currency are stated at the exchange rate prevailing at the year end and the overall net gain/ (loss) is adjusted to the statement of profit & loss . Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of transaction.

Exchange Difference: The Exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or reporting these items at rates different from rates at which these were initially recorded/ reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income/ expense in the period in which they arise.

Forward contracts, other than those entered into hedge currency risk on unexpected firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions, are treated as foreign currency transactions and accounted accordingly as per Accounting Standard (AS) 11 ["The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates"}.

i. Investments

Investments , which are readily realizable and intended to be held for more than one year from the date on which sujh investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as Non-Current Investments. Current Investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value. Non-Current Investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the Investments.

j. Taxes on Income

Tax expense comprises current and deffered tax

Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India and tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where the company operates. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes (asset/ liability) reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss. Deferred taxassets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

k. Impairment of Assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount and the reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the statement of profit and loss . If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to the maximum of depreciated historical cost and is accordingly reversed in the statement of profit and loss.

I. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognized in the accounts in respect of present probable obligations arising as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources, the amount of which can be reliably estimated.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed in respect of possible obligations that arise from past events but their existence is confirmed by the occurrence or non occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company.

Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.

m. Leases

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incident to the ownership of assets substantially vests with the lessor, are recognized as operating leases. Lease rent under operating leases are recognized under statment of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the lease term.

n. Earning per share

Basic earning per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of calculating Diluted Earning per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

o. Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method as specified in Accounting Standard (AS-3) "Cash Flow Statement".

p. Segmental Reporting

Primary Segment: The Company is engaged in manufacture of high tensile fasteners. The entire operations are governed by same set of risk and returns; hence, the same has been considered representing a single primary segment. The said treatment is in accordance with the guiding principles enunciated in the Accounting Standard-17 on Segment Reporting issued by Company (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

Geographical Segment: The Company sells its products mostly within India with insignificant export income and does not have any operations in economic environments with different risks and returns, hence, its considered operating in single geographical segment.


Mar 31, 2012

A. Basis of Accounting

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP). The company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 ("the Act") as adopted consistently by the Company. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis and under the historical cost convention.

b. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

c. Fixed Assets and Depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition inclusive of freight, duties & taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition up to the date of installation. Cost of Fixed assets are further adjusted by the amount of Modvat/Cenvat credit availed and Vat credit wherever applicable. Interest and finance charges incurred are allocated to the respective fixed assets on installation. Fixed assets under construction, advance paid towards acquisition of fixed assets and cost of assets not put to use before year end, are shown as long term loans & Advances.

Software which are not an integral part of related hardware, is treated as intangible asset and amortized over a period of three years or its licensed period, whichever is less. Leasehold Improvements are amortized over period of lease.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided, on straight line method, at the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. The depreciation on assets acquired/sold/discarded during the year is provided from/up to the month in which the asset is commissioned/sold/discarded except in case of fixed assets costing up to Rs. 5,000/- where, depreciation is provided for the whole year.

d. Revenue recognition

Domestic and export sales are recognised on transfer of significant risks and rewards to the customer, which takes place on dispatch of goods from the factory/ storage area and port respectively. The sales are accounted for net of trade discount, sales tax; sale returns but includes excise duty and price variations.

Income from Export Incentives viz. Duty Drawback and Focus Product Scheme is recognized on accrual basis.

Interest Income is recognized on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate.

Dividend Income is recognized when the company's right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.

e. Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost of raw material is determined on the basis of First-in- First-Out (FIFO) method.

The cost of manufactured finished goods and work-in-progress includes raw material value determined on the basis of First-in- First-Out (FIFO) method and includes conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Finished manufactured goods also include excise duty.

Provision is made for cost of obsolescence and other anticipated losses wherever considered necessary.

Stores & Consumables, Packing Materials and Tools & Dies are valued at lower of net realizable value or cost on the basis of First-in-First-Out (FIFO) method.

Stock in Transit is valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Scrap is valued at estimated net realizable value.

f. Employee's Benefits

Expenses and Liabilities in respect of employee benefits are recorded in accordance with Revised Accounting Standard 15 - Employees Benefits (Revised 2005) issued by the Company (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

Short Term Employee Benefits: All employees' benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the services are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences etc. and the expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related services at undiscounted amount.

Post Employment Benefit Plans: Payments to Defined Contribution Retirements Benefit Schemes are charged as an expense as they fall due. For Defined Benefit Schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in full in the profit and loss account for the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognized immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, and otherwise is amortized on a straight line basis over the average period until the benefit become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognized past service cost and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets.

Terminal Benefits are recognized as an expense immediately.

g. Borrowing Cost

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition for construction of qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost of such asset. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue. Borrowing Cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

h. Foreign Currency Transactions

Initial Recognition: The transactions in foreign currency are initially accounted for at the rate prevailing as on the transaction date.

Conversion: The monetary items denominated in the foreign currency are stated at the exchange rate prevailing at the year end and the overall net gain/ (loss) is adjusted to the profit & loss account. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of transaction.

Exchange Difference: The Exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or reporting these items at rates different from rates at which these were initially recorded/ reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income/expense in the period in which they arise.

Forward contracts, other than those entered into hedge currency risk on unexpected firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions, are treated as foreign currency transactions and accounted accordingly as per Accounting Standard (AS) 11 ["The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates"}.

i. Investments

Investments , which are readily realizable and intended to be held for more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as Non-Current Investments. Current Investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value. Non-Current Investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the Investments

j. Taxes on Income: Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax.

Current income-tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-taxAct, 1961 enacted in India and tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where the company operates. The tax rates and

tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred income taxes (asset/ liability) reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for the earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

k. impairment of Assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount and the reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the profit and loss account. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to the maximum of depreciated historical cost and is accordingly reversed in the profit and loss account.

I. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognized in the accounts in respect of present probable obligations arising as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources, the amount of which can be reliably estimated.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed in respect of possible obligations that arise from past events but their existence is confirmed by the occurrence or non occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company.

Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements, m. Leases

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incident to the ownership of assets substantially vests with the lessor, are recognized as operating leases. Lease rent under operating leases are recognized under profit and loss account on a straight line basis over the lease term.

n. Earning per share

Basic earning per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of calculating Diluted Earning per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

o. Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method as specified in Accounting Standard (AS-3) "Cash Flow Statement", p. Segmental Reporting

Primary Segment: The Company is engaged in manufacture of high tensile fasteners. The entire operations are governed by same set of risk and returns; hence, the same has been considered representing a single primary segment. The said treatment is in accordance with the guiding principles enunciated in the Accounting Standard-17 on Segment Reporting issued by Company (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

Geographical Segment: The Company sells its products mostly within India with insignificant export income and does not have any operations in economic environments with different risks and returns, hence, its considered operating in single geographical segment.


Mar 31, 2011

A. Basis of Accounting

The financial statements of Sterling Tools Limited ("the Company") have been prepared under the historical cost convention in accordance with the Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP"), mandatory accounting standards and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 ("the Act") as adopted consistently by the Company. All income and expenditure having a material bearing on the financial statement are recognized on accrual basis.

b. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reported period. Examples of such estimates include estimated provision for doubtful debts, future obligations under employee retirement benefit plans and estimated useful life of fixed assets. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognized in the year in which the results are known / materialized.

c. Fixed Assets and Depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition inclusive of freight, duties & taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition up to the date of installation. Cost of Fixed assets are further adjusted by the amount of Modvat/Cenvat credit availed and VAT credit wherever applicable. Fixed assets under construction, advance paid towards acquisition of fixed assets and cost of assets not put to use before year end, are shown as capital work in progress. Interest and finance charges incurred are allocated to the respective fixed assets on installation. Software which are not an integral part of related hardware, is treated as intangible asset and amortized over a period of three years or its licensed period, whichever is less.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided, on straight line method, at the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. The depreciation on assets acquired/sold/discarded during the year is provided from/up to the month in which the asset is commissioned/sold/discarded except in case of fixed assets costing up to Rs. 5,000/- where, depreciation is provided for whole year.

d. Revenue recognition

Domestic and export sales are recognised on transfer of significant risks and rewards to the customer, which takes place on dispatch of goods form the factory/ storage area and port respectively. The sales are accounted for net of trade discount, sales tax, sale returns but includes excise duty and price variations.

e. Purchases

Purchases are recognized upon receipt of such goods by the Company. Purchases of imported goods are recognised after completion of custom clearance formalities and upon receipt of such goods by the Company at the factory.

f. Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost of raw material is determined on the basis of First-in-First-Out (FIFO) method.

The cost of manufactured finished goods and work-in-progress includes raw material value determined on the basis of First-in-First-Out (FIFO) method and includes conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Finished manufactured goods also include excise duty.

Provision is made for cost of obsolescence and other anticipated losses wherever considered necessary.

Stores & Consumables, Packing Materials and Tools & Dies are valued at lower of net realizable value or cost on the basis of First-in-First-Out (FIFO) method.

Stock in Transit is valued at lower of cost and net realizable value.Scrap is valued at estimated net realizable value.

g. Employees Benefits

Expenses and Liabilities in respect of employee benefits are recorded in accordance with Revised Accounting Standard 15 - Employees Benefits (Revised 2005) issued by the Company (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

Post Employment Benefit Plans

Payments to Defined Contribution Retirements Benefit Schemes are charged as an expense as they fall due.

For Defined Benefit Schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in full in the profit and loss account for the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognized immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, and otherwise is amortized on a straight line basis over the average period until the benefit become vested.

The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognized past service cost and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the scheme.

Short Term Employee Benefits

All employees benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the services are classified as short term employee benefits. The benefits like salaries, wages, short term compensated absences etc. and the expected cost of bonus, ex-gratia are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related services.

h. Borrowing Cost

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition for construction of qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost of such asset. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue.

i. Modvat Claim

Modvat claim on raw material purchased is credited to cost of material. In case of capital goods it is reduced from the cost of assets.

j. Foreign Currency Transactions

The transactions in foreign currency are initially accounted for at the rate prevailing as on the transaction date. Gain / (Loss) arising out of fluctuation in rate between transaction date and settlement date are recognized in the profit & loss account.

The monetary items denominated in the foreign currency are stated at the exchange rate prevailing at the year end and the overall net gain/ (loss) is adjusted to the profit & loss account.

Forward contracts, other than those entered into hedge currency risk on unexpected firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions, are treated as foreign currency transactions and accounted accordingly as per Accounting Standard (AS) 11 ["The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates"].Premium paid on foreign currency forward contract is accounted as expense over the period of the contract.

k. Investments

Long term investments are stated at cost unless there is a diminution of permanent nature, if any. Current Investments are carried at lower of cost or fair value.

l. Taxes on Income

Income taxes are accrued in the same period in which the related revenue and expenses arise. The differences that result between the taxable profit and the profit as per the financial statement are identified and thereafter deferred tax assets or deferred tax liabilities are recorded as timing differences, namely the differences that originate in one accounting period and reverse in another, based on the tax effect of the aggregate amount being considered. The tax effect is calculated on the accumulated timing differences at the end of an accounting period based on tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is reasonable certainty that they will be realized in future. Where there are unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent there is virtual certainty of such assets. Such assets are reviewed for appropriateness of their respective carrying values at each balance sheet date.

Advance taxes and provisions for current income taxes are presented in the balance sheet after offsetting advance taxes paid and income tax provisions.

m. Impairment of Assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belong is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount and the reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the profit and loss account. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to the maximum of depreciated historical cost and is accordingly reversed in the profit and loss account.

n. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognized in the accounts in respect of present probable obligations arising as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources, the amount of which can be reliably estimated.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed in respect of possible obligations that arise from past events but their existence is confirmed by the occurrence or non occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company.

Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.

o. Leases

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incident to the ownership of assets substantially vests with the lessor, are recognized as operating leases. Lease rent under operating leases are recognized under profit and loss account on a straight line basis over the lease term.

p. Earning per share

Basic earning per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating Diluted Earning per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

q. Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method as specified in Accounting Standard (AS-3) "Cash Flow Statement".

r. Segmental Reporting

i. The Company is engaged in manufacture of high tensile fasteners. The entire operations are governed by same set of risk and returns, hence, the same has been considered representing a single primary segment. The said treatment is in accordance with the guiding principles enunciated in the Accounting Standard-17 on Segment Reporting issued by Company (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

ii. The Company sells its products mostly within India with insignificant export income and does not have any operations in economic environments with different risks and returns, hence, its considered operating in single geographical segment.

 
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