Mar 31, 2017
a. Financial instruments
i. Recognition and initial measurement
Trade receivables are initially recognised when they are originated. All other financial assets and financial liabilities are initially recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.
A financial asset or financial liability is initially measured at fair value plus, for an item not at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are directly attributable to its acquisition or issue.
ii. Classification and subsequent measurement
On initial recognition, a financial asset is classified as measured at
â amortised cost;
â FVOCI - debt investment;
â FVOCI - equity investment; or
Financial assets are not reclassified subsequent to their initial recognition, except if and in the period the Company changes its business model for managing financial assets.
A financial asset is measured at amortised cost if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:
â the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows; and
â the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
A debt investment is measured at FVOCI if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:
â the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and
â the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
On initial recognition of an equity investment that is not held for trading, the Company may irrevocably elect to present subsequent changes in the investmentâs fair value in OCI (designated as FVOCI - equity investment). This election is made on an investment-by- investment basis.
â All financial assets not classified as measured at amortised cost as described above are measured at FVTPL. This includes all derivative financial assets. On initial recognition, the Company may irrevocably designate a financial asset that otherwise meets the requirements to be measured at amortised cost or at FVOCI as at FVTPL if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces an accounting mismatch that would otherwise arise.
Financial liabilities are classified as measured at amortised cost or FVTPL. A financial liability is classified as at FVTPL if it is classified as held- for- trading, or it is a derivative or it is designated as such on initial recognition. Financial liabilities at FVTPL are measured at fair value and net gains and losses, including any interest expense, are recognised in statement of profit or loss. Other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Interest expense and foreign exchange gains and losses are recognised in statement of profit or loss. Any gain or loss on derecognition is also recognised in statement of profit or loss.
The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control of the financial asset.
If the Company enters into transactions whereby it transfers assets recognised on its balance sheet, but retains either all or substantially all of the risks and rewards of the transferred assets, the transferred assets are not derecognised.
The Company derecognises a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled, or expire.
The Company also derecognises a financial liability when its terms are modified and the cash flows under the modified terms are substantially different. In this case, a new financial liability based on the modified terms is recognised at fair value. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability extinguished and the new financial liability with modified terms is recognised in statement of profit or loss.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the balance sheet when, and only when, the Company currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and it intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously,
v. Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting
The Company holds derivative financial instruments to hedge its foreign currency and interest rate risk exposures. Embedded derivatives are separated from the host contract and accounted for separately if the host contract is not a financial asset and certain criteria are met.
Derivatives are initially measured at fair value. Subsequent to initial recognition, derivatives are measured at fair value, and changes therein are generally recognised in statement of profit or loss.
The Company designates certain derivatives as hedging instruments to hedge the variability in cash flows associated with highly probable forecast transactions arising from changes in foreign exchange rates and interest rates.
At inception of designated hedging relationships, the Company documents the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The Company also documents the economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument, including whether the changes in cash flows of the hedged item and hedging instrument are expected to offset each other.
Cash flow hedges
W hen a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedging instrument, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognised in OCI and accumulated in other equity under âeffective portion of cash flow hedgesâ. The effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative that is recognised in OCI is limited to the cumulative change in fair value of the hedged item, determined on a present value basis, from inception of the hedge. Any ineffective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognised immediately in statement of profit or loss.
If a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting or the hedging instrument is sold, expires, is terminated or is exercised, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. When hedge accounting for cash flow hedges is discontinued, the amount that has been accumulated in other equity remains there until, for a hedge of a transaction resulting in recognition of a non-financial item, it is included in the non-financial itemâs cost on its initial recognition or, for other cash flow hedges, it is reclassified to profit or loss in the same period or periods as the hedged expected future cash flows affect profit or loss.
If the hedged future cash flows are no longer expected to occur, then the amounts that have been accumulated in other equity are immediately reclassified to statement of profit or loss.
vi. Treasury shares
The Company has created an Employee Welfare Trust (EWT) for providing share-based payment to its employees. Own equity instruments that are acquired (treasury shares) are recognised at cost and deducted from equity. When the treasury shares are issued to the employees by EWT, the amount received is recognised as an increase in equity and the resultant gain / (loss) is transferred to / from securities premium.
vii. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Companyâs cash management.
Cash dividend to equity holders
The Company recognises a liability to make cash to equity holders when the distribution is authorised and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. As per the corporate laws in India, a distribution is authorised when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognised directly in equity. Interim dividends are recorded as a liability on the date of declaration by the Companyâs Board of Directors.
b. Property, plant and equipment
i. Recognition and measurement
I tems of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost of a self-constructed item of property, plant and equipment comprises the cost of materials and direct labour, any other costs directly attributable to bringing the item to working condition for its intended use, and estimated costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.
Exchange differences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items initially recognized in the period ending immediately before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial reporting period as per the previous GAAP are capitalised.
If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.
Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in statement of profit or loss.
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company,
Depreciation is calculated on cost of items of property, plant and equipment less their estimated residual values over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. Assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives unless it is reasonably certain that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term. Freehold land and land under perpetual lease are not depreciated.
The estimated useful lives of items of property, plant and equipment for the current and comparative periods are as follows:
Depreciation method, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each financial year-end and adjusted if appropriate. Based on technical evaluation and consequent advice, the management believes that its estimates of useful lives as given above best represent the period over which management expects to use these assets.
Depreciation on additions (disposals) is provided on a pro-rata basis i.e. from (upto) the date on which asset is ready for use (disposed off).
c. Intangible assets Internally generated
Expenditure on research activities is recognised in statement of profit or loss as incurred.
Development expenditure is capitalised as part of the cost of the resulting intangible asset only if the expenditure can be measured reliably, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible, future economic benefits are probable, and the Company intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and to use or sell the asset. Otherwise, it is recognised in statement of profit or loss as incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses.
Other intangible assets are initially measured at cost. Subsequently, such intangible assets are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses.
i. Subsequent expenditure
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other expenditure, including expenditure on internally generated goodwill and brands, is recognised in statement of profit or loss as incurred.
Intangible assets are amortised on a straight line basis over the estimated useful life as follows:
â Computer software 5 years
â Intellectual property right 5-10 years
Amortisation method, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at the end of each financial year and adjusted if appropriate.
d. Business combination
In accordance with Ind AS 103, Business combinations, the Company accounts for business combinations after acquisition date using the acquisition method when control is transferred to the Company (see Note 4). The cost of an acquisition is measured at the fair value of the assets given, equity instruments issued and liabilities incurred or assumed at the date of exchange. The cost of acquisition also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration and deferred consideration, if any. Any goodwill that arises is tested annually for impairment. Any gain on a bargain purchase is recognised in OCI and accumulated in equity as capital reserve if there exists clear evidence of the underlying reasons for classifying the business combination as resulting in a bargain purchase; otherwise the gain is recognised directly in equity as capital reserve. Transaction costs are expensed as incurred.
Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The cost of inventories is based on the first-in first-out formula, and includes expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories, production or conversion costs and other costs incurred in bringing them to their present location and condition. In the case of manufactured inventories and work-in-progress, cost includes an appropriate share of fixed production overheads based on normal operating capacity,
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses. The net realisable value of work-in-progress is determined with reference to the selling prices of related finished products.
Chemicals, reagents and consumables held for use in the production of finished products are not written down below cost except in cases where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of the finished products will exceed their net realisable value.
The comparison of cost and net realisable value is made on an item-by-item basis.
i. Impairment of financial assets
In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (âECLâ) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortised cost.
Loss allowance for trade receivables with no significant financing component is measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. For all other financial assets, ECL are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month ECL, unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition in which case those are measured at lifetime ECL.
Loss allowance for financial assets measured at amortised cost are deducted from gross carrying amount of the assets.
The Company assess at each reporting date whether there is any indication that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. If any such indication exists, then the assetâs recoverable amount is estimated and an impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its estimated recoverable amount in the statement of profit or loss.
The Companyâs non-financial assets, inventories and deferred tax assets, are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the assetâs recoverable amount is estimated. For impairment testing, assets that do not generate independent cash inflows are grouped together into cash-generating units (CGUs). Each CGU represents the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or CGUs.
I mpairment loss recognised in respect of a CGU is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU, and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets of the CGU (or groups of CGUs) on a pro rata basis.
An impairment loss in respect of assets for which impairment loss has been recognised in prior periods, the Company reviews at each reporting date whether there is any indication that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. Such a reversal is made only to the extent that the assetâs carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.
g. Employee benefits
The Company provides for gratuity, a defined benefit plan (âthe Gratuity Planâ) covering the eligible employees of the Company. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump-sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employeeâs salary and the tenure of the employment with the Company,
Liability with regard to the Gratuity Plan are determined by actuarial valuation, performed by an independent actuary, at each balance sheet date using the projected unit credit method. The defined benefit plan is administered by a trust formed for this purpose through the Company gratuity scheme.
The Company recognises the net obligation of a defined benefit plan as a liability in its balance sheet. Gains or losses through remeasurement of the net defined benefit liability are recognised in other comprehensive income and are not reclassified to profit and loss in the subsequent periods. The actual return of the portfolio of plan assets, in excess of the yields computed by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation is recognised in other comprehensive income. The effect of any plan amendments are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
ii. Provident Fund
Eligible employees of the Company receive benefits from provident fund, which is a defined contribution plan. Both the eligible employees and the Company make monthly contributions to the Government administered provident fund scheme equal to a specified percentage of the eligible employeeâs salary. Amounts collected under the provident fund plan are deposited with in a government administered provident fund. The Company has no further obligation to the plan beyond its monthly contributions.
iii. Compensated absences
The Company has a policy on compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary at each balance sheet date using the projected unit credit method on the additional amount expected to be paid/availed as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date. Expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognised is the period in which the absences occur,
iv. Share-based compensation
The grant date fair value of equity settled share-based payment awards granted to employees is recognised as an employee expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period that the employees unconditionally become entitled to the awards. The amount recognised as expense is based on the estimate of the number of awards for which the related service and non-market vesting conditions are expected to be met, such that the amount ultimately recognised as an expense is based on the number of awards that do meet the related service and non-market vesting conditions at the vesting date.
h. Provisions (other than for employee benefits)
A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows (representing the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date) at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The unwinding of the discount is recognised as finance cost. Expected future operating losses are not provided for.
A contract is considered to be onerous when the expected economic benefits to be derived by the Company from the contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision for an onerous contract is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before such a provision is made, the Company recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.
i. Contract research and manufacturing services income
I n respect of contracts involving research services, in case of âtime and materialsâ contracts, contract research fee are recognised as services are rendered, in accordance with the terms of the contracts.
Revenues relating to fixed price contracts are recognised based on the percentage of completion method determined based on efforts expended as a proportion to total estimated efforts. The Company monitors estimates of total contract revenue and cost on a routine basis throughout the contract period. The cumulative impact of any change in estimates of the contract revenue or costs is reflected in the period in which the changes become known. In the event that a loss is anticipated on a particular contract, provision is made for the estimated loss.
In respect of contracts involving sale of compounds arising out of contract research, revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the compounds have passed to the buyer,
The Company collects service tax and sales taxes, as applicable, on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.
Dividend income is recognised when the Companyâs right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.
iii. Interest Income
Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head âother incomeâ in the statement of profit and loss.
iv. Contribution received from customers towards plant and equipment
Contributions received from customers towards items of property, plant and equipment which require an obligation to supply services to the customer in the future, are recognised as a credit to deferred revenue. The contribution received is recognised as revenue from operations over the useful life of the assets. The Company capitalises the gross cost of these assets as the Company controls these assets.
j. Government grants
The Company recognises government grants only when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them will be complied with, and the grants will be received. Government grants received in relation to assets are presented as a reduction to the carrying amount of the related asset. Grants related to Income are recognized in statement of profit and loss as other operating revenues..
k. Income taxes
Income tax comprises current and deferred income tax. Income tax expense is recognised in statement of profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to an item recognised directly in equity in which case it is recognised in other comprehensive income. Current income tax for current year and prior periods is recognised at the amount expected to be paid or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognised for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements.
Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognised as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment or substantive enactment date. A deferred income tax assets is recognised to the extent it is probable that future taxable income will be available against which the deductible temporary timing differences and tax losses can be utilised. The Company offsets income-tax assets and liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously,
l. Borrowing cost
Borrowing costs are interest and other costs (including exchange differences relating to foreign currency borrowings to the extent that they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs) incurred in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of an asset which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised as part of the cost of that asset. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
m. Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period adjusted for treasury shares held. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted-average number of equity and dilutive equivalent shares outstanding during the period, using the treasury stock method for options and warrants, except where the results would be anti-dilutive.
Mar 31, 2015
A. Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result In the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.
b. Tangible fixed assets and depreciation
Fixed assets are slated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalisation criteria are met, the cost of replacing part of the fixed assets and directly attnbutable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Each part of an item of property, plant and equipment with a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item is depredated separately. This applies mainly to components for machinery. When significant parts of fixed assets are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company recognizes such parts as individual assets with specific useful lives and depreciates them accordingly. Likewise, when a major inspection Is performed, its cost Is recognized in the carrying amount of the fixed assets as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.
Subsequent expenditure related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond Its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred
The Company adjusts exchange differences arising on translation/ settlement of long-term foreign currency monetary items pertaining to the acquisition of a depreciable asset to the cost of the asset and depreciates the same over the remaining life of the asset. In accordance with MCA circular dated 09 August 2012, exchange differences adjusted to the cost of fixed assets are total differences, arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items pertaining to the acquisition of a depreciable asset for the period. In other words, the Company does not differentiate between exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost and other exchange difference.
Gains or losses arising from derecognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.
Assets funded by third parties are capitalised at gross value and the funds so received are recorded as deferred revenue and amortised over the useful life of the assets/period of contract.
Till March 31, 2014, depreciation on fixed assets was calculated using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management, or those prescribed under the Schedule XIV to the Companies Act 1956, whichever was higher. During the year ended March 31, 2015, pursuant to Companies Act, 2013 applicable from April 1. 2014, management evaluated the estimates of useful lives of its fixed assets as per the requirements of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 and concluded that there is no change in the estimated useful lives. Hence, there is no impact on the financial statements in this regard.
The Company has determined the following useful fives to provide depreciation on its fixed assets on straight line basis:
Classes of Assets Useful lives Useful lives estimated by stated in the management Schedule ll (years) (years)
Buildings 25 30
Plant and machinery 9 10-15
Computers and servers 3 3-6
Office equipment 3 5
Furniture and fixtures 6 10
Vehicles 6 8
Used assets acquired from third parties are depreciated on straight line basis over their remaining useful life of such assets.
c. Intangible assets and amortization of intangible assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Internally generated intangible assets, excluding capitalized development costs, are not capitalized and expenditure is reflected in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the expenditure is incurred.
Computer Software which is not an integral part of the related hardware is classified as an intangible asset.
Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life. Such intangible assets and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment annually. All other Intangible assets are assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired.
The amortization period and the amortization method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset Is significantly different from previous estimates, the amortization period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change In the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the amortization method Is changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted for in accordance with AS 5, Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.
Gains or losses arising from disposal of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is disposed.
Computer Software is amortised over a period of five years, heing its pstimated useful life d. Impairment of tangible and intangible assets
d. Impairment of tangible and intangible assets
The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there Is an indication that an asset may be impaired, if any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates asset's recoverable amount. An asset's recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's or cash-generating unit's (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an Individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to Its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, reccnl market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.
Impairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss, except for previously revalued tangible fixed assets, where the revaluation was taken to revaluation reserve. In this case, the impairment is also recognised in the revaluation reserve up to the amount of any previous revaluation.
After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.
An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset's or cash- generating unit's recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset's recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no Impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the reversal Is treated as a revaluation increase.
Inventories comprising chemicals, reagents and consumables are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost Is determined on a first in first out basis.
Work-in-progress and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost indudes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on a first in first out basis.
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price In the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
Consumables in the nature of column are amortised over useful life estimated to be a period of 12 months from the date of issue for consumption.
f. Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized to the Extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized.
Contract research and manufacturing services income
In respect of contracts involving research services, in case of 'time and materials' contracts, contract research fee are recognised as services are rendered, in accordance with the terms of the contracts.
Revenues relating to fixed price contracts are recognised based on the percentage of completion method determined based on efforts expended 3S a proportion to total estimated efforts. The Company monitors estimates of total contract revenue and cost on a routine basis throughout the contract period. The cumulative impact of any change in estimates of the contract revenue or costs is reflected in the period in which the changes become known. In the event that a loss is anticipated on a particular contract, provision is made for the estimated loss.
In respect of contracts involving sale of compounds arising out of contract research for which separate invoices are raised, revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the compounds have passed to the buyer, and comprise amounts invoiced for compounds sold.
The Company collects service tax and sales taxes, as applicable, on behalf of the government and, therefore, It is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.
Dividend income is recognised when the Company's right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.
Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income Is induded under the head "other income"' in the statement of profit and loss.
Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than twelve months from the date on which such investments are made are classified as current investments. All other investments are dassified as long-term investments.
On initial recognition, all investments are measured at cost. The cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties. If an investment is acquired, or partly acquired, by the issue of shares or other securities, the acquisition cost is the fair value of the securities issued. If an investment is acquired in exchange for another asset, the acquisition is determined by reference to the fair value of the asset given up or by reference to the fair value of the investment acquired, whichever is more clearly evident.
Long term investments are stated at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a dedine other than temporary in the value of the investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value and determined on an individual investment basis.
On the disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.
h. Retirement and other employee benefits
Retirement benefit in the form of Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the statement of profit and loss of the year when the employees rendered the related service and the contributions to the government funds are due. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund authorities.
Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year. The gratuity benefit of the Company is administered by a trust formed for this purpose through the group gratuity scheme. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised In full in the period in which they occur in the statement of profit and loss.
Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as 3 result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.
The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred. The Company presents the entire leave as a current liability In the balance sheet, since it does not have an unconditional right to defer the settlement for 12 months after the reporting date.
i. Foreign currency translation
Foreign currency transaction and balances
(a) Initial Recognition
Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currcncy, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.
Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date when such value was determined.
(c) Intangible assets and amortization of intangible assets
The Company accounts for exchange differences arising on translation/ settlement of foreign currency monetary Items as below:
I. Exchange differences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items related to acquisition of a fixed asset are capitalized and depredated over remaining useful life of the asset.
ii. Exchange differences arising on other long term foreign currency monetary items are accumulated in "the Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account" and amortized over the remaining life of the concerned monetary item.
iii. All other exchange differences are recognized as income or as expenses In the year in which they arise.
For the purpose of (i) and (ii) above, the Company treats a foreign monetary item as "long-term foreign currency monetary item", if it has a term of 12 months or more at the date of its origination. In accordance with MCA circular dated August 09, 2012, exchange differences for this purpose, are total differences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items for the period. In other words, the Company does not differentiate between exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost and other exchange difference.
(d) Forward exchange, contracts are entered into to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset/llablllty
The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts Is amortised and recognised as an expense / income ovei the life of the cunlracl Fxchange differences on such contracts, except the contracts which are long term foreign currcncy monetary items, are recognised In the statement of profit and loss In the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognised as Income or as expense for the period. Any gain/loss arising on forwards contracts which are long-term foreign currcncy monetary items Is recognised In accordance with paragraph (c)(i) and (c)(ii) above.
j. Income tax
Tax expense comprises current and deferred taxes. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantially enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to item:, recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not In the statement of profit and loss.
Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income originating during the current year and reversal of timing differences for earlier years. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred income tax relating to items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for deductible timing differences only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable Income will be available against which sudi deferred tax assets can be realised. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realised against future taxable profits.
In the situation where the Company is entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act,1961 no deferred tax (assets or liability) is recognized in respect of timing differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the Company's gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the timing differences originate. However, the Company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the timing differences which originate first are considered to reverse. At each reporting date, the Company re assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the rase may be that .sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax can be realized.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax assets can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.
Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities arc offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.
Minimum Alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of the profit and loss as current tax. The Company recognizes MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there Is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognises MAT credit as an asset In accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting tor Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternate Tax under the Income-tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement." The Company reviews the "MAT credit entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period-
K. Borrowing cost
Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary cost incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from short term foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition and construction of a fixed asset which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalised as a part of the cost of the asset, to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.
l. Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
For the purpose of calculating Basic EPS, shares allotted to the ESOP Trust pursuant to the* employee share based payment plan is not included in the shares outstanding till the employees have exercised their right to obtain shares, after fulfilling the requisite vesting conditions. Till such time, the shares so allotted are considered as dilutive potential equity shares for the purpose of calculating Diluted EPS.
m. Employee stock compensation costs
Employees (including senior executives) of the Company receive remuneration in the form of share based payment transactions, whereby employees render services as consideration for equity instruments (equity-settled transactions).
In accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Employee Share-based Payments, the cost of equity-settled transactions is measured using the intrinsic value method and recognized, together with a corresponding increase in the "Stock options outstanding account" in reserves. The cumulative expense recognized for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the Company's best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The expense or credit recognized in the statement of profit and loss a period represents the movement in cumulative expense rccognized as at the beginning and end of that period and is recognized in employee benefits expense.
Where the terms of an equity-set tied transaction award are modified, the minimum expense recognized is the expense as if the terms had not been modified, if the original terms of the award are met. An additional expense is recognized for any modification that increases the total Intrinsic value of the share-based payment transaction, or ts otherwise beneficial to the employee as measured at the date of modification.
n. Operating lease
Where the Company is a Lessee
Leases of assets under which all the risks and rewards of ownership are effectively retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease payments under operating leases arc recognised as an expense in the statement Of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
o. Segment reporting Identification of segments
The Company's operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products manufactured and services provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and services to different markets. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which the major operating divisions of the Company operate.
The Company generally accounts for inter segment sales and transfers at current market prices.
Allocation of common costs
Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.
Unallocated items indude general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.
Segment accounting policies
The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.
A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.
Where the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example under an insurance contract, the reimbursement Is recognised as a separate asset but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to any provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.
q. Contingent liabilities
A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the Financial Statements.
r. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand, s. Derivative instruments
s. Derivative instruments
In accordance with the ICAI announcement, derivative contracts, other than foreign currency forward contracts covored under AS 11, are marked to market on a portfolio basis, and the net loss, if any, after considering the offsetting effect of gain on the underlying hedged item, is charged to the statement of profit and loss. Net gain, if any, after considering the offsetting of loss on the underlying hedged item, is ignored.
t. Amalgamation accounting
The Company treats an amalgamation In the nature of mercer If It satisfies all the following criteria:
(i) All the assets and liabilities of the transferor company become, after amalgamation, the assets and liabilities of the transferee company.
(ii) Shareholders holding not less than 90% of the face value of the equity shares of the transferor company (other than the equity shares already held therein, immediately before the amalgamation, by the transferee company or its subsidiaries or their nominees) become equity shareholders of the transferee company.
(iii) The consideration for amalgamation receivable by those equity shareholders of the transferor company who agree to become shareholders of the transferee company is discharged by the transferee company wholly by the issue of equity shores, except that cash may be paid in respect of any fractional shares.
(iv) The business of the transferor company is intended to be carried on, after the amalgamation, by the transferee company.
(v) The transferee company does not intend to make any adjustment to the book values of the assets and liabilities of the transferor company, except to ensure uniformity of accounting policies.
All other amalgamations are in the nature of purchase.