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Accounting Policies of Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

A) Basis of preparation

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (''Indian GAAP'') to comply with the Accounting Standards specified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013. The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on accrual basis, except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair value.

Comparative figures do not include the figures of erstwhile WTI Advanced Technology Limited which is amalgamated with the Company effective April 1, 2014. Consequently, the comparative figures are not comparable with the figures for the year ended March 31, 2015.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires the management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to the contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expense during the year. Examples of such estimates include provisions for doubtful receivables, employee benefits, provision for income taxes, accounting for contract costs expected to be incurred, the useful lives of depreciable fixed assets and provision for impairment. Future results could differ due to changes in these estimates and the difference between the actual result and the estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known / materialise.

c) Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation / amortisation. Costs include all expenses incurred to bring the asset to its present location and condition.

Fixed assets exclude computers and other assets individually costing '' 50,000 or less which are not capitalised except when they are part of a larger capital investment programme.

d) Depreciation / amortisation

In respect of fixed assets (other than freehold land and capital work-in-progress) acquired during the year, depreciation / amortisation is charged on a straight line basis so as to write-off the cost of the assets over the useful lives and for the assets acquired prior to April 1,2014, the carrying amount as on April 1,2014 is depreciated over the remaining useful life based on an evaluation.

Fixed assets purchased for specific projects are depreciated over the period of the project or the useful life stated above, whichever is shorter.

e) Leases

Assets taken on lease by the Company in its capacity as lessee, where the Company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance lease. Such a lease is capitalised at the inception of the lease at lower of the fair value or the present value of the minimum lease payments and a liability is recognised for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each year.

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor, are recognised as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis.

f) Impairment

At each balance sheet date, the management reviews the carrying amounts of its assets included in each cash generating unit to determine whether there is any indication that those assets were impaired. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment. Recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows expected from the continuing use of the asset and from its disposal are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects the current market assessments of time value of money and the risks specific to the asset.

Reversal of impairment loss is recognised as income in the statement of profit and loss.

g) Investments

Long-term investments and current maturities of long-term investments are stated at cost, less provision for other than temporary diminution in value. Current investments, except for current maturities of long-term investments, comprising investments in mutual funds are stated at the lower of cost and fair value.

h) Employee benefits

(i) Post-employment benefit plans

Contributions to defined contribution retirement benefit schemes are recognised as expense when employees have rendered services entitling them to such benefits.

For defined benefit schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in full in the statement of profit and loss for the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, or amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested.

The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the scheme.

(ii) Other employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees is recognised during the period when the employee renders the service. These benefits include compensated absences such as paid annual leave, overseas social security contributions and performance incentives.

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services are recognised as an actuarially determined liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date.

i) Revenue recognition

Revenue from contracts priced on a time and material basis are recognised when services are rendered and related costs are incurred.

Revenue from turnkey contracts, which are generally time bound fixed price contracts, are recognised over the life of the contract using the proportionate completion method, with contract costs determining the degree of completion. Foreseeable losses on such contracts are recognised when probable.

Revenue from the sale of equipment are recognised upon delivery, which is when title passes to the customer.

Revenue from sale of software licences are recognised upon delivery.

Revenue from maintenance contracts are recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract.

In respect of Business Process Services, revenue on time and material and unit priced contracts is recognised as the related services are rendered, whereas revenue from fixed price contracts is recognised using the proportionate completion method with contract cost determining the degree of completion.

Revenue is reported net of discounts.

Dividend is recorded when the right to receive payment is established. Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

j) Taxation

Current income tax expense comprises taxes on income from operations in India and in foreign jurisdictions. Income tax payable in India is determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Tax expense relating to foreign operations is determined in accordance with tax laws applicable in countries where such operations are domiciled.

Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws in India, which gives rise to future economic benefits in the form of adjustment of future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax after the tax holiday period. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the balance sheet when the asset can be measured reliably and it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with it will fructify.

Deferred tax expense or benefit is recognised on timing differences being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originate in one period and is likely to reverse in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

In the event of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise such assets. In other situations, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise these assets.

Advance taxes and provisions for current income taxes are presented in the balance sheet after off-setting advance tax paid and income tax provision arising in the same tax jurisdiction for relevant tax paying units and where the Company is able to and intends to settle the asset and liability on a net basis.

The Company offsets deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if it has a legally enforceable right and these relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing taxation laws.

k) Foreign currency transactions

Income and expense in foreign currencies are converted at exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities other than net investments in non-integral foreign operations are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the balance sheet date and exchange gains and losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Exchange difference arising on a monetary item that, in substance, forms part of an enterprise''s net investments in a non-integral foreign operation are accumulated in a foreign currency translation reserve.

Premium or discount on foreign exchange forward, options and futures contracts are amortised and recognised in the statement of profit and loss over the period of the contract. Foreign exchange forward, options and future contracts outstanding at the balance sheet date, other than designated cash flow hedges, are stated at fair values and any gains or losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

l) Derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Company uses foreign exchange forward, options and future contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to certain firm commitments and forecasted transactions. The Company designates these hedging instruments as cash flow hedges.

The use of hedging instruments is governed by the Company''s policy approved by the Board of Directors, which provide written principles on the use of such financial derivatives consistent with the Company''s risk management strategy.

Hedging instruments are initially measured at fair value, and are remeasured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in shareholders'' funds and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss. The Company separates the intrinsic value and time value of an option and designates as hedging instruments only the fair value change in the intrinsic value of the option. The change in fair values of the time value of option, is accumulated in hedging reserve, a component of shareholders'' funds and is transferred to the statement of profit and loss when the forecast transaction occurs.

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they arise.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in shareholders'' funds is retained there and is transferred to the statement of profit and loss when the forecasted transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in shareholders'' funds is transferred to the statement of profit and loss.

m) Inventories

Raw materials, sub-assemblies and components are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis. Purchased goods-in-transit are carried at cost. Work-in-progress is carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Stores and spare parts are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value. Finished goods produced or purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct material and labour cost and a proportion of manufacturing overheads.

n) Provisions, Contingent liabilities and Contingent assets

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits and compensated absences) are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are not recognised in the financial statements. A contingent asset is neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

o) Cash and cash equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid financial instruments, which are readily convertible into known amount of cash that are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value and having original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase, to be cash equivalents.


Mar 31, 2013

A) Basis of preparation

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India under the historical cost convention on accrual basis, except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair value. These financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material aspects with the accounting standards notified under Section 211(3C) [Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, as amended] and the other relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires the management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to the contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expense during the year. Example of such estimates include provision for doubtful receivables, employee benefits, provision for income taxes, accounting for contract costs expected to be incurred, the useful lives of depreciable fixed assets and provision for impairment.

c) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation / amortisation. Costs include all expenses incurred to bring the asset to its present location and condition.

Fixed assets exclude computers and other assets individually costing Rs. 50,000 or less which are not capitalised except when they are part of a larger capital investment programme.

d) Depreciation / Amortisation

Depreciation / amortisation on fixed assets, other than freehold land and capital work-in-progress is charged so as to write-off the cost of assets, on the following basis:

Fixed assets purchased for specific projects are depreciated over the period of the project.

e) Leases

Assets taken on lease by the Company in its capacity as lessee, where the Company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance lease. Such a lease is capitalised at the inception of the lease at lower of the fair value or the present value of the minimum lease payments and a liability is recognised for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each year.

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor, are recognised as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis.

f) Impairment

At each balance sheet date, the management reviews the carrying amounts of its assets included in each cash generating unit to determine whether there is any indication that those assets were impaired. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment loss. Recoverable amount is the higher of an assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows expected from the continuing use of the asset and from its disposal are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects the current market assessments of time value of money and the risks specific to the asset.

Reversal of impairment loss is recognised immediately as income in the statement of profit and loss.

g) Investments

Long-term investments and current maturities of long-term investments are stated at cost, less provision for other than temporary diminution in value. Current investments, except for current maturities of long-term investments, comprising investments in mutual funds are stated at the lower of cost and fair value.

h) Employee benefits

(i) Post-employment benefit plans

Contributions to defined contribution retirement benefit schemes are recognised as an expense when employees have rendered services entitling them to such benefits.

For defined benefit schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in full in the statement of profit and loss for the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, or amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested.

The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the scheme.

(ii) Other employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees is recognised during the period when the employee renders the service. These benefits include compensated absences such as paid annual leave, overseas social security contributions and performance incentives.

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services are recognised as an actuarially determined liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date.

i) Revenue recognition

Revenues from contracts priced on a time and material basis are recognised when services are rendered and related costs are incurred.

Revenues from turnkey contracts, which are generally time bound fixed price contracts, are recognised over the life of the contract using the proportionate completion method, with contract costs determining the degree of completion. Foreseeable losses on such contracts are recognised when probable.

Revenues from the sale of equipment are recognised upon delivery, which is when title passes to the customer.

Revenues from sale of software licences are recognised upon delivery where there is no customisation required. In case of customisation the same is recognised over the life of the contract using the proportionate completion method.

Revenues from maintenance contracts are recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract.

In respect of Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) services, revenue on time and material and unit priced contracts is recognised as the related services are rendered, whereas revenue from fixed price contracts is recognised as per the proportionate completion method with contract cost determining the degree of completion.

Revenues are reported net of discounts.

Dividends are recorded when the right to receive payment is established. Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

j) Taxation

Current income tax expense comprises taxes on income from operations in India and in foreign jurisdictions. Income tax payable in India is determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Tax expense relating to foreign operations is determined in accordance with tax laws applicable in countries where such operations are domiciled.

Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws in India, which gives rise to future economic benefits in the form of adjustment of future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax after the tax holiday period. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the balance sheet when the asset can be measured reliably and it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with the asset will fructify.

Deferred tax expense or benefit is recognised on timing differences being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originate in one period and is likely to reverse in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

In the event of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise such assets. In other situations, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise these assets.

Advance taxes and provisions for current income taxes are presented in the balance sheet after off-setting advance taxes paid and income tax provisions arising in the same tax jurisdiction for relevant tax paying units and where the Company is able to and intends to settle the asset and liability on a net basis.

The Company offsets deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if it has a legally enforceable right and these relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing taxation laws.

k) Foreign currency transactions

Income and expenses in foreign currencies are converted at exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities other than net investments in non-integral foreign operations are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the balance sheet date and exchange gains and losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Exchange difference arising on a monetary item that, in substance, forms part of an enterprises net investments in a non-integral foreign operation are accumulated in a foreign currency translation reserve.

Premium or discount on foreign exchange forward and currency option contracts are amortised and recognised in the statement of profit and loss over the period of the contract. Foreign exchange forward and currency option contracts outstanding at the balance sheet date, other than designated cash flow hedges, are stated at fair values and any gains or losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

l) Derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Company uses foreign exchange forward and currency option contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to certain firm commitments and forecasted transactions. The Company designates these hedging instruments as cash flow hedges.

The use of hedging instruments is governed by the Companys policies approved by the Board of Directors, which provide written principles on the use of such financial derivatives consistent with the Companys risk management strategy.

Hedging instruments are initially measured at fair value, and are remeasured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in shareholders funds and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they arise.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time for forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in shareholders funds is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in shareholders funds is transferred to the statement of profit and loss for the period.

m) Inventories

Raw materials, sub-assemblies and components are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis. Purchased goods-in-transit are carried at cost. Work-in-progress is carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Stores and spare parts are carried at cost, less provision for obsolescence. Finished goods produced or purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct material and labour cost and a proportion of manufacturing overheads.

n) Provisions, Contingent liabilities and Contingent assets

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are not recognised in the financial statements. A contingent asset is neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

o) Cash and cash equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid financial instruments, which are readily convertible into known amount of cash that are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value and having original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase, to be cash equivalents.


Mar 31, 2012

A) Basis of preparation

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India under the historical cost convention on accrual basis, except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair value. These financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material aspects with the accounting standards notified under Section 211 (3C) [Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, as amended] and the other relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires the management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to the contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the year. Example of such estimates include provision for doubtful debts, employee benefits, provision for income taxes, accounting for contract costs expected to be incurred, the useful lives of depreciable fixed assets and provisions for impairment.

c) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation / amortisation. Costs include all expenses incurred to bring the asset to its present location and condition.

Fixed assets exclude computers and other assets individually costing Rs 50,000 or less which are not capitalised except when they are part of a larger capital investment programme.

d) Depreciation / Amortisation

Depreciation / amortisation on fixed assets, other than freehold land and capital work-in-progress is charged so as to write-off the cost of assets, on the following basis:

e) Leases

Assets leased by the Company in its capacity as lessee, where the Company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance lease. Such a lease is capitalised at the inception of the lease at lower of the fair value or the present value of the minimum lease payments and a liability is recognised for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each year.

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor, are recognised as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis.

f) Impairment

At each balance sheet date, the management reviews the carrying amounts of its assets included in each cash generating unit to determine whether there is any indication that those assets were impaired. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment loss. Recoverable amount is the higher of an assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows expected from the continuing use of the asset and from its disposal are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects the current market assessments of time value of money and the risks specific to the asset.

Reversal of impairment loss is recognised immediately as income in the statement of profit and loss.

g) Investments

Long-term investments are stated at cost, less provision for other than temporary diminution in value. Current investments, except for current maturities of long term investments, comprising investment in mutual funds are stated at the lower of cost and fair value.

h) Employee benefits

(i) Post-employment benefit plans

Contributions to defined contribution retirement benefit schemes are recognised as an expense when employees have rendered services entitling them to contributions.

For defined benefit schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in full in the statement of profit and loss for the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested.

The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the scheme.

(ii) Other employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees is recognised during the period when the employee renders the service. These benefits include compensated absences such as paid annual leave, overseas social security contributions and performance incentives.

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services are recognised as an actuarially determined liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date.

i) Revenue recognition

Revenues from contracts priced on a time and material basis are recognised when services are rendered and related costs are incurred.

Revenues from turnkey contracts, which are generally time bound fixed price contracts, are recognised over the life of the contract using the proportionate completion method, with contract costs determining the degree of completion. Foreseeable losses on such contracts are recognised when probable.

Revenues from the sale of equipment are recognised upon delivery, which is when title passes to the customer.

Revenues from sale of software licences are recognised upon delivery where there is no customisation required. In case of customisation the same is recognised over the life of the contract using the proportionate completion method.

Revenues from maintenance contracts are recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract.

Revenues from Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) services are recognised on time and material, fixed price and unit priced contracts. Revenue on time and material and unit priced contracts is recognised as the related services are rendered. Revenue from fixed price contracts is recognised as per the proportionate completion method with contract cost determining the degree of completion.

Revenues are reported net of discounts.

Dividends are recorded when the right to receive payment is established. Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

j) Taxation

Current income tax expense comprises taxes on income from operations in India and in foreign jurisdictions. Income tax payable in India is determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Tax expense relating to foreign operations is determined in accordance with tax laws applicable in countries where such operations are domiciled.

Minimum alternative tax (MAT) paid in accordance to the tax laws, which gives rise to future economic benefits in the form of adjustment of future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax after the tax holiday period. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the balance sheet when it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company and the asset can be measured reliably.

Deferred tax expense or benefit is recognised on timing differences being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

In the event of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise such assets. In other situations, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise these assets.

Advance taxes and provisions for current income taxes are presented in the balance sheet after off-setting advance taxes paid and income tax provisions arising in the same tax jurisdiction and where the Company intends to settle the asset and liability on a net basis.

The Company offsets deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if it has a legally enforceable right and these relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing taxation laws.

k) Foreign currency transactions

Income and expenses in foreign currencies are converted at exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities other than net investments in non-integral foreign operations are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the balance sheet date and exchange gain and loss are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Exchange difference arising on a monetary item that, in substance, forms part of an enterprises net investments in a non-integral foreign operation are accumulated in a foreign currency translation reserve.

Premium or discount on foreign exchange forward and currency option contracts are amortised and recognised in the statement of profit and loss over the period of the contract. Foreign exchange forward and currency option contracts outstanding at the balance sheet date, other than designated cash flow hedges, are stated at fair values and any gains or losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

l) Derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Company uses foreign exchange forward and currency option contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to certain firm commitments and forecasted transactions. The Company designates these hedging instruments as cash flow hedges.

The use of hedging instruments is governed by the Companys policies approved by the Board of Directors, which provide written principles on the use of such financial derivatives consistent with the Companys risk management strategy.

Hedging instruments are initially measured at fair value, and are remeasured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in shareholders funds and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as they arise.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time for forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in shareholders funds is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in shareholders funds is transferred to the statement of profit and loss for the period.

m) Inventories

Raw materials, sub-assemblies and components are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis. Purchased goods-in-transit are carried at cost. Work-in-progress is carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Stores and spare parts are carried at cost, less provision for obsolescence. Finished goods produced or purchased by the Company are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct material and labour cost and a proportion of manufacturing overheads.

n) Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are not recognised in the financial statements. A contingent asset is neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

o) Cash and cash equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid financial instruments, which are readily convertible into cash and have original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase, to be cash equivalents.


Mar 31, 2011

A) Basis of Preparation

The consolidated financial statements of Tata Consultancy Services Limited, its subsidiaries and associates ("the Group") are prepared under the historical cost convention and in accordance with the requirements of the Companies Act, 1956.

b) Principles of consolidation

The financial statements of the subsidiary companies used in the consolidation are drawn up to the same reporting date as of the Company.

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the following basis:

i) The financial statements of the Company and its subsidiary companies have been combined on a line-by-line basis by adding together like items of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Inter-company balances and transactions and unrealised profits or losses have been fully eliminated.

ii) Interest in a jointly controlled entity is reported using proportionate consolidation.

iii) The consolidated financial statements include the share of profit / loss of associate companies, which are accounted under the Equity method as per which the share of profit of the associate company has been added to the cost of investment. An associate is an enterprise in which the investor has significant influence and which is neither a subsidiary nor a joint venture.

iv) The excess of cost to the Group of its investments in subsidiary companies over its share of the equity of the subsidiary companies at the dates on which the investments in the subsidiary companies are made, is recognised as Goodwill being an asset in the consolidated financial statements. Alternatively, where the share of equity in the subsidiary companies as on the date of investment is in excess of cost of investment of the Group, it is recognised as Capital Reserve and shown under the head Reserves and Surplus, in the consolidated financial statements.

v) Minority interest in the net assets of consolidated subsidiaries consists of the amount of equity attributable to the minority shareholders at the dates on which investments are made by the Group in the subsidiary companies and further movements in their share in the equity, subsequent to the dates of investments.

vi) On disposal of a subsidiary or a jointly controlled entity, the attributable amount of goodwill is included in the determination of the profit or loss on disposal.

c) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires the management of the Group to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to the contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the year. Example of such estimates include provision for doubtful debts, employee benefits, provision for income taxes, accounting for contract costs expected to be incurred to complete software development, the useful lives of depreciable fixed assets and provisions for impairment.

d) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation / amortisation. Costs include all expenses incurred to bring the assets to its present location and condition.

Fixed assets exclude computers and other assets individually costing Rs. 50,000 or less which are not capitalised except when they are part of a larger capital investment programme.

f) Leases

Where the Group, as a lessor, leases assets under finance leases such amounts are recognised as receivables at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease and the finance income is based on a constant rate of return on the outstanding net investment.

Assets leased by the Group in its capacity as lessee, where the Group has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance lease. Such leases are capitalised at the inception of the lease at lower of the fair value or the present value of the minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each year.

Lease arrangements where, the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vests with the lessor, are recognised as operating lease. Lease rentals under operating lease are recognised in the profit and loss account on a straight-line basis.

g) Impairment

At each balance sheet date, the management reviews the carrying amounts of its assets included in each cash generating unit to determine whether there is any indication that those assets were impaired. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the assets is estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment loss. Recoverable amount is the higher of an assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows expected from the continuing use of the asset and from its disposal are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects the current market assessments of time value of money and risks specific to the asset.

Reversal of impairment loss is recognised immediately as income in the profit and loss account.

For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each of the Groups cash-generating units expected to benefit from the synergies of the acquisition. Cash-generating units to which goodwill has been allocated are tested for impairment annually, or more frequently when there is an indication that the unit may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit is less than the carrying amount of the unit, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to the other assets of the unit pro-rata on the basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the unit. Reversal of impairment loss on goodwill because of a change in estimates is not permitted.

h) Investments

Long-term investments are stated at cost, less provision for other than temporary diminution in value. Current investments comprising investments in mutual funds are stated at the lower of cost and fair value, determined on a portfolio basis.

i) Employee benefits (Refer note 5)

i) Post-employment benefit plans

Contributions to defined contribution retirement benefit schemes are recognised as an expense when employees have rendered services entitling them to contributions.

For defined benefit schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in full in the profit and loss account for the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested.

The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the scheme.

ii) Short-term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees is recognised during the period when the employee renders the service. These benefits include compensated absences such as paid annual leave, overseas social security contributions and performance incentives.

iii) Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services are recognised as an actuarially determined liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date.

j) Revenue recognition

Revenues from contracts priced on a time and material basis are recognised when services are rendered and related costs are incurred.

Revenues from turnkey contracts, which are generally time bound fixed price contracts, are recognised over the life of the contract using the proportionate completion method, with contract costs determining the degree of completion. Foreseeable losses on such contracts are recognised when probable.

Revenues from the sale of equipment are recognised upon delivery, which is when title passes to the customer.

Revenues from sale of software licenses are recognised upon delivery where there is no customisation required. In case of customisation the same is recognised over the life of the contract using the proportionate completion method.

Revenues from maintenance contracts are recognised pro-rata over the period of the contract.

Revenues from Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) services are recognised on time and material, fixed price and unit priced contracts. Revenue on time and material and unit priced contracts is recognised as the related services are rendered. Revenue from fixed price contracts is recognised as per the proportionate completion method with contract cost determining the degree of completion.

Dividends are recorded when the right to receive payment is established. Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

k) Research and Development

Expenditure on research and development activities is recognised as an expense in the period in which it is incurred. Development costs of marketable computer software are capitalised when a products technological feasibility has been established until the time the product is available for general release to customers. In most instances, the Groups products are released soon after technological feasibility has been established. Therefore, costs incurred subsequent to achievement of technological feasibility are usually not significant, and generally most software development costs have been expensed.

Fixed assets utilised for research and development are capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the depreciation rates set out in paragraph 1(e).

l) Taxation

Current income tax expense comprises taxes on income from operations in India and in foreign jurisdictions. Income tax payable in India is determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Tax expense relating to overseas operations is determined in accordance with tax laws applicable in countries where such operations are domiciled.

Minimum alternative tax (MAT) paid in accordance to the tax laws, which gives rise to future economic benefits in the form of adjustment of future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Group will pay normal income tax after the tax holiday period. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the balance sheet when it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Group and the asset can be measured reliably.

Deferred tax expense or benefit is recognised on timing differences being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

In the event of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise such assets. In other situations, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise these assets.

Advance taxes and provisions for current income taxes are presented in the balance sheet after off-setting advance tax paid and income tax provision arising in the same tax jurisdiction and the Group intends to settle the asset and liability on a net basis.

The Group offsets deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if it has a legally enforceable right and these relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing taxation laws.

m) Foreign currency transactions

Income and expense in foreign currencies are converted at exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities other than net investments in non-integral foreign operations are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the balance sheet date. Exchange difference arising on a monetary item that, in substance, forms part of an enterprises net investments in a non-integral foreign operation are accumulated in a foreign currency translation reserve.

Premium or discount on forward exchange contracts and currency option contracts are amortised and recognised in the profit and loss account over the period of the contract. Forward exchange contracts and currency option contracts outstanding at the balance sheet date, other than designated cash flow hedges, are stated at fair values and any gains or losses are recognised in the profit and loss account.

For the purpose of consolidation, income and expenses are translated at average rates and the assets and liabilities are stated at closing rate. The net impact of such change is accumulated under foreign currency translation reserve.

n) Derivative instruments and hedge accounting

The Group uses foreign currency forward contracts and currency options to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to certain firm commitments and forecasted transactions. The Group designates these hedging instruments as cash flow hedges applying the recognition and measurement principles set out in the Indian Accounting Standard 39 "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement" (Ind AS 39).

The use of hedging instruments is governed by the policies of the Company and its subsidiaries which are approved by its respective Board of Directors, which provide written principles on the use of such financial derivatives consistent with the risk management strategy of the Company and its subsidiaries.

Hedging instruments are initially measured at fair value, and are remeasured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in shareholders funds and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the profit and loss account.

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in profit and loss account as they arise.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time for forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in shareholders funds is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in shareholders funds is transferred to the profit and loss account for the period.

o) Inventories

Raw materials, sub-assemblies and components are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis. Purchased goods in transit are carried at cost. Work-in-progress is carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Stores and spare parts are carried at cost, less provision for obsolescence. Finished goods produced or purchased by the Group are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct material and labour cost and a proportion of manufacturing overheads.

p) Government Grants

Government grants are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the Group will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants will be received.

Government grants whose primary condition is that the Group should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire capital assets are presented by deducting them from the carrying value of the assets. The grant is recognised as income over the life of a depreciable asset by way of a reduced depreciation charge.

Other government grants are recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them with the costs for which they are intended to compensate, on a systematic basis.

q) Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

A provision is recognised when the Group has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are not recognised in the financial statements. A contingent asset is neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

r) Cash and cash equivalents

The Group considers all highly liquid financial instruments, which are readily convertible into cash and have original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase, to be cash equivalents.

3) Acquisitions / Divestments

a) On June 30, 2010, Syscrom S.A. Chile has merged with Tata Consultancy Services BPO Chile S.A. The merged entity is a wholly owned subsidiary of TCS Inversiones Chile Limitada.

b) On June 30, 2010, Custodia De Documentos Interes Limitada has merged with Tata Consultancy Services BPO Chile S.A. The merged entity is a wholly owned subsidiary of TCS Inversiones Chile Limitada.

c) On July 31, 2010, Tata Consultancy Services Chile S.A. has merged with Tata Consultancy Services BPO Chile S.A. The merged entity is a wholly owned subsidiary of TCS Inversiones Chile Limitada.

d) On August 31, 2010, the Company, through its subsidiary, acquired 100% equity interest in Diligenta 2 Limited (formerly Unisys Insurance Services Limited).

e) National Power Exchange Limited ceased to be an associate of the Company w.e.f. September 4, 2010.

f) On September 23, 2010, the Company subscribed to 74% of the equity share capital of MahaOnline Limited.

g) On October 4, 2010, the Company, through its subsidiary, acquired 100% equity share capital of MS CJV Investments Corporation. Consequently, the group holding in Tata Consultancy Services (China) Co., Ltd. has increased from 65.94% to 74.63%.

h) On October 8, 2010, the Company has acquired 100% equity share capital of Retail FullServe Limited (formerly SUPERVALU Services India Private Limited).

i) On October 15, 2010, Financial Network Services (H.K.) Limited (subsidiary of TCS Financial Solutions Australia Holdings Pty Limited) has been voluntarily liquidated.

j) On December 1, 2010, Exegenix Research Inc. and ERI Holding Corp. have merged with Tata Consultancy Services Canada Inc. The merged entity is a wholly owned subsidiary of Tata Consultancy Services Limited.

k) On January 27, 2011, the Company, through its subsidiary, subscribed to 100% share capital of CMC eBiz, Inc.

 
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