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Accounting Policies of Tata Elxsi Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards specified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the 2013 Act") / Companies Act, 1956 ("the 1956 Act"), as applicable. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year.

2.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known/materialise.

2.3 Inventories

Components and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is determined on the basis of specific identification method.

Computer systems and software, components and spares intended for customer support are written off over the effective life of the systems maintained, as estimated by the management.

2.4 Cash and cash equivalents (for purposes of Cash Flow Statement)

Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

2.5 Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit/(loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

2.6 Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its estimated residual value.

Depreciation on tangible fixed assets has been provided on the straight-line method as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following categories of assets, in whose case the life of the assets has been assessed as under based on technical advice, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc.:

Air Conditioners - 6 years Plant and Machinery - 6 years Furniture and Fixtures - 6 years Electrical Equipments - 6 years

Leasehold land is amortised over the duration of the lease

Assets costing less than Rs. 5,000 each are fully depreciated in the year of capitalisation Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life as follows:

In-house Technical Know-How - 3 years.

The estimated useful life of the intangible assets and the amortisation period are reviewed at the end of each financial year and the amortisation period is revised to reflect the changed pattern, if any.

2.7 Revenue recognition Sale of goods

Income from sales of goods is recognised upon passage of risks and rewards of ownership to the goods, which generally coincide with the despatch. Sales exclude taxes and levies.

Income from services

a) Income from services is recognised upon rendering of the services. Income from maintenance contracts relating to the year is recognised when the contracts are entered into on a time proportionate basis. The income excludes taxes and levies.

b) Revenue from software development on fixed price, fixed time frame contracts is recognised as per the proportionate completion method. On time and materials contracts, revenue is recognised as the related services are rendered.

c) In respect of orders procured, for which sales are effected directly to the customers by the vendors, the Company accounts only for the commission, installation and other charges to which it is entitled.

2.8 Other income

Interest income is accounted on accrual basis. Dividend income is accounted for when the right to receive it is established.

2.9 Fixed Assets (Tangible/Intangible)

Fixed assets, are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of fixed assets comprises its purchase price net of any trade discounts and rebates, any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the tax authorities), any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use, other incidental expenses and interest on borrowings attributable to acquisition of qualifying fixed assets up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use. Subsequent expenditure on fixed assets after its purchase/completion is capitalised only if such expenditure results in an increase in the future benefits from such asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Capital work-in-progress:

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use and other capital work-in-progress are carried at cost, comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable interest.

Intangible assets under development:

Expenditure on Research and development (Refer Note 2.17) eligible for capitalisation are carried as Intangible assets under development where such assets are not yet ready for their intended use.

2.10 Foreign currency transactions and translations Initial recognition

(i) Company: Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company and its integral foreign operations are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Integral foreign operations: Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company''s integral foreign operations are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

(iii) Non-integral foreign operations: Transactions of non-integral foreign operations are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

Measurement of foreign currency monetary items at the Balance Sheet date

(i) Company: Foreign currency monetary items (other than derivative contracts) of the Company, outstanding at the balance sheet date are restated at the year-end rates. Non-monetary items of the Company are carried at historical cost.

(ii) Integral foreign operations: Foreign currency monetary items (other than derivative contracts) of the Company''s integral foreign operations outstanding at the balance sheet date are restated at the year-end rates. Non-monetary items of the Company''s integral foreign operations are carried at historical cost.

(iii) Non-integral foreign operations: All assets and liabilities of non-integral foreign operations are translated at the year-end rates.

Treatment of exchange differences

(i) Company: Exchange differences arising on settlement/restatement of foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company are recognised as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(ii) Integral foreign operations: Exchange differences arising on settlement/restatement of foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company''s integral foreign operations are recognised as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(iii) Non-integral foreign operations: The exchange differences on translation of balances relating to non-integral foreign operations are accumulated in a "Foreign currency translation reserve" until disposal of the operation, in which case the accumulated balance in "Foreign currency translation reserve" is recognised as income/expense in the same period in which the gain or loss on disposal is recognised.

Accounting of forward contracts

Premium/discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amortised over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the Balance Sheet date. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such a forward exchange contract is recognised as income or as expense in the period in which such cancellation or renewal is made.

Refer Note 2.21 for accounting for forward exchange contracts relating to firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions.

2.11 Investments

Long-term investments are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such investments. Current investments are carried individually, at the lower of cost and fair value. Cost of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

2.12 Employee benefits

Employee benefits include contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund, gratuity fund, compensated absences and employee state insurance scheme.

Defined contribution plans

The Company''s contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund and employee state insurance scheme are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense based on the amount of contribution required to be made and when services are rendered by employees.

Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.

Short-term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service. The cost of such compensated absences is accounted as under:

(a) in case of accumulated compensated absences, when employees render the services that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and

(b) in case of non-accumulating compensated absences, when the absences occur.

Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date less the fair value of the plan assets out of which the obligations are expected to be settled

2.13 Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organisation and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment.

Inter-segment revenue is accounted on the basis of transactions which are primarily determined based on market/ fair value factors.

Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis have been included under "unallocated revenue/ expenses/ assets/ liabilities".

2.14 Leases

Assets leased by the Company in its capacity as lessee where substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership vest in the Company are classified as finance leases. Such leases are capitalised at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each year.

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor are recognised as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

2.15 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit(loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented. The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for share splits/reverse share splits and bonus shares, as appropriate.

2.16 Taxes on income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the applicable tax rates and the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and other applicable tax laws.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of items other than unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward losses only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. However, if there are unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses and items relating to capital losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise the assets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date for their realisability.

Current and deferred tax relating to items directly recognised in equity are recognised in equity and not in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

2.17 Research and development expenses

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a product''s technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised. The amount capitalised comprises expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Fixed assets utilised for research and development are capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Tangible Fixed Assets and Intangible Assets.

2.18 Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets/cash generating units at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment if any indication of impairment exists. The following intangible assets are tested for impairment each financial year even if there is no indication that the asset is impaired:

(a) an intangible asset that is not yet available for use; and (b) an intangible asset that is amortised over a period exceeding ten years from the date when the asset is available for use.

If the carrying amount of the assets exceed the estimated recoverable amount, an impairment is recognised for such excess amount. The impairment loss is recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount, in which case any impairment loss of the revalued asset is treated as a revaluation decrease to the extent a revaluation reserve is available for that asset.

The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor.

When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset (other than a revalued asset) in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, to the extent the amount was previously charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. In case of revalued assets such reversal is not recognised.

2.19 Provisions and contingencies

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes.

2.20 Provision for warranty

As per the terms of the contracts, the Company provides post-contract services/warranty support to some of its customers. The Company accounts for the post-contract support/provision for warranty on the basis of the information available with the Management duly taking into account the current and past technical estimates.

2.21 Derivative contracts

The Company enters into derivative contracts in the nature of foreign currency options, forward contracts with an intention to hedge its existing assets and liabilities, firm commitments and highly probable transactions. Derivative contracts which are closely linked to the existing assets and liabilities are accounted as per the policy stated for Foreign Currency Transactions and Translations.

All other derivative contracts are marked-to-market and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognised, until realised, on grounds of prudence.

2.22 Insurance claims/Claims with ECGC

Insurance claims and claims with ECGC are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted/expected to be admitted and to the extent that there is no uncertainty in receiving the claims.

2.23 Service tax input credit

Service tax input credit is accounted for in the books in the period in which the underlying service received is accounted and when there is no uncertainty in availing / utilising the credits.


Mar 31, 2014

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 ("the 1956 Act") (which continue to be applicable in respect of Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the 2013 Act") in terms of General Circular 15/2013 dated 13th September, 2013 of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs) and the relevant provisions of the 1956 Act/ 2013 Act, as applicable. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known/materialise.

1.3 Inventories

Components and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined on the basis of specific identification method.

Computer systems and software, components and spares intended for customer support are written off over the effective life of the systems maintained, as estimated by the management.

1.4 Cash and cash equivalents (for purposes of Cash Flow Statement)

Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to in Significant risk of changes in value.

1.5 Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby Profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

1.6 Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciation has been provided on the straight-line method as per the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 except in respect of the following categories of assets, in whose case the life of the assets has been assessed as under:

Leasehold land is amortised over the duration of the lease

Assets costing less than Rs. 5,000 each are fully depreciated in the year of capitalisation Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life as follows:

In-house Technical Know-How – 3 years.

The estimated useful life of the intangible assets and the amortisation period are reviewed at the end of each financial year and the amortisation method is revised to refect the changed pattern.

1.7 Revenue recognition

Sale of goods

Income from sales of goods is recognised upon passage of risks and rewards of ownership to the goods, which generally coincide with the despatch. Sales exclude taxes and levies.

Income from services

a) Income from services is recognized upon rendering of the services. Income from maintenance contracts relating to the year is recognized when the contracts are entered into on a time proportionate basis. The income excludes taxes and levies.

b) Revenue from software development on fixed price, fixed time frame contracts is recognised as per the proportionate completion method. On time and materials contracts, revenue is recognised as the related services are rendered.

c) In respect of orders procured, for which sales are effected directly to the customers by the vendors, the Company accounts only for the commission, installation and other charges to which it is entitled.

1.8 Other income

Interest income is accounted on accrual basis. Dividend income is accounted for when the right to receive it is established.

1.9 Fixed Assets (Tangible/Intangible)

Fixed assets, are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of fixed assets comprises its purchase price net of any trade discounts and rebates, any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the tax authorities), any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use, other incidental expenses and interest on borrowings attributable to acquisition of qualifying fixed assets up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use. Subsequent expenditure on fixed assets after its purchase/completion is capitalised only if such expenditure results in an increase in the future Benefits from such asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Capital work-in-progress:

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use and other capital work-in-progress are carried at cost, comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable interest.

Intangible assets under development:

Expenditure on Research and development (Refer Note 2.17) eligible for capitalisation are carried as Intangible assets under development where such assets are not yet ready for their intended use.

1.10 Foreign currency transactions and translations

Initial recognition

(i) Company: Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company and its integral foreign operations are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Integral foreign operations: Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company''s integral foreign operations are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

(iii) Non-integral foreign operations: Transactions of non-integral foreign operations are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

Measurement of foreign currency monetary items at the Balance Sheet date

(i) Company: Foreign currency monetary items (other than derivative contracts) of the Company, outstanding at the balance sheet date are restated at the year-end rates. Non-monetary items of the Company are carried at historical cost.

(ii) Integral foreign operations: Foreign currency monetary items (other than derivative contracts) of the Company''s integral foreign operations outstanding at the balance sheet date are restated at the year-end rates. Non-monetary items of the Company''s integral foreign operations are carried at historical cost.

(iii) Non-integral foreign operations: All assets and liabilities of non-integral foreign operations are translated at the year-end rates.

Treatment of exchange differences

(i) Company: Exchange differences arising on settlement/restatement of foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company are recognised as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(ii) Integral foreign operations: Exchange differences arising on settlement/restatement of foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company''s integral foreign operations are recognised as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(iii) Non-integral foreign operations: The exchange differences on translation of balances relating to non-integral foreign operations are accumulated in a "Foreign currency translation reserve" until disposal of the operation, in which case the accumulated balance in "Foreign currency translation reserve" is recognised as income / expense in the same period in which the gain or loss on disposal is recognised.

Accounting of forward contracts

Premium/discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amortised over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the Balance Sheet date. Refer Note 2.21 for accounting for forward exchange contracts relating to firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions.

1.11 Investments

Long-term investments are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such investments. Current investments are carried individually, at the lower of cost and fair value. Cost of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

1.12 Employee Benefits

Employee Benefits include contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund, gratuity fund, compensated absences and employee state insurance scheme.

Defined contribution plans

The Company''s contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund and employee state insurance scheme are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense based on the amount of contribution required to be made and when services are rendered by employees.

Defined benefit plans

For Defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund, the cost of providing Benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the Benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the Benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the Defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.

Short-term employee Benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee Benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service. These Benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service. The cost of such compensated absences is accounted as under:

(a) in case of accumulated compensated absences, when employees render the services that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and

(b) in case of non-accumulating compensated absences, when the absences occur.

Long-term employee Benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised as a liability at the present value of the Defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date less the fair value of the plan assets out of which the obligations are expected to be settled

1.13 Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organisation and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating Profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment.

Inter-segment revenue is accounted on the basis of transactions which are primarily determined based on market/ fair value factors.

Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis have been included under "unallocated revenue/ expenses/ assets/ liabilities".

1.14 Leases

Assets leased by the Company in its capacity as lessee where substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership vest in the Company are classified as finance leases. Such leases are capitalised at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each year.

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor are recognised as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis.

1.15 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the Profit/(loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the Profit/(loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net Profit per share from continuing ordinary operations. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented. The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for share splits / reverse share splits and bonus shares, as appropriate.

1.16 Taxes on income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and applicable Foreign tax laws.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic Benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses are recognised only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise such assets. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of other items only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date for their reliability.

Current and deferred tax relating to items directly recognised in equity are recognised in equity and not in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.17 Research and development expenses

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a product''s technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised. The amount capitalised comprises expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Fixed assets utilised for research and development are capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Tangible Fixed Assets and Intangible Assets.

1.18 Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets/cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognised, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of re-valued assets.

1.19 Provisions and contingencies

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement Benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to refect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes.

1.20 Provision for warranty

As per the terms of the contracts, the Company provides post-contract services/warranty support to some of its customers. The Company accounts for the post-contract support/provision for warranty on the basis of the information available with the Management duly taking into account the current and past technical estimates.

1.21 Derivative contracts

The Company enters into derivative contracts in the nature of foreign currency options, forward contracts with an intention to hedge its existing assets and liabilities, firm commitments and highly probable transactions. Derivative contracts which are closely linked to the existing assets and liabilities are accounted as per the policy stated for Foreign Currency Transactions and Translations.

All other derivative contracts are marked-to-market and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognised, until realised, on grounds of prudence.

1.22 Insurance claims/Claims with ECGC

Insurance claims and claims with ECGC are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted/expected to be admitted and to the extent that there is no uncertainty in receiving the claims.

1.23 Service tax input credit

Service tax input credit is accounted for in the books in the period in which the underlying service received is accounted and when there is no uncertainty in availing/utilising the credits.

1.24 Operating Cycle

Based on the nature of products/activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.


Mar 31, 2013

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year.

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known / materialise.

1.3 Inventories

Components and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined on the basis of specific identification method.

Computer systems and software, components and spares intended for customer support are written off over the effective life of the systems maintained, as estimated by the management.

1.4 Cash and cash equivalents (for purposes of Cash Flow Statement)

Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

1.5 Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

1.6 Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciation has been provided on the straight-line method as per the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 except in respect of the following categories of assets, in whose case the life of the assets has been assessed as under:

Leasehold land is amortised over the duration of the lease

Assets costing less than Rs. 5,000 each are fully depreciated in the year of capitalisation

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life as follows:

In-house Technical Know-How - 3 years.

The estimated useful life of the intangible assets and the amortisation period are reviewed at the end of each financial year and the amortisation method is revised to reflect the changed pattern.

1.7 Revenue recognition

Sale of goods

Income from sales of goods is recognised upon passage of risks and rewards of ownership to the goods, which generally coincide with the despatch. Sales exclude taxes and levies.

Income from services

a) Income from services is recognized upon rendering of the services. Income from maintenance contracts relating to the year is recognized when the contracts are entered into on a time proportionate basis. The income excludes taxes and levies.

b) Revenue from software development on fixed price, fixed time frame contracts is recognised as per the proportionate completion method. On time and materials contracts, revenue is recognised as the related services are rendered.

c) In respect of orders procured, for which sales are effected directly to the customers by the vendors, the Company accounts only for the commission, installation and other charges to which it is entitled.

1.8 Other income

Interest income is accounted on accrual basis. Dividend income is accounted for when the right to receive it is established.

1.9 Fixed Assets (Tangible / Intangible)

Fixed assets, are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation / amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of fixed assets comprises its purchase price net of any trade discounts and rebates, any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the tax authorities), any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use, other incidental expenses and interest on borrowings attributable to acquisition of qualifying fixed assets up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use. Subsequent expenditure on fixed assets after its purchase / completion is capitalised only if such expenditure results in an increase in the future benefits from such asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Capital work-in-progress:

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use and other capital work-in-progress are carried at cost, comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable interest.

Intangible assets under development:

Expenditure on Research and development (Refer Note 2.17) eligible for capitalisation are carried as Intangible assets under development where such assets are not yet ready for their intended use.

1.10 Foreign currency transactions and translations

Initial recognition

(i) Company: Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company and its integral foreign operations are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

(ii) Integral foreign operations: Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company''s integral foreign operations are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

(iii) Non-integral foreign operations: Transactions of non-integral foreign operations are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

Measurement of foreign currency monetary items at the Balance Sheet date

(i) Company: Foreign currency monetary items (other than derivative contracts) of the Company, outstanding at the balance sheet date are restated at the year-end rates. Non-monetary items of the Company are carried at historical cost.

(ii) Integral foreign operations: Foreign currency monetary items (other than derivative contracts) of the Company''s integral foreign operations outstanding at the balance sheet date are restated at the year- end rates. Non-monetary items of the Company''s integral foreign operations are carried at historical cost.

(iii) Non-integral foreign operations: All assets and liabilities of non-integral foreign operations are translated at the year-end rates.

Treatment of exchange differences

(i) Company: Exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement of foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company are recognised as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(ii) Integral foreign operations: Exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement of foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company''s integral foreign operations are recognised as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(iii) Non-integral foreign operations: The exchange differences on translation of balances relating to non- integral foreign operations are accumulated in a "Foreign currency translation reserve" until disposal of the operation, in which case the accumulated balance in "Foreign currency translation reserve" is recognised as income / expense in the same period in which the gain or loss on disposal is recognised.

Accounting of forward contracts

Premium / discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amortised over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the Balance Sheet date. Refer Note 2.21 for accounting for forward exchange contracts relating to firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions.

1.11 Investments

Long-term investments are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such investments. Current investments are carried individually, at the lower of cost and fair value. Cost of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

1.12 Employee benefits

Employee benefits include contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund, gratuity fund, compensated absences and employee state insurance scheme.

Defined contribution plans

The Company''s contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund and employee state insurance scheme are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense as they fall due based on the amount of contribution required to be made.

Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.

Short-term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service. The cost of such compensated absences is accounted as under :

(a) in case of accumulated compensated absences, when employees render the services that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and

(b) in case of non-accumulating compensated absences, when the absences occur.

Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date less the fair value of the plan assets out of which the obligations are expected to be settled

1.13 Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organisation and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Inter-segment revenue is accounted on the basis of transactions which are primarily determined based on market / fair value factors. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis have been included under "unallocated revenue / expenses / assets / liabilities".

1.14 Leases

Assets leased by the Company in its capacity as lessee where substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership vest in the Company are classified as finance leases. Such leases are capitalised at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each year.

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor are recognised as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis.

1.15 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented. The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for share splits / reverse share splits and bonus shares, as appropriate.

1.16 Taxes on income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and applicable Foreign tax laws. Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses are recognised only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise such assets. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of other items only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date for their realisability.

Current and deferred tax relating to items directly recognised in equity are recognised in equity and not in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.17 Research and development expenses

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a product''s technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised. The amount capitalised comprises expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Fixed assets utilised for research and development are capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Tangible Fixed Assets and Intangible Assets.

1.18 Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognised, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

1.19 Provisions and contingencies

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes.

1.20 Provision for warranty

As per the terms of the contracts, the Company provides post-contract services / warranty support to some of its customers. The Company accounts for the post-contract support / provision for warranty on the basis of the information available with the Management duly taking into account the current and past technical estimates.

1.21 Derivative contracts

The Company enters into derivative contracts in the nature of foreign currency options, forward contracts with an intention to hedge its existing assets and liabilities, firm commitments and highly probable transactions. Derivative contracts which are closely linked to the existing assets and liabilities are accounted as per the policy stated for Foreign Currency Transactions and Translations.

All other derivative contracts are marked-to-market and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognised, until realised, on grounds of prudence.

1.22 Insurance claims / Claims with ECGC

Insurance claims and claims with ECGC are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted / expected to be admitted and to the extent that there is no uncertainty in receiving the claims.

1.23 Service tax input credit

Service tax input credit is accounted for in the books in the period in which the underlying service received is accounted and when there is no uncertainty in availing / utilising the credits.

1.24 Operating Cycle

Based on the nature of products / activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.


Mar 31, 2012

1.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention . The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year.

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known / materialised.

1.3 Inventories

Components and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined on the basis of specific identification method.

Computer systems and software, components and spares intended for customer support are written off over the effective life of the systems maintained, as estimated by Management.

1.4 Cash and cash equivalents (for purposes of Cash Flow Statement) Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

1.5 Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

1.6 Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciation has been provided on the straight-line method as per the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 except in respect of the following categories of assets, in whose case the life of the assets has been assessed as under:

Leasehold land is amortised over the duration of the lease

Assets costing less than Rs.5,000 each are fully depreciated in the year of capitalisation

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life as follows:

In-house Technical Know-How - 3 years.

The estimated useful life of the intangible assets and the amortisation period are reviewed at the end of each financial year and the amortisation method is revised to reflect the changed pattern.

1.7 Revenue recognition

Sale of goods

Income from sales of goods is recognised upon passage of risks and rewards of ownership to the goods, which generally coincide with the despatch. Sales exclude taxes and levies.

Income from services

a) Income from services is recognized upon rendering of the services. Income from maintenance contracts relating to the year is recognized when the contracts are entered into on a time proportionate basis.The income excludes taxes and levies.

b) Revenue from software development on fixed price, fixed time frame contracts is recognised as per the proportionate completion method. On time and materials contracts, revenue is recognised as the related services are rendered.

c) In respect of orders procured, for which sales are effected directly to the customers by the vendors, the Company accounts only for the commission, installation and other charges to which it is entitled.

1.8 Other income

Interest income is accounted on accrual basis. Dividend income is accounted for when the right to receive it is established.

1.9 Tangible fixed assets

Fixed assets are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of fixed assets includes interest on borrowings attributable to acquisition of qualifying fixed assets up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use and other incidental expenses incurred up to that date. Subsequent expenditure relating to fixed assets is capitalised only if such expenditure results in an increase in the future benefits from such asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Fixed assets retired from active use and held for sale are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realisable value and are disclosed separately in the Balance Sheet.

Capital work-in-progress:

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use and other capital work-in-progress are carried at cost, comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable interest.

1.10 Intangible Assets.

Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an intangible asset comprises its purchase price, including any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities), and any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use and net of any trade discounts and rebates. Subsequent expenditure on an intangible asset after its purchase / completion is recognised as an expense when incurred unless it is probable that such expenditure will enable the asset to generate future economic benefits in excess of its originally assessed standards of performance and such expenditure can be measured and attributed to the asset reliably, in which case such expenditure is added to the cost of the asset.

Refer note 2.18 for accounting for research and development expenses.

1.11 Foreign currency transactions and translations

Initial recognition

Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company and its integral foreign operations are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

Measurement of foreign currency monetary items at the Balance Sheet date Foreign currency monetary items (other than derivative contracts) of the Company and its net investment in non-integral foreign operations outstanding at the Balance Sheet date are restated at the year-end rates.

In the case of integral operations, assets and liabilities (other than non-monetary items), are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the Balance Sheet date. Non-monetary items are carried at historical cost. Revenue and expenses are translated at the average exchange rates prevailing during the year. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Accounting of forward contracts

Premium / discount on forward exchange contracts, which are not intended for trading or speculation purposes, are amortised over the period of the contracts if such contracts relate to monetary items as at the Balance Sheet date. Refer Note 2.22 for accounting for forward exchange contracts relating to firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions.

1.12 Investments

Long-term investments (excluding investment properties), are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such investments. Current investments are carried individually, at the lower of cost and fair value. Cost of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

1.13 Employee benefits

Employee benefits include contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund, gratuity fund and compensated absences. Defined contribution plans

The Company's contribution to provident fund and superannuation fund are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense as they fall due based on the amount of contribution required to be made.

Defined benefit plans

For defined benefit plans in the form of gratuity fund, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.

Short-term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service. The cost of such compensated absences is accounted as under :

(a) in case of accumulated compensated absences, when employees render the services that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and

(b) in case of non-accumulating compensated absences, when the absences occur.

Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date less the fair value of the plan assets out of which the obligations are expected to be settled.

1.14 Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organisation and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment.

Inter-segment revenue is accounted on the basis of transactions which are primarily determined based on market / fair value factors. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis have been included under "unallocated revenue / expenses / assets / liabilities".

1.15 Leases

Assets leased by the Company in its capacity as lessee where substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership vest in the Company are classified as finance leases. Such leases are capitalised at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each year.

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor are recognised as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis.

1.16 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post - tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented. The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for share splits / reverse share splits and bonus shares, as appropriate.

1.17 Taxes on income

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and Foreign Tax laws.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses are recognised only if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise such assets. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of other items only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date for their realisability.

Current and deferred tax relating to items in equity are recognised in equity and not in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.18 Research and development expenses

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless a product's technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised. The amount capitalised comprises expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis to creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Fixed assets utilised for research and development are capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Tangible Fixed Assets and

Intangible Assets.

1.19 Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognised, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.

1.20 Provisions and contingencies

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes.

1.21 Provision for warranty

As per the terms of the contracts, the Company provides post-contract services / warranty support to some of its customers. The Company accounts for the post-contract support / provision for warranty on the basis of the information available with the Management duly taking into account the current and past technical estimates.

2.22 Derivative contracts

The Company enters into derivative contracts in the nature of foreign currency options, forward contracts with an intention to hedge its existing assets and liabilities, firm commitments and highly probable transactions. Derivative contracts which are closely linked to the existing assets and liabilities are accounted as per the policy stated for Foreign Currency Transactions and Translations.

All other derivative contracts are marked-to-market and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognised, until realised, on grounds of prudence.

1.23 Insurance claims / Claims with ECGC

Insurance claims and claims with ECGC are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted / expected to be admitted and to the extent that there is no uncertainty in receiving the claims.


Mar 31, 2011

1. Basis of preparation

The financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis of accounting and comply with the accounting standards applicable in India and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

2. Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires the management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to the contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the year. Example of such estimates include provisions for doubtful debts, employee benefits, provision for income taxes, the useful life of fixed assets, etc..

3. Fixed assets and Intangible assets

Fixed Assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Costs include all expenses incurred to bring the assets to its present location and condition.

Depreciation is provided on straight-line method on pro rata basis in accordance with the provisions of Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, except that leasehold land and improvements to leasehold premises is depreciated over the lease period on straight-line basis.

Software licenses are depreciated over a period of 6 years.

Individual assets costing less than Rs. 5,000/- are depreciated in full in the year of its purchase.

Capital advances represent outstanding advance paid to acquire fixed assets.

4. Impairment of assets

At each Balance Sheet date, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its fixed assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment loss.

Recoverable amount is the higher of an assets net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows expected from the continuing use of the asset and from its disposal are discounted to their present value using a pre-discount rate that reflects the current market assessment of time value of money and the risks specific to the asset.

Reversal of impairment loss is recognised immediately as income in the Profit and Loss account.

5. Leases

Where the Company, as a lessor, leases assets under finance lease such amounts are recognised as receivables at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease and the finance income is based on a constant rate of return on the outstanding net investment.

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incident to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor, are recognised as operating leases. Lease rents under operating leases are recognised in the Profit and Loss account on a straight- line basis.

6. Inventories

Components and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined on the basis of specific identification method.

Computer systems and software, components and spares intended for customer support are written off over the effective life of the systems maintained, as estimated by management.

7. Income

Sales

Income from sales of goods is recognised upon passage of risks and rewards of ownership to the goods, which generally coincide with the delivery.

Services

a) Income from services is recognised upon rendering of the services. Income from maintenance contracts relating to the year is recognised when the contracts are entered into on a time proportionate basis.

b) Revenue from software development on fixed price, fixed time frame contracts is recognised as per the proportionate completion method. On time and materials contracts, revenue is recognised as the related services are rendered.

c) In respect of orders procured, for which sales are effected directly to the customers by the vendors, the Company accounts only for the commission, installation and other charges to which it is entitled.

8. Employee Benefits

a) Post-employment benefit plans

Contributions to defined contribution retirement benefit schemes are recognised as an expense when employees have rendered services entitling them to contributions. For defined benefit schemes, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in full in the Profit and Loss account for the period in which they occur. Past service cost is recognised immediately to the extent that the benefits are already vested, and otherwise is amortised on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested.

The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the scheme.

b) Short-term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees is recognised during the period when the employee renders the service. These benefits include compensated absences such as paid annual leave, overseas social security contributions and performance incentives.

c) Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the Balance Sheet date.

9. Research and Development

Research and Development expenditure is recognised in the profit and loss account when incurred. Assets acquired for research and development activity are capitalised and depreciated in the same manner as other fixed assets.

Expenses incurred in developing intellectual property, if they meet the criteria of achieving technical feasibility, retention of control and have the potential to provide economic benefits, are capitalised and carried forward as intangible assets and amortised over their expected useful life. Otherwise, such expenses are charged off to the Profit & Loss Account in the year in which they are incurred

10. Foreign currency transactions

a) Income and expenses in foreign currencies are converted at exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.

Exchange differences arising on restatement / settlement of foreign currency monetary liabilities having an initial term of 12 months or more that are incurred for acquisition of fixed assets are translated at year end exchange rates and the resulting gains / losses are adjusted against the cost of the fixed assets. Exchange differences arising on restatement of other foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities, having an initial term of 12 months or more, are accumulated in the Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account and amortised over the balance period of such long term asset/liability or up to March 31,2011 whichever is earlier.

Other foreign currency liabilities and assets are restated at the rates ruling at the year-end. Exchange differences arising on restatement / settlement of foreign currency balances are adjusted in the Profit and Loss account.

Premium or discount on forward exchange contracts are amortised and recognised in the Profit and Loss account over

the period of the contract. Forward contracts and currency options outstanding at the Balance Sheet date, other than designated Cash Flow hedges, are stated at fair values and any gains or losses are recognised in the Profit and Loss account.

b) In the case of non-integral operations, assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the Balance Sheet date. Revenue and expenses are translated at exchange rates prevailing on the date of transactions. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are included in Exchange Reserve under Reserves and Surplus.

c) In the case of integral operations, assets and liabilities (other than non-monetary items), are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the Balance Sheet date. Non-monetary items are carried at historical cost. Revenue and expenses are translated at exchange rates prevailing on the date of transactions. Exchange differences arising out of these translations are charged to the Profit and Loss account.

11. Taxation

Current income tax expense comprises taxes on income from operations in India and in foreign jurisdictions. Income tax payable in India is determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Tax expense relating to foreign operations is determined in accordance with tax laws applicable in countries where such operations are domiciled.

Minimum alternative tax (MAT) paid in accordance to the tax laws, which gives rise to future economic benefits in the form of adjustment of future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax after the tax holiday period. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company and the asset can be measured reliably.

Deferred tax expense or benefit is recognised on timing differences being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.

In the event of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is virtual certainty that sufficient taxable income will be available to realise such assets.

In other situations, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available to realise these assets.

Advance taxes and provisions for current income taxes are presented in the Balance Sheet after offsetting advance taxes paid and income tax provisions arising in the same tax jurisdiction and the Company intends to settle the asset and liability on a net basis.

The Company offsets deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if it has a legally enforceable right and these relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing taxation laws.

12. Subsidies

Subsidies not specifically related to fixed assets are credited to capital reserve.

Other revenue subsidies are credited to Profit and Loss account or deducted from related expenses.

13. Investments

Long-term investments are stated at cost, less provision for other than temporary diminution in value.

14. Other Provisions and Contingencies

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which reliable estimate can be made.

Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are not recognised in the financial statements, but are disclosed. A contingent asset is neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.



 
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