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Accounting Policies of Trend Electronics Ltd. Company

Dec 31, 2014

A) Basis of Accounting

a) The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention using the accrual system of accounting in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India (Indian GAAP) and the requirements of the Companies Act, 1956, including the mandatory Accounting Standards as prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

b) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires the management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to the contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the year. Example of such estimates include provisions for doubtful debts, employee retirement benefits plans, provision for income tax, provision for warranty cost and the useful lives of fixed assets. The difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known and materialised.

B) Fixed Assets/Capital Work-in-Progress

a) Fixed Assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and impairment loss, if any. The cost is inclusive of freight, installation cost, duties, taxes, financing cost and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets but does not include tax/duty credits availed.

b) Capital Work-in-Progress is carried at cost, comprising of direct cost, attributable interest and related incidental expenditure.

C) Depreciation

Depreciation on plant and machinery of Harmatic Division is provided on Written Down Value (WDV) method at the rates specified in the Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, except for moulds and certain items of plant and machinery which are depreciated @ 20% as against 15.62% specified for the WDV method in the said Schedule. Depreciation on plant and machinery other than those stated above and other fixed assets is provided on Straight Line Method at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

Intangible Assets are amortised over a period of five years.

D) Impairment of Assets

The Fixed Assets or a group of assets (cash generating units) are reviewed for impairment at each Balance Sheet date. In case of any such indication, the recoverable amount of these assets or group of assets is determined, and if such recoverable amount of the asset or cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than it''s carrying amount, the impairment loss is recognised by writing down such assets to their recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed if there is change in the recoverable amount and such loss either no longer exists or has decreased.

E) Investments

Non Current Investments are stated at cost. The decline in the value of the investment, other than temporary, is provided for. Cost is inclusive of brokerage, fees and duties but excludes Securities Transaction Tax.

F) Inventories

Inventories are valued at cost or net realisable value whichever is lower. Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.

G) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of that assets. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

H) Excise and Customs Duty

Excise Duty in respect of finished goods lying in the factory premises and Customs Duty on goods lying in customs bonded warehouse are provided for and included in the valuation of inventory.

I) CENVAT/Value Added Tax

CENVAT/Value Added Tax benefit is accounted for by reducing the purchase cost of the materials/fixed assets/services.

J) Revenue Recognition

a) Revenue is recongnised on transfer of significant risk and reward in respect of ownership.

b) Sales/Turnover for the year includes sales value of goods, excise duty, duty drawback and other recoveries such as insurance, transportation and packing charges but excludes sales tax, value added tax and recovery of finance and discounting charges.

c) Insurance, Duty Drawback and other claims are accounted for as and when admitted by the appropriate authorities.

d) Dividend on investments is recognised when the right to receive is established.

K) Foreign Currency Transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transactions. Foreign Currency Monetary Assets and Liabilities are translated at the year end rate. The difference between the rate prevailing on the date of transaction and on the date of settlement as also on translation of Monetary Items at the end of the year is recognised, as the case may be, as income or expense for the year.

L) Employee Benefits

a) Short Term Employees Benefits

Short Term Employees Benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the related services are rendered.

b) Post Employment Benefits

i) Provident Fund - Defined Contribution Plan

The Company contributes monthly at a determined rate. These contributions are remitted to the Employees'' Provident Fund Organisation, India for this purpose and is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss on accrual basis.

ii) Gratuity - Defined Benefit Plan

The Company provides for gratuity to all the eligible employees. The benefit is in the form of lump sum payments to vested employees on retirement, on death while in employment, or termination of employment for an amount equivalent to 15 days salary payable for each completed year of service. Vesting occurs on completion of five years of service. Liability in respect of gratuity is determined using the projected unit credit method with actuarial valuations as on the Balance Sheet date and gains/losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

iii) Leave Encashment

Liability in respect of leave encashment is determined using the projected unit credit method with actuarial valuations as on the Balance Sheet date and gains/losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

M) Taxation

Income tax comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Provision for current income tax is made on the assessable income/benefits at the rate applicable to the relevant assessment year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for the future tax consequences of timing differences, subject to the consideration of prudence. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date. The carrying amount of deferred tax asset/liability are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid on the book profits, which give rise to future economic benefits in the form of tax credit against future income-tax liability, is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal tax within the period specified for utilisation of such credit.

N) Research and Development

Revenue Expenditure pertaining to Research and Development is charged to revenue under the respective heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. Capital expenditure, if any, on Research and Development is shown as an addition to Fixed Assets, under the respective heads.

O) Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources in respect of which reliable estimates can be made.

Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the Notes to Financial Statements. Disputed demands in respect of Central Excise, Custom duty, Income tax, Sales tax and Other are disclosed as contingent liabilities. Payment in respect of such demands, if any, is shown as an advance, till the final outcome of the matter. Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements.

P) Warranty

Provision for the estimated liability in respect of warranty on sale of consumer electronics and home appliances products is made in the year in which the revenues are recognised, based on technical evaluation and past experience.

Q) Prior period items

Prior period items are included in the respective heads of accounts and material items are disclosed by way of Notes to Financial Statements.

R) Other Accounting Policies

These are consistent with the generally accepted accounting principles.

b) In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the Company after distribution of all preferential amounts. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.

c) The Preference shares do not have voting rights. They have preference over equity shareholder as to dividend and in case of liquidation.


Dec 31, 2013

A) Basis of Accounting

a) The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention using the accrual system of accounting in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India (Indian GAAP) and the requirements of the Companies Act, 1956, including the mandatory Accounting Standards as prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

b) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires the management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to the contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the year. Example of such estimates include provisions for doubtful debts, employee retirement benefits plans, provision for income tax, provision for warranty cost and the useful lives of fixed assets. The difference between the actual results and estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known and materialised.

B) Fixed Assets/Capital Work-in-Progress

a) Fixed Assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation / amortisation and impairment loss, if any. The cost is inclusive of freight, installation cost, duties, taxes, financing cost and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets but does not include tax/duty credits availed.

b) Capital Work-in-Progress is carried at cost, comprising of direct cost, attributable interest and related incidental expenditure.

C) Depreciation

Depreciation on plant and machinery of Harmatic Division is provided on Written Down Value (WDV) method at the rates specified in the Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, except for moulds and certain items of plant and machinery which are depreciated AEA- 20 ACU- as against 15.62 ACU- specified for the WDV method in the said Schedule. Depreciation on plant and machinery other than those stated above and other fixed assets is provided on Straight Line Method at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

Intangible Assets are amortised over a period of fi ve years.

D) Impairment of Assets

The Fixed Assets or a group of assets (cash generating units) are reviewed for impairment at each Balance Sheet date. In case of any such indication, the recoverable amount of these assets or group of assets is determined, and if such recoverable amount of the asset or cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than it''s carrying amount, the impairment loss is recognised by writing down such assets to their recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed if there is change in the recoverable amount and such loss either no longer exists or has decreased.

E) Investments

Non Current Investments are stated at cost. The decline in the value of the investment, other than temporary, is provided for. Cost is inclusive of brokerage, fees and duties but excludes Securities Transaction Tax.

F) Inventories

Inventories are valued at cost or net realisable value whichever is lower. Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.

G) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of that assets. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

H) Excise and Customs Duty

Excise Duty in respect of finished goods lying in the factory premises and Customs Duty on goods lying in customs bonded warehouse are provided for and included in the valuation of inventory.

I) CENVAT/Value Added Tax

CENVAT/Value Added Tax benefit is accounted for by reducing the purchase cost of the materials/fixed assets/services.

J) Revenue Recognition

a) Revenue is recongnised on transfer of significant risk and reward in respect of ownership.

b) Sales/Turnover for the year includes sales value of goods, excise duty, duty drawback and other recoveries such as insurance, transportation and packing charges but excludes sales tax, value added tax and recovery of finance and discounting charges.

c) Insurance, Duty Drawback and other claims are accounted for as and when admitted by the appropriate authorities.

d) Dividend on investments is recognised when the right to receive is established.

K) Foreign Currency Transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transactions. Foreign Currency Monetary Assets and Liabilities are translated at the year end rate. The difference between the rate prevailing on the date of transaction and on the date of settlement as also on translation of Monetary Items at the end of the year is recognised, as the case may be, as income or expense for the year.

L) Employee Benefits

a) Short Term Employees Benefits

Short Term Employees Benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the related services are rendered.

b) Post Employment Benefits

i) Provident Fund - Defined Contribution Plan

The Company contributes monthly at a determined rate. These contributions are remitted to the Employees'' Provident Fund Organisation, India for this purpose and is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss on accrual basis.

ii) Gratuity - Defined Benefit Plan

The Company provides for gratuity to all the eligible employees. The benefit is in the form of lump sum payments to vested employees on retirement, on death while in employment, or termination of employment for an amount equivalent to 15 days salary payable for each completed year of service.

Vesting occurs on completion of fi ve years of service. Liability in respect of gratuity is determined using the projected unit credit method with actuarial valuations as on the Balance Sheet date and gains/losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profi t and Loss.

iii) Leave Encashment

Liability in respect of leave encashment is determined using the projected unit credit method with actuarial valuations as on the Balance Sheet date and gains/losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

M) Taxation

Income tax comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Provision for current income tax is made on the assessable income/benefits at the rate applicable to the relevant assessment year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for the future tax consequences of timing differences, subject to the consideration of prudence. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date. The carrying amount of deferred tax asset/liability are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

Minimum Alternate Ta x (MAT) paid on the book profits, which give rise to future economic benefits in the form of tax credit against future income-tax liability, is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal tax within the period specified for utilisation of such credit.

N) Research and Development

Revenue Expenditure pertaining to Research and Development is charged to revenue under the respective heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. Capital expenditure, if any, on Research and Development is shown as an addition to Fixed Assets, under the respective heads.

O) Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources in respect of which reliable estimates can be made.

Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the Notes. Disputed demands in respect of Central Excise, Custom duty, Income tax, Sales tax and Other are disclosed as contingent liabilities. Payment in respect of such demands, if any, is shown as an advance, till the final outcome of the matter.

Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements.

P) Warranty

Provision for the estimated liability in respect of warranty on sale of consumer electronics and home appliances products is made in the year in which the rev- enues are recognised, based on technical evaluation and past experience.

Q) Prior period items

Prior period items are included in the respective heads of accounts and material items are disclosed by way of Notes to Financial Statements.

R) Other Accounting Policies

These are consistent with the generally accepted accounting principles.


Dec 31, 2012

A) Basis of Accounting

a) The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention using the accrual system of accounting in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India (Indian GAAP) and the requirements of the Companies Act, 1956, including the mandatory Accounting Standards as prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

b) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires the management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to the contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the year. Example of such estimates include provisions for doubtful debts, employee retirement benefits plans, provision for income tax, provision for warranty cost and the useful lives of fixed assets. The difference between the actual results and estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known and materialized.

B) Fixed Assets/Capital Work-in-Progress

a) Fixed Assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation/amortisation and impairment loss, if any. The cost is inclusive of freight, installation cost, duties, taxes, financing cost and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets but does not include tax/duty credits availed.

b) Capital Work-in-Progress is carried at cost, comprising of direct cost, attributable interest and related incidental expenditure.

C) Depreciation

Depreciation on plant and machinery of Harmatic Division is provided on Written Down Value (WDV) method at the rates specified in the Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, except for moulds and certain items of plant and machinery which are depreciated @ 20% as against 15.62% specified for the WDV method in the said Schedule. Depreciation on plant and machinery other than those stated above and other fixed assets is provided on Straight Line Method at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. Intangible Assets are amortised over a period of five years.

D) Impairment of Assets

The Fixed Assets or a group of assets (cash generating units) are reviewed for impairment at each Balance Sheet date. In case of any such indication, the recoverable amount of these assets or group of assets is determined, and if such recoverable amount of the asset or cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than it''s carrying amount, the impairment loss is recognised by writing down such assets to their recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed if there is change in the recoverable amount and such loss either no longer exists or has decreased.

E) Investments

Quoted Investments are stated at cost or market value whichever is lower. Unquoted Investments are stated at cost. The decline in the value of the Unquoted Investments, other than temporary, is provided for. Cost is inclusive of brokerage, fees and duties but excludes Securities Transaction Tax.

F) Inventories

Inventories are valued at cost or net realisable value whichever is lower. Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.

G) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of that assets. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

H) Excise and Customs Duty

Excise Duty in respect of finished goods lying in the factory premises and Customs Duty on goods lying in customs bonded warehouse are provided for and included in the valuation of inventory.

I) CENVAT/Value Added Tax

CENVAT/Value Added Tax benefit is accounted for by reducing the purchase cost of the materials/fixed assets/services.

J) Revenue Recognition

a) Revenue is recongnised on transfer of significant risk and reward in respect of ownership.

b) Sales/Turnover for the year includes sales value of goods, excise duty, duty drawback and other recoveries such as insurance, transportation and packing charges but excludes sales tax, value added tax and recovery of finance and discounting charges.

c) Insurance, Duty Drawback and other claims are accounted for as and when admitted by the appropriate authorities.

d) Dividend on investments is recognised when the right to receive is established.

K) Foreign Currency Transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transactions. Foreign Currency Monetary Assets and Liabilities are translated at the year end rate. The difference between the rate prevailing on the date of transaction and on the date of settlement as also on translation of Monetary Items at the end of the year is recognized, as the case may be, as income or expense for the year.

L) Employee Benefits

a) Short Term Employees Benefits

Short Term Employees Benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the related services are rendered.

b) Post Employment Benefits

i) Provident Fund - Defined Contribution Plan

The Company contributes monthly at a determined rate. These contributions are remitted to the Employees'' Provident Fund Organisation, India for this purpose and is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss on accrual basis.

ii) Gratuity - Defined Benefit Plan

The Company provides for gratuity to all the eligible employees. The benefit is in the form of lump sum payments to vested employees on retirement, on death while in employment, or termination of employment for an amount equivalent to 15 days salary payable for each completed year of service. Vesting occurs on completion of five years of service. Liability in respect of gratuity is determined using the projected unit credit method with actuarial valuations as on the Balance Sheet date and gains/losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. iii) Leave Encashment

Liability in respect of leave encashment is determined using the projected unit credit method with actuarial valuations as on the Balance Sheet date and gains/losses are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

M) Taxation

Income tax comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Provision for current income tax is made on the assessable income/benefits at the rate applicable to the relevant assessment year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for the future tax consequences of timing differences, subject to the consideration of prudence. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date. The carrying amount of deferred tax asset/liability are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that the asset will be realised in future.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid on the book profits, which give rise to future economic benefits in the form of tax credit against future income-tax liability, is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal tax within the period specified for utilisation of such credit.

N) Research and Development

Revenue Expenditure pertaining to Research and Development is charged to revenue under the respective heads of account in the year in which it is incurred. Capital expenditure, if any, on Research and Development is shown as an addition to Fixed Assets, under the respective heads.

O) Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources in respect of which reliable estimates can be made. Contingent Liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the Notes. Disputed demands in respect of Central Excise, Custom duty,

Income tax, Sales tax and Other are disclosed as contingent liabilities. Payment in respect of such demands, if any, is shown as an advance, till the final outcome of the matter.

Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements.

P) Warranty

Provision for the estimated liability in respect of warranty on sale of consumer electronics and home appliances products is made in the year in which the revenues are recognised, based on technical evaluation and past experience.

Q) Prior period items

Prior period items are included in the respective heads of accounts and material items are disclosed by way of Notes to Financial Statements.

R) Other Accounting Policies

These are consistent with the generally accepted accounting principles.


Dec 31, 2011

1. Basis of Accounting

a) The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention using the accrual system of accounting in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India (Indian GAAP) and the requirements of the Companies Act, 1956, including the mandatory Accounting Standards as prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006.

b) Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) requires the management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to the contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the year. Example of such estimates include provisions for doubtful debts, employee retirement benefits plans, provision for income tax, provision for warranty cost and the useful lives of fixed assets. The difference between the actual results and estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known and materialized.

2. Fixed Assets/Capital Work-in-Progress

a) Fixed Assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation / amortization and impairment loss, if any. The cost is inclusive of freight, installation cost, duties, taxes, financing cost and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets but does not include tax/duty credits availed.

b) Capital Work-in-Progress is carried at cost, comprising of direct cost, attributable interest and related incidental expenditure. The advances given for acquiring of fixed assets are shown under Capital Work-in-Progress.

3. Depreciation

Depreciation on plant and machinery of Hermetic Division is provided on Written Down Value (WDV) method at the rates specified in the Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, except for moulds and certain items of plant and machinery which are depreciated @ 20% as against 15.62% specified for the WDV method in the said Schedule. Depreciation on plant and machinery other than those stated above and other fixed assets is provided on Straight Line Method at the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

Intangibles: Intangible Assets are amortized over a period of five years.

4. Impairment of Assets

The Fixed Assets or a group of assets (cash generating units) are reviewed for impairment at each Balance Sheet date. In case of any such indication, the recoverable amount of these assets is determined and if such recoverable amount of the asset or cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is recognised by writing down such assets to their recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed if there is change in the recoverable amount and such loss either no longer exists or has decreased.

5. Investments

Quoted Investment are valued at cost or market value whichever is lower. Unquoted Investments are stated at Cost. The decline in the value of the Unquoted Investments, other than temporary, is provided for. Cost is inclusive of brokerage, fees and duties but excludes Securities Transaction Tax, if any.

6. Inventories

Inventories are valued at cost or net realizable value whichever is lower. Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.

7. Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying asset are capitalised as part of the cost of that asset. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

8. Excise and Customs Duty

Excise Duty in respect of finished goods lying in the factory premises and Customs Duty on goods lying in customs bonded warehouse are provided for and included in the valuation of inventory.

9. CENVAT/Value Added Tax

CENVAT/Value Added Tax benefit is accounted for by reducing the purchase cost of the materials/fixed assets/services.

10. Revenue Recognition

a) Revenue is recognized on transfer of significant risk and reward in respect of ownership.

b) Sales/Turnover for the year includes sales value of goods, excise duty, duty drawback and other recoveries such as insurance, transportation and packing charges but excludes sales tax, value added tax and recovery of finance and discounting charges.

c) Insurance, Duty Drawback and other claims are accounted for as and when admitted by the appropriate authorities.

d) Dividend on investments is recognized when the right to receive is established.

11. Foreign Currency Transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transactions. Foreign Currency Monetary Assets and Liabilities are translated at the yearend rate. The difference between the rate prevailing on the date of transaction and on the date of settlement as also on translation of Monetary Items at the end of the year is recognized, as the case may be, as income or expense for the year/period.

12. Employees Benefits

a) Short Term Employees Benefits

Short Term Employees Benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Profit and Loss Account of the year in which the related services is rendered.

b) Post Employment Benefits

i) Provident Fund - Defined Contribution Plan

The Company contributes monthly at a determined rate. These contributions are remitted to the Employees' Provident Fund Organisation, India for this purpose and is charged to Profit and Loss Account on accrual basis.

ii) Gratuity - Defined Benefit Plan

The Company provides for gratuity to all the eligible employees. The benefit is in the form of lump sum payments to vested employees on retirement, on death while in employment, or termination of employment for an amount equivalent to 15 days salary payable for each completed year of service. Vesting occurs on completion of five years of service. Liability in respect of gratuity is determined using the projected unit credit method with actuarial valuations as on the Balance Sheet date and gains/losses are recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss Account.

iii) Leave Encashment

Liability in respect of leave encashment is determined using the projected unit credit method with actuarial valuations as on the Balance Sheet date and gains/losses are recognized immediately in the Profit and Loss Account.

13. Taxation

Income tax comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Provision for current income tax is made on the assessable income/benefits at the rate applicable to the relevant assessment year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences of timing differences, subject to the consideration of prudence. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date. The carrying amount of deferred tax asset/liability are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and recognized and carried forward only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that the asset will be realized in future.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid on the book profits, which give rise to future economic benefits in the form of tax credit against future income tax liability, is recognized as an asset in the Balance Sheet if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal tax within the period specified for utilization of such credit.

14. Research and Development

Revenue Expenditure pertaining to Research and Development is charged to revenue under the respective heads of account in the period in which it is incurred. Capital expenditure, if any, on Research and Development is shown as an addition to Fixed Assets under the respective heads.

15. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources in respect of which reliable estimates can be made.

Contingent Liabilities are disclosed by way of Notes to Accounts. Disputed demands in respect of Central Excise, Customs duty, Income tax and Sales tax are disclosed as contingent liabilities. Payment in respect of such demands, if any, is shown as an advance, till the final outcome of the matter.

Contingent assets are not recognized in the financial statements.

16. Warranty

Provision for the estimated liability in respect of warranty on sale of consumer electronics products is made in the year in which the revenues are recognized, based on technical evaluation and past experience.

17. Prior period items

Prior period items are included in the respective heads of accounts and material items are disclosed by way of Notes to Accounts.

18. Other Accounting Policies

These are consistent with the generally accepted accounting principles.

 
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