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Accounting Policies of Trident Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2016

Trident Limited ("the Company") is a public company domiciled in India and incorporated on April 18, 1990 under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The name of the Company was changed from Abhishek Industries Limited to Trident Limited on April 18, 2011. The equity shares of the Company are listed on two stock exchanges in India i.e. National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) and BSE Limited (BSE). The Company is engaged in manufacturing, trading and selling of Textiles (Yarn, Terry towels, Bedsheets), Paper, Chemicals and IT enabled and business related services.

NOTE 2 - SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES_

A Accounting convention

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards (AS) specified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year.

B Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the periods in which the results are known/materialize.

C Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized at the time of transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer and when the Company does not retain effective control of goods transferred to a degree usually associated with ownership i.e. at the point of dispatch of finished goods to the customers.

Revenue from sale of IT enabled annual maintenance contracts services is recognized on time proportion basis. Revenue from job charges is recognized when services are rendered and where no significant uncertainty exists regarding the collection of amount of consideration.

The revenue in respect of duty drawback and similar other export benefits is recognized on post export basis at the rate at which the entitlements accrue and is included in the ''sale of products''.

Insurance claims are recognized when there exists no significant uncertainty with regard to the amounts to be realized and the ultimate collection thereof.

D Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest and amortization of ancillary costs incurred in relation to borrowing, etc. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilized for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction/development of the qualifying asset up to the date of capitalization of such asset are added to the cost of the assets. Qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use.

E Government grants/subsidies

Government grants and subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants/subsidy will be received. Government grants, whose primary condition is that the Company should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire capital assets are presented as capital grant under "Reserves and surplus". The capital grant so received is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a systematic basis by way of allocation in the proportion in which depreciation on those assets is charged and as a deduction from the depreciation expense for the year.

F Accounting for taxes on income

Provision for taxation for the year is ascertained on the basis of assessable profits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961. Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognized as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is highly probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognized, subject to the consideration of prudence, on timing differences, being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originates in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. In respect of carry forward of losses and unabsorbed depreciation, deferred tax assets are recognized based on virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date.

G Employee benefits

The Company has various schemes of employees benefits such as provident fund, employees state insurance corporation (ESIC),

NOTE 2 - SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (contd.)_ gratuity and compensated absences, which are dealt with as under:

Provident fund and Employees State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) are the defined contribution schemes offered by the Company. The contribution to these schemes are charged to statement of profit and loss of the year in which contribution to such schemes become due and when services are rendered by the employees.

The gratuity liability in respect of employees of the Company is covered through trusts'' group gratuity schemes managed by Life Insurance Corporation of India, SBI Life Insurance Company Limited and Bajaj Allianz. The cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date by an independent value. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they occur.

Short-term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognized on an undiscounted accrual basis during the year when the employees render the services. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services.

Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognized as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date. The cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they occur.

H Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (net of CENVAT) less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost of acquisition is inclusive of freight, duties, taxes and other incidental expenses and interest on loan taken for the acquisition of qualifying assets up to the date the assets is ready for its intended use.

The Company has adopted the provisions of para 46/46A of AS 11 "The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates", accordingly, the exchange differences arising after April 1, 2007 on reinstatement/settlement of long term foreign currency borrowings relating to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets are adjusted to the cost of the respective assets and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets.

I Depreciation/amortization

Depreciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its estimated residual value. Depreciation on tangible fixed assets has been provided on the straight-line method as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following categories of assets, in whose case the life of the assets has been assessed as under based on technical advice, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc.:

General plant and machinery on triple shift basis - 9.5 years

Computers including servers, network and end user devices - 5 years

Office equipments -10 years

Vehicles -6 years

Leasehold land is amortized over the duration of the lease.

The intangible asset (software) is amortized over the period of software license or estimated useful life thereof, whichever is less.

J Investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less provision, if any, for diminution in value which is other than temporary. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

K Inventories

Raw materials, stores and spares, work in progress and finished goods are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. The basis of determining cost for various categories of inventories is as follows:

- Raw materials : weighted average cost

- Work in progress : cost of raw materials plus conversion cost depending upon the stage of completion

- Finished goods : cost of raw materials plus conversion cost, packing cost and excise duty

- Stores and spares : weighted average cost L Foreign currency transactions

Exchange differences are dealt with as follows:

Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the exchange rate notified by the customs for invoice purpose.

Monetary items denominated in a foreign currency are reported at the closing rate as at the date of balance sheet. Non-monetary items, which are carried at fair value denominated in foreign currency, are reported at the exchange rate that existed when such values were determined, otherwise on historical exchange rate that existed on the date of transaction.

The exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting these items at rates different from the rates at which these were initially recorded/reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income/expense in the period in which they arise. Further, where foreign currency liabilities have been incurred in connection with fixed assets, the exchange differences arising on reinstatement, settlement thereof during the construction period are adjusted in the cost of the concerned fixed assets.

In case of forward exchange contracts (other than for the fixed assets), the premium or discount arising at the inception of such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Further, exchange difference on such contracts i.e. difference between the exchange rate at the reporting/settlement date and the exchange rate on the date of inception of contract/the last reporting date, is recognized as income/expense for the period. Further, where such contracts have been entered in connection with long term loans taken for fixed assets, the exchange differences are adjusted in the cost of concerned fixed assets.

M Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets/cash generating units at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognized, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognized for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

N Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organization and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

O Employee share-based payments

The Company has constituted Employee Stock Option Plans - 2007, 2009 and 2015. Employee stock options granted are accounted under the ''Intrinsic Value Method'' stated in the guidance note on employee share based payments issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

P Leases

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the less or are recognized as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Q Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the notes.

R Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

S Operating cycle

Based on the nature of products/activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realization in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.

T Derivative Contracts

The derivative contracts i.e forward cover contacts are marked-to-market and losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognized until realized on grounds of prudence.

U Material events

Material events occurring after the balance sheet date are taken into cognizance in accordance with the principles laid down in AS 4 "Contingencies and events occurring after the balance sheet date".

(b) (i) Rights, preferences and restrictions attached to the equity shareholders:

The Company has one class of equity shares having par value of Rs,10 per share. Each shareholder is eligible for one vote per equity share held. In the event of liquidation of the Company, the equity shareholders are eligible to receive the remaining assets of the Company after distribution of all preferential amounts, in proportion to their shareholding.

(b) (ii) Rights, preferences and restrictions attached to the preference shareholders:

6% Non-convertible, Cumulative, Redeemable Unlisted Preference Shares (NCCRPS)

The Company has one class of preference shares having par value of Rs,10 per share. The holders of Preference Shares shall have a right to vote only on resolutions which directly affect their rights. The holders of Preference Shares shall also have a right to vote on every resolution placed before the Company at any meeting of the equity shareholders if dividend or any part of the dividend has remained unpaid on the said Preference Shares for an aggregate period of at least two years preceding the date of the meeting. NCCRPS are redeemable at par within 20 years from the date of allotment subject to the exercise of put and call option at the end of every year from the date of allotment. In the event of liquidation of the Company, NCCRPS shall be entitled to rank, as regards payment of Capital, in priority to the equity shares and the participation in surplus funds shall be limited to the arrears of dividend or unpaid dividend and redemption of NCCRP Shares.

Term loans

Term loans from banks and financial institutions are secured by way of equitable mortgage created or to be created on all the present and future immovable properties including all land, buildings, structures, all plant and machinery attached thereon of the Company and hypothecation of all the movable properties including movable machinery, spares, tools and accessories, etc., present and future, subject to prior charges created and / or to be created in favor of the Company''s bankers on stocks of raw materials, semi finished and finished goods, consumable stores and other movable, as may be required for working capital requirements in the ordinary course of business. The mortgages and charges referred to above rank pari-passu among the lenders (refer note 41 A for repayment terms).

With respect to the term loans from banks obtained by erstwhile Trident Corporation Limited (the Amalgamating Company), amalgamated with the Company with effect from the appointed date i.e. April 1, 2014, the same are secured by way of equitable mortgage created on the immovable properties including all buildings, structures, plant and machinery attached thereon and hypothecation of all the movable properties including movable machinery, spares, tools and accessories stocks of raw materials, semi finished goods, consumable stores and other moveable’s of the Amalgamating Company, as existing immediately prior to the amalgamation of the Amalgamating Company with the Company, (refer note 41 B for repayment terms).

Vehicles loans

Vehicle loans are secured by hypothecation of vehicles acquired against such loans (refer C for repayment terms).

For the current maturities of long-term borrowings, refer note 9 - other current liabilities.


Mar 31, 2015

A Accounting convention

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards specified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the 2013 Act") / Companies Act, 1956 ("the 1956 Act"), as applicable. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year.

B Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known/materialise.

C Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized at the time of transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer and when the Company does not retain effective control of goods transferred to a degree usually associated with ownership, i.e., at the point of dispatch of finished goods to the customers.

Revenue from sale of IT enabled annual maintenance contracts services is recognized on time proportion basis. Revenue from job charges is recognized when services are rendered and where no significant uncertainty exists regarding the collection of amount of consideration. The revenue in respect of duty drawback and similar other export benefits is recognized on post export basis at the rate at which the entitlements accrue and is included in the ''sale of products''.

Insurance claims are recognised when there exists no significant uncertainty with regard to the amounts to be realized and the ultimate collection thereof.

D Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest and amortisation of ancillary costs incurred in relation to borrowing, etc. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilised for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction/development of the qualifying asset upto the date of capitalisation of such asset are added to the cost of the assets. Qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use.

E Government grants/subsidies

Government grants and subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants/subsidy will be received. Government grants whose primary condition is that the Company should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire capital assets are presented by deducting them from the carrying value of the assets. The grant is recognized as income over the life of a depreciable asset by way of a reduced depreciation charge. Government grants with respect to Technology Upgradation Fund (TUF) subsidy is deducted from related finance costs.

F Accounting for taxes on income

Provision for taxation for the year is ascertained on the basis of assessable profits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is highly probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognized, subject to the consideration of prudence, on timing differences, being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originates in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. In respect of carry forward of losses and unabsorbed depreciation, deferred tax assets are recognized based on virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date.

G Employee benefits

The Company has various schemes of employees benefits such as provident fund, employees state insurance corporation (ESIC), gratuity and compensated absences, which are dealt with as under:

Provident fund and employees state insurance corporation (ESIC) are the defined contribution schemes offered by the Company. The contribution to these schemes are charged to statement of profit and loss of the year in which contribution to such schemes become due and when services are rendered by the employees.

The gratuity liability in respect of employees of the Company is covered through trusts'' group gratuity schemes managed by Life Insurance Corporation of India, SBI Life Insurance Company Limited, ICICI Prudential Life Insurance, Bajaj Allianz and PNB Metlife India Insurance Company Limited. The cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date by an independent valuer. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they occur.

Short-term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised on an undiscounted accrual basis during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date. The cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they occur.

H Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (net of CENVAT) less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost of acquisition is inclusive of freight, duties, taxes and other incidental expenses and interest on loan taken for the acquisition of qualifying assets up to the date the assets is ready for its intended use.

The Company has adopted the provisions of para 46/46A of AS 11 "The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates", accordingly, the exchange differences arising after April 1, 2007 on reinstatement/settlement of long term foreign currency borrowings relating to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets are adjusted to the cost of the respective assets and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets.

I Depreciation/amortization

Depreciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its estimated residual value.

Depreciation on tangible fixed assets has been provided on the straight-line method as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following categories of assets, in whose case the life of the assets has been assessed as under based on technical advice, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc.:

General plant and machinery on triple shift basis - 9.5 years

Computers including servers, network and end user devices - 5 years

Office equipments - 10 years

Vehicles - 6 years

Leasehold land is amortised over the duration of the lease.

The intangible asset (software) is amortised over the period of software license or 5 years, whichever is less.

J Investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less provision, if any, for diminution in value which is other than temporary. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

K Inventories

Raw materials, stores and spares, finished goods and work in progress are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. The basis of determining cost for various categories of inventories is as follows:

* Raw materials : weighted average cost

* Work in progress : cost of raw materials plus conversion cost depending upon the stage of completion

* Finished goods : cost of raw materials plus conversion cost, packing cost and excise duty

* Stores and spares : weighted average cost

L Foreign currency transactions

Exchange differences are dealt with as follows:

Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the exchange rate notified by the customs for invoice purposes.

Monetary items denominated in a foreign currency are reported at the closing rate as at the date of balance sheet. Non-monetary items, which are carried at fair value denominated in foreign currency, are reported at the exchange rate that existed when such values were determined, otherwise on historical exchange rate that existed on the date of transaction.

The exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting these items at rates different from the rates at which these were initially recorded/reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income/expense in the period in which they arise. Further, where foreign currency liabilities have been incurred in connection with fixed assets, the exchange differences arising on reinstatement/settlement thereof during the construction period are adjusted in the cost of the concerned fixed assets.

In case of forward exchange contracts (other than for the fixed assets), the premium or discount arising at the inception of such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Further, exchange difference on such contracts i.e. difference between the exchange rate at the reporting/settlement date and the exchange rate on the date of inception of contract/the last reporting date, is recognized as income/expense for the period. Further, where such contracts have been entered in connection with fixed assets, the exchange differences arising during construction period are adjusted in the cost of concerned fixed assets.

M Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets/cash generating units at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognised, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

N Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organisation and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

O Employee share-based payments

The Company has constituted Employee Stock Option Plans - 2007 and 2009. Employee stock options granted are accounted under the ''Intrinsic Value Method'' stated in the guidance note on employee share based payments issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

P Leases

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor are recognised as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Q Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the notes.

R Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

S Operating cycle

Based on the nature of products/activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.

T Derivative Contracts

The derivative contracts i.e forward cover contacts are marked-to-market and losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss other than forward cover contracts entered in relation to fixed assets. Gains arising on the same are not recognized until realized on grounds of prudence.

U Material events

Material events occurring after the balance sheet date which provides evidence of condition that existed as on balance sheet date, are taken into cognizance in accordance with the principles laid down in AS 4 "Contingencies and events occurring after the balance sheet date".


Mar 31, 2014

A Accounting convention

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under Section 211 (3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 ("the 1956 Act") [which continue to be applicable in respect of Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the 2013 Act") in terms of General Circular 15/2013 dated September 13, 2013 read with General Circular 08/2014 dated April 04, 2014 of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs] and the relevant provisions of the 1956 Act/2013 Act, as applicable. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year.

B Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known/materialise.

C Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized at the time of transfer of all significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer and when the Company does not retain effective control of goods transferred to a degree usually associated with ownership, i.e., at the point of dispatch of finished goods to the customers.

Revenue from sale of IT enabled annual maintenance contracts services is recognized on time proportion basis. Revenue from job charges is recognized when services are rendered and where no significant uncertainty exists regarding the collection of amount of consideration.

The revenue in respect of duty drawback and similar other export benefits is recognized on post export basis at the rate at which the entitlements accrue and is included in the revenue from operations.

Insurance claims are recognised when there exists no significant uncertainty with regard to the amounts to be realized and the ultimate collection thereof.

D Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilised for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction/development of the qualifying asset upto the date of capitalisation of such asset are added to the cost of the assets. Qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use.

E Government grants/subsidies

Government grants and subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants/subsidy will be received. Government grants whose primary condition is that the Company should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire capital assets are presented by deducting them from the carrying value of the assets. The grant is recognized as income over the life of a depreciable asset by way of a reduced depreciation charge. Government grants with respect to Technology Upgradation Fund (TUF) subsidy is deducted from related finance costs.

F Accounting for taxes on income

Provision for taxation for the year is ascertained on the basis of assessable profits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is highly probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company. Deferred tax is recognized, subject to the consideration of prudence, on timing differences, being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originates in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. In respect of carry forward of losses and unabsorbed depreciation, deferred tax assets are recognized based on virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date.

G Employee benefits

The Company has various schemes of employees benefits such as provident fund, employees state insurance corporation (ESIC), gratuity and compensated absences, which are dealt with as under:

Provident fund and employees state insurance corporation (ESIC) are the defined contribution schemes offered by the Company. The contribution to these schemes are charged to statement of profit and loss of the year in which contribution to such schemes become due and when services are rendered by the employees.

The gratuity liability in respect of employees of the Company is covered through trusts'' group gratuity schemes managed by Life Insurance Corporation of India, SBI Life Insurance Company Limited, ICICI Prudential Life Insurance and Metlife India Insurance Company Limited. The cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date by an independent valuer. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they occur.

Short-term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised on an undiscounted accrual basis during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date. The cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they occur.

H Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (net of CENVAT) less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost of acquisition is inclusive of freight, duties, taxes and other incidental expenses and interest on loan taken for the acquisition of qualifying assets up to the date the assets is ready for its intended use.

The Company has adopted the provisions of para 46/46A of AS 11 "The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates", accordingly, the exchange differences arising after April 1, 2007 on reinstatement/settlement of long term foreign currency borrowings relating to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets are adjusted to the cost of the respective assets and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets.

I Depreciation/amortization

i) Depreciation on fixed assets [other than those referred to in (ii) to (iv) below] is provided on straight line method in accordance with Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

ii) Assets costing Rs.5,000 or less are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.

iii) The intangible asset (software) is amortised over the period of software license or 5 years, whichever is less.

iv) The leasehold land is amortized over the lease term.

J Investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less provision, if any, for diminution in value which is other than temporary. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

K Inventories

Raw materials, stores and spares, finished goods and work in process are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. The basis of determining cost for various categories of inventories is as follows:

- Raw materials: weighted average cost

- Work in progress: cost of raw materials plus conversion cost depending upon the stage of completion.

- Finished goods: cost of raw materials plus conversion cost, packing cost and excise duty.

- Stores and spares: weighted average cost

L Foreign currency transactions

Exchange differences are dealt with as follows:

Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing as at the date of transactions except export sales which are recorded at a rate notified by the customs for invoice purposes, such rate is notified in the last week of the month and is adopted for recording export sales of the next month.

Monetary items denominated in a foreign currency are reported at the closing rate as at the date of balance sheet. Non-monetary items, which are carried at fair value denominated in foreign currency, are reported at the exchange rate that existed when such values were determined, otherwise on historical exchange rate that existed on the date of transaction.

The exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting these items at rates different from the rates at which these were initially recorded/reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income/expense in the period in which they arise except that such exchange differences which relate to fixed assets (Refer H above). Further, where foreign currency liabilities have been incurred in connection with fixed assets where the exchange difference during the construction period are adjusted in the cost of the concerned fixed assets.

In case of forward exchange contracts, the premium or discount arising at the inception of such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Further, exchange difference on such contracts i.e. difference between the exchange rate at the reporting/settlement date and the exchange rate on the date of inception of contract/the last reporting date, is recognized as income/expense for the period except that such exchange differences which relate to fixed assets are capitalized in the carrying amount of these assets. Further, where such contracts have been entered in connection with fixed assets, the exchange differences arising during construction period are adjusted in the cost of concerned fixed assets.

M Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets/cash generating units at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognised, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss, except in case of revalued assets.

N Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominantsource, nature of risks and returns and the internal organisation and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

O Employee share-based payments

The Company has constituted Employee Stock Option Plans - 2007 and 2009. Employee stock options granted are accounted under the ''Intrinsic Value Method'' stated in the guidance note on employee share based payments issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

P Leases

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor are recognised as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Q Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the notes.

R Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

S Operating cycle

Based on the nature of products/activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.

T Derivative Contracts

The derivative contracts i.e option contacts are marked-to-market and losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognized until realized on grounds of prudence.

U Material events

Material events occurring after the balance sheet date which provides evidence of condition that existed as on balance sheet date, are taken into cognizance in accordance with the principles laid down in AS 4 "Contingencies and events occurring after the balance sheet date".


Mar 31, 2013

A Accounting convention

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention

B Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known / materialise

C Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized at the time of transfer of all significant risk and reward of ownership to the buyer and company do not retain effective control of goods transferred to a degree usually associated with ownership i.e., at the point of dispatch of finished goods to the customers

Revenue from sale of IT enabled annual maintenance contracts services is recognized on time proportion basis

The revenue in respect of duty entitlement duty drawback and similar other export benefits are recognized on post export basis at the rate at which the entitlements accrues and is included in the revenue from operations nsurance claims are recognised when there exists no significant uncertainty with regard to the amounts to be realized and the ultimate collection thereof

D Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilised for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset upto the date of capitalisation of such asset is added to the cost of the assets. Qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use

E Government grants /subsidies

Government grants and subsidies are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants / subsidy will be received. Government grants whose primary condition is that the Company should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire capital assets are presented by deducting them from the carrying value of the assets. The grant is recognised as income over the life of a depreciable asset by way of a reduced depreciation charge. Government grants with respect to TUF subsidy is deducted from related finance costs and with respect to refundable sales tax is accounted for on accrual basis as other income

F Accounting for taxes on income

Provision for taxation for the year is ascertained on the basis of assessable profits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company

Deferred tax is recognized, subject to the consideration of prudence, on timing differences, being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originates in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. In respect of carry forward of losses and unabsorbed depreciation, deferred tax assets are recognized based on virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date

G Employee benefits

The Company has various schemes of employees benefits such as provident fund, employees state insurance corporation (ESIC), gratuity and compensated absences which is dealt with as under:

Provident fund and employees state insurance corporation (ESIC) are the defined contribution schemes offered by the Company. The contribution to these schemes are charged to statement of profit and loss of the year in which contribution to such schemes become due

The gratuity liability in respect of employees of the Company is covered through trusts'' group gratuity schemes managed by Life Insurance Corporation of India, SBI Life Insurance Company Limited, ICICI Prudential Life nsurance and Metlife India Insurance Company Limited The cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they occur

Short-term employee benefits

Theundiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised on an undiscounted accrual basis during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service

Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date. The cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they occur

H Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (net of CENVAT) less accumulated depreciation. Cost of acquisition is inclusive of freight, duties, taxes and other incidental expenses and interest on loan taken for the acquisition of qualifying assets up to the date of commissioning of assets

The Company has adopted the provisions of para 46 / 46A of AS 11 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates, accordingly, the exchange differences arising after April 1, 2007 on reinstatement/settlement of long term foreign currency borrowings relating to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets are adjusted to the cost of the respective assets and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets

I Depreciation/amortization

i) Depreciation on fixed assets [other than those referred to in (ii) to (iv) below] is provided on straight line method in accordance with Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956

ii) Assets costing Rs.5,000 or less are fully depreciated in the year of purchase

iii) The intangible asset (software) is amortised over a period of software license or 5 year, whichever is less

iv) The leasehold land is amortized over the lease period

J Investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less provision, if any, for diminution in value which is other than temporary Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value

K Inventories

Raw materials, stores and spares, finished goods and work in process are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. The basis of determining cost for various categories of inventories are as follows:

- Raw materials: weighted average cost

- Work in process: cost of raw materials plus conversion cost depending upon the stage of completion

- Finished goods: cost of raw materials plus conversion cost, packing cost and excise duty

- Stores and spares: weighted average cost

L Foreign currency transactions

Exchange differences are dealt with as follows:

Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing as at the date of transactions except export sales which are recorded at a rate notified by the customs for invoice purposes, such rate is notified in the last week of the month and is adopted for recording export sales of the next month

Monetary items denominated in a foreign currency are reported at the closing rate as at the date of balance sheet. Non-monetary items, which are carried at fair value denominated in a foreign currency, are reported at the exchange rate that existed when such values were determined, otherwise on historical exchange rate that existed on the date of transaction

The exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting these items at rate different from the rates at which these were initially recorded/ reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income/expense in the period in which they arise except that such exchange differences which relate to fixed assets (Refer H above). Further, where foreign currency liabilities have been incurred in connection with fixed assets where the exchange difference during the construction period are adjusted in the cost of the concerned fixed assets

In case of forward exchange contracts, the premium or discount arising at the inception of such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Further exchange difference on such contracts i.e. difference between the exchange rate at the reporting / settlement date and the exchange rate on the date of inception of contract / the last reporting date, is recognized as income/expense for the period except that such exchange difference which relate to fixed assets are capitalized in the carrying amount of these assets. Further where such contracts have been entered in connection with fixed assets, the exchange differences arising during construction period are adjusted in the cost of concerned fixed assets.

M Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets/cash generating units at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognised, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss, except in case of revalued assets

N Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organisation and management structure The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/ loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance

O Employee share-based payments

The Company has constituted employee stock option plans - 2007 and 2009. Employee stock options granted are accounted under the Intrinsic Value Method'' stated in the guidance note on employee share based payments issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India

P Leases

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor are recognised as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Q Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the notes

R Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year

For calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares

S Operating cycle

Based on the nature of products / activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current

T Derivative Contracts

The derivative contracts i.e option contracts are marked- to-market and losses are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gains arising on the same are not recognized until realized on grounds of prudence

U Material events

Material events occurring after the Balance Sheet date are taken into cognizance


Mar 31, 2012

A. Accounting convention

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1 956. The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention.

B. Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognized in the periods in which the results are known / materialize.

C. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized at the time of transfer of all significant risk and reward of ownership to the buyer and company do not retain effective control of goods transferred to a degree usually associated with ownership, i.e., at the point of dispatch of finished goods to the customers. Revenue from sale of IT enabled annual maintenance contracts services is recognized on time proportion basis.

The revenue in respect of duty entitlement pass book(DEPB) benefit, duty drawback and similar other benefits are recognized on post export basis at the rate at which the entitlements accrues and is included in the revenue from operations.

Insurance claims are recognized when there exists no significant uncertainty with regard to the amounts to be realized and the ultimate collection thereof.

D. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilized for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset up to the date of capitalization of such asset is added to the cost of the assets. Qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use.

E. Government grants / subsidies

Government grants and subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants / subsidy will be received. Government grants whose primary condition is that the Company should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire capital assets are presented by deducting them from the carrying value of the assets. The grant is recognized as income over the life of a depreciable asset by way of a reduced depreciation charge. Government grants with respect to TUF subsidy is deducted from related finance costs and with respect to refundable sales tax is accounted for on accrual basis as other income.

F. Accounting for taxes on income

Provision for taxation for the year is ascertained on the basis of assessable profits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognized as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company. Deferred tax is recognized, subject to the consideration of prudence, on timing differences, being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originates in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. In respect of carry forward of losses and unabsorbed depreciation, deferred tax assets are recognized based on virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized.

G. Employee benefits

The Company has various schemes of employees benefits such as provident fund, employees state insurance, gratuity and compensated absences, which is dealt with as under:

Provident fund and employees state insurance are the defined contribution schemes offered by the Company. The contribution to these schemes are charged to statement of profit and loss of the year in which contribution to such schemes become due.

The gratuity liability in respect of employees of the Company is covered through trusts' group gratuity schemes managed by Life Insurance Corporation of India, SBI Life Insurance Company Limited, ICICI Prudential Life Insurance and MetLife India Insurance Company Limited. The cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they occur.

Short-term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognized on an undiscounted accrual basis during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognized as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation as at the Balance Sheet date. The cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet

Note g SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Contd.)

date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they occur.

H. Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (net of CENVAT) less accumulated depreciation. Cost of acquisition is inclusive of freight, duties, taxes and other incidental expenses and interest on loan taken for the acquisition of qualifying assets up to the date of commissioning of assets.

The exchange differences arising after April 1, 2007 on reinstatement/settlement of long term foreign currency borrowings relating to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets are adjusted to the cost of the respective assets and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets.

I. Depreciation/amortization

i) Depreciation on fixed assets [other than those referred to in (ii) to (iv) below] is provided on straight line method in accordance with Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

ii) Assets costing Rs. 5,000 or less are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.

iii) The intangible asset (software) is amortized over a period of software license or 5 year, whichever is less.

iv) The leasehold land is amortized over the lease period.

J. Investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less provision, if any, for diminution in value which is other than temporary. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

K. Inventories

Raw materials, stores and spares, finished goods and work in process are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. The basis of determining cost for various categories of inventories are as follows:

- Raw materials: weighted average cost

- Work in process: cost of raw materials plus conversion cost depending upon the stage of completion.

- Finished goods: cost of raw materials plus conversion cost, packing cost and excise duty.

- Stores and spares: weighted average cost

L. Foreign currency transactions

Exchange differences are dealt with as follows:

Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing as at the date of transactions except export sales which are recorded at a rate notified by the customs for invoice purposes, such rate is notified in the last week of the month and is adopted for recording export sales of the next month. The exchange fluctuation arising on billing through banker is accounted for as difference in exchange rates. The amount of such differences in exchange rate is included under turnover.

Monetary items denominated in a foreign currency are reported at the closing rate as at the date of balance sheet. Non-monetary items, which are carried at fair value denominated in a foreign currency, are reported at the exchange rate that existed when such values were determined, otherwise on historical exchange rate that existed on the date of transaction.

The exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting these items at rate different from the rates at which these were initially recorded/reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income/expense in the period in which they arise except that such exchange differences which relate to fixed assets (Refer FI above). Further, where foreign currency liabilities have been incurred in connection with fixed assets where the exchange difference during the construction period are adjusted in the cost of the concerned fixed assets.

In case of forward exchange contracts, the premium or discount arising at the inception of such contracts is amortized as income on expense over the life of the contract. Further exchange difference on such contracts i.e. difference between the exchange rate at the reporting / settlement date and the exchange rate on the date of inception of contract / the last reporting date, is recognized as income / expense for the period except that such exchange difference which related to fixed assets are capitalized in the carrying amount of these assets. Further, where such contracts have been entered in connection with fixed assets, the exchange differences arising during construction period are adjusted in the cost of concerned fixed assets.

M. Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets/cash generating units at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment. If any indication of impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets is estimated and impairment is recognized, if the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognized for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognized in the statement of profit and loss, except in case of revalued assets.

N. Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organization and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the executive Management in deciding howto allocate resources and in assessing performance.

O. Employee share-based payments

The Company has constituted employee stock option plans - 2007 and 2009. Employee stock options granted are accounted under the 'Intrinsic Value Method' stated in the guidance note on employee share based payments issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

P. Leases

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the less or are recognized as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Q. Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the notes.

R. Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

S. Material events

Material events occurring after the Balance Sheet date are taken into cognizance.


Mar 31, 2011

A. Accounting convention

The accounts are prepared on accrual basis under the Historical Cost Convention in accordance with the Accounting Standards referred to in sub section (3C) of Section 211 of the Companies Act, 1956 and other relevant presentational requirements of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the years presented. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

C. Revenue recognition

- Revenue is recognized at the time of transfer of all significant risk and reward of ownership to the buyer and Company do not retain effective control of goods transferred to a degree usually associated with ownership.

- The revenue in respect of DEPB benefit and similar other benefits are recognized on post export basis at the rate at which the entitlement accrues and is included in the turnover.

- Insurance claims are recognized when there exists no significant uncertainty with regard to the amounts to be realized and the ultimate collection thereof.

D. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to acquisition or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as part of cost of such assets. Qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are recognized as expenses in the period in which they are incurred.

E. Government grants/subsidies

Government grants/subsidies are accrued only on conclusive evidence that conditions attaching to the grants have been fulfilled and deducted from the related expenses.

F. Accounting for taxes on income

Provision for taxation for the year is ascertained on the basis of assessable profits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income- tax Act, 1961.

Deferred tax is recognized, subject to the consideration of prudence, on timing differences, being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originates in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. In respect of carry forward of losses and unabsorbed depreciation, deferred tax assets are recognized based on virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized.

G. Employee benefits

The Company has various schemes of retirement benefits such as provident fund, gratuity and leave encashment, which is dealt with as under:

a) Contributions to provident fund are made in accordance with the provisions of Employee's Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 and are charged to revenue every year.

b) The gratuity liability is covered through trusts' group gratuity schemes managed by Life Insurance Corporation of India, SBI Life Insurance Company Ltd, ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Company Limited and Metlife India Insurance Company Limited. The contributions paid to trusts towards the premium of such group gratuity schemes, is on the basis of actuarial valuation and is charged to revenue every year. (Refer note 7 also).

c) Provision for leave encashment (including long term compensated absences) is made based on actuarial valuation.

Liability attributing to the long-term period of service, comprising mainly of bonus etc., is recognized on a straight-line basis to the period of service to which it relates.

Liability on account of short term employee benefits, comprising mainly compensated absences and performance incentives, is recognized on an undiscounted accrual basis during the period, when the employee renders services/ vesting period of the benefit.

H. Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (net of CENVAT) less accumulated depreciation. Cost of acquisition is inclusive of freight, duties, taxes and other incidental expenses and interest on loan taken for the acquisition of qualifying assets up to the date of commissioning of assets.

In line with Notification No. G.S.R. 225 (E) dated March 31, 2009 and subsequent notification dated May 11, 2011 issued by The Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India, the exchange differences arising after April 1, 2007 upto March 31, 2012 on reporting of long term foreign currency monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period, or reported in previous financial statements, in so far as they relate to the acquisition of a depreciable capital asset, have been added to or deducted from the cost of the asset and are depreciated over the balance useful life of the asset. `

I. Depreciation/amortization

i. Depreciation on fixed assets [other than those referred to in (ii) to (v) below] is provided on straight line method in accordance with Schedule XIV to the Companies Act 1956.

ii. Assets costing Rs.5,000 or less are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.

iii. The depreciable amount of intangible asset (software) is systematically allocated over a period of software license or 5 year, whichever is less.

iv. The leasehold land is amortized over the lease period.

v. Capital expenditure in respect of assets not owned by the Company is amortized over the period of five years.

J. Investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less provision, if any, for diminution in value which is other than temporary. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

K. Inventories

Raw materials, finished goods and work in process are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. Stores and spares are valued at cost or under. The cost formulas adopted in respect of inventories are as under:

– Stores and spares: weighted average cost

– Raw materials: weighted average cost

– Finished goods: cost of raw materials plus conversion cost, packing cost and excise duty.

– Work in process: cost of raw materials plus conversion cost depending upon the stage of completion.

L. Foreign currency transactions

i) Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing as at the date of transactions except export sales which are recorded at a rate notified by the customs for invoice purposes. Such rate is notified in the last week of the month and is adopted for recording export sales of the next month. The exchange fluctuation arising on billing through banker is accounted for as difference in exchange rates. The amount of such differences in exchange rate is included under turnover.

ii) Monetary items denominated in a foreign currency are reported at the closing rate as at the date of balance sheet. Non-monetary items, which are carried at fair value denominated in a foreign currency, are reported at the exchange rate that existed when such values were determined, otherwise on historical exchange rate that existed on the date of transaction.

iii) The exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting these items at rate different from the rates at which these were initially recorded/reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income/expense in the period in which they arise except that such exchange differences which relate to fixed assets acquired up to March 31, 2011 are capitalized in the carrying amount of these assets (Refer H above also). Further, where foreign currency liabilities have been incurred in connection with fixed assets where the exchange difference during the construction period are adjusted in the cost of the concerned assets.

iv) In case of forward exchange contracts, the premium or discount arising at the inception of such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Further exchange difference on such contracts i.e. difference between the exchange rate at the reporting / settlement date and the exchange rate on the date of inception of contract / the last reporting date, is recognized as income / expense for the period except that such exchange difference which relate to fixed assets acquired up to March 31, 2011 are capitalized in the carrying amount of these assets. Further, where such contracts have been entered in connection with fixed assets, the exchange differences arising during construction period are adjusted in the cost of concerned assets.

M. Impairment of assets

At each balance sheet date an assessment is made whether any indication exists that an asset has been impaired. If any such indication exists, an impairment loss, i.e., the amount by which the carrying amount of asset exceeds its recoverable amount is provided in the books of account.

N. Employee Share-based Payments

Intrinsic Value Method is used to account for share based payments to employees.

O. Leases

Lease rentals are expensed with reference to lease terms.

P. Earnings per Share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

Q. Material Events

Material events occurring after the Balance Sheet date are taken into cognisance.


Mar 31, 2010

A. Accounting convention

The accounts are prepared on accrual basis under the Historical Cost Convention in accordance with the Accounting Standards referred to in sub section (3C) of Section 211 of the Companies Act, 1956 and other relevant presentational requirements of the Companies Act, 1956.

B. Revenue recognition

- The revenue in respect of sales is recognized as and when the risk and reward in the goods is transferred to the buyer.

- The revenue in respect of DEPB benefit and similar other benefits are recognized on post export basis at the rate at which the entitlement accrues and is included in the turnover.

- Insurance claims are recognized when there exists no significant uncertainty with regard to the amounts to be realized and the ultimate collection thereof.

C. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to acquisition or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as part of cost of such assets. Qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are recognized as expenses in the period in which they are incurred.

D. Government grants / subsidies

Government grants/ subsidies are accrued only on conclusive evidence that conditions attaching to the grants have been fulfilled and deducted from the related expenses.

E. Accounting for taxes on income

Provision for taxation for the year is ascertained on the basis of assessable profits computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income- tax Act, 1961.

Deferred tax is recognized, subject to the consideration of prudence, on timing differences, being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originates in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. In respect of carry forward of losses and unabsorbed depreciation, deferred tax assets are recognized based on virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized.

F. Employee benefits

The Company has various schemes of retirement benefits such as provident fund, gratuity and leave encashment, which is dealt with as under:

a) Contributions to provident fund are made in accordance with the provisions of Employee’s Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 and are charged to revenue every year.

b) The gratuity liability in respect of employees of the Company is covered through trusts’ group gratuity schemes managed by Life Insurance Corporation of India and SBI Life Insurance Company Ltd. The contributions paid to trusts towards the premium of such group gratuity schemes are charged to revenue every year. (Refer note 7 also).

c) Provision for leave encashment (including long term compensated absences) is made based on actuarial valuation.

Liability attributing to the long-term period of service, comprising mainly of bonus etc., is recognized on a straight-line basis to the period of service to which it relates.

Liability on account of short term employee benefits, comprising mainly compensated absences and performance incentives, is recognized on an undiscounted accrual basis during the period when the employee renders services/ vesting period of the benefit.

G. Fixed assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (net of CENVAT) less accumulated depreciation. Cost of acquisition is inclusive of freight, duties, taxes and other incidental expenses and interest on loan taken for the acquisition of qualifying assets up to the date of commissioning of assets.

In line with Notification No. G.S.R. 225 (E) dated March 31, 2009 issued by The Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India, the exchange differences arising after April 1, 2007 on reporting of long term foreign currency monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period, or reported in previous financial statements, in so far as they relate to the acquisition of a depreciable capital asset, have been added to or deducted from the cost of the asset and shall be depreciated over the balance useful life of the asset.

H. Depreciation/amortization

i. Depreciation on fixed assets [other than those referred to in (ii) to (v) below] is provided on straight line method in accordance with Schedule XIV to the Companies Act 1956, except in case of one of the Co-generation and Recovery Plants, in respect of which higher depreciation is provided on the basis of technological evaluation of a Chartered Engineer and Management’s estimate of useful life of these plants

ii. Assets costing Rs. 5,000 or less are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.

iii. The depreciable amount of intangible asset is systematically allocated over its useful life. The software acquired for internal use is amortized over a period of five years.

iv. The leasehold land is amortized over the lease period.

v. Capital Expenditure in respect of assets not owned by the Company is amortized over the period of five years.

I. Investments

Long-term investments are carried at cost less provision, if any, for diminution in value which is other than temporary. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value.

J. Inventories

Raw materials, finished goods and work in process are valued at cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower. Stores and spares are valued at cost or under. The cost formulas adopted in respect of inventories are as under:

- Stores and spares: weighted average cost

- Raw materials: weighted average cost

- Finished goods: cost of raw materials plus conversion cost, packing cost and excise duty.

- Work in process: cost of raw materials plus conversion cost depending upon the stage of completion.

K. Foreign currency transactions

i) Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing as at the date of transactions except export sales which are recorded at a rate notified by the customs for invoice purposes. Such rate is notified in the last week of the month and is adopted for recording export sales of the next month. The exchange fluctuation arising on billing through banker is accounted for as difference in exchange rates. The amount of such differences in exchange rate is included under turnover.

ii) Monetary items denominated in a foreign currency are reported at the closing rate as at the date of balance sheet. Non-monetary items, which are carried at fair value denominated in a foreign currency, are reported at the exchange rate that existed when such values were determined, otherwise on historical exchange rate that existed on the date of transaction.

iii) The exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting these items at rate different from the rates at which these were initially recorded/reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income/expense in the period in which they arise except that such exchange differences which relate to fixed assets acquired up to March 31,2004 and after April 1, 2007 are capitalised in the carrying amount of these assets and those exchange difference which relate to fixed assets acquired from outside India during April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2007 have been capitalized till March 31, 2007. Further, where foreign currency liabilities have been incurred in connection with fixed assets where the exchange difference during the construction period are adjusted in the cost of the concerned assets.

iv) In case of forward exchange contracts, the premium or discount arising at the inception of such contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of the contract. Further exchange difference on such contracts i.e. difference between the exchange rate at the reporting / settlement date and the exchange rate on the date of inception of contract / the last reporting date, is recognized as income / expense for the period except that such exchange difference which relate to fixed assets acquired up to March 31, 2004 and after April 1, 2007 are capitalized in the carrying amount of these assets and those exchange differences which relate to fixed assets acquired from outside India during April 1,2004 to March 31,2007 have been capitalised till March 31, 2007. Further where such contracts have been entered in connection with fixed assets, the exchange differences arising during construction period are adjusted in the cost of concerned assets.

L. Impairment of assets

At each balance sheet date an assessment is made whether any indication exists that an asset has been impaired. If any such indication exists, an impairment loss, i.e., the amount by which the carrying amount of asset exceeds its recoverable amount is provided in the books of account.

M. Employee Share-based Payments

Intrinsic Value Method is used to account for share based payments to employees