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Accounting Policies of V Mart Retail Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

1. Corporate Information

V-Mart Retail Limited (the "Company") was incorporated on 24 July 2002. The Company retails readymade garments, accessories etc. and is engaged in the business of "Value Retailing" through the chain of stores situated at various places in India.

2. Basis of Preparation

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The Company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules 2014. The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention.

The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of financial statements are consistent with those of previous year, except for the change in accounting policy explained below.

2.1 Summary of significant accounting policies

(a) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management's best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods.

(b) Fixed assets Tangibles

Fixed assets are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price. Stores under commissioning and other assets under erection/installation are shown under capital work in progress and are carried at cost, comprising of direct cost and related incidental expenses.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

Intangibles

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

Depreciation on tangible fixed assets

Till the year ended 31 March 2014, the useful lives prescribed under Schedule XIV of Companies Act, 1956 were used for charging depreciation. With effect from current year, schedule XIV has been replaced by Schedule II of Companies Act, 2013. Schedule II of Companies Act, 2013 prescribed the useful lives of fixed asset which, in many cases, are different from lives prescribed under Schedule XIV.

Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on the straight-line method, computed on the basis of useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013, on a pro-rata basis from the date the asset is ready to put to use subject to adjustments arising out of transitional provisions of Schedule II.

Considering the applicability of Schedule II as mentioned above, in respect of certain class of assets – the Company has assessed the useful lives (as mentioned in the table below) lower than as prescribed in the Schedule II, based on the technical advice received.

Depreciation on intangible assets

Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life.

(c) Leases

Operating lease

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Lease payments under an operating lease are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line method over the lease term.

Finance lease

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased asset, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the lessee's incremental borrowing rate.

(d) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the statement of profit and loss as incurred.

(e) Impairment

At each Balance Sheet date, the Company assesses whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount and the reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If at the Balance Sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost and is accordingly reversed in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(f) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis.

For current investments, any reduction to fair value and any reversal of such reductions are included in the statement of profit and loss. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

(g) Inventories

Inventories are valued as follows

Raw materials and packing materials are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined based on first in first out method.

Finished goods are valued at lower cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials, labour, and all other costs of purchase incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined based on first in first out method. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and to make the sale.

(h) Revenue recognition

Revenue from sale of goods

Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer i.e. on delivery of goods to customers, revenue is recognized net of returns and trade discounts.

Others

- Income from interest is accounted for on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable rate of interest.

- Store display income and insurance claims are accounted on receipt basis.

- Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive payment is established.

(i) Foreign currency transactions:

Monetary items at the Balance Sheet date are translated using the rates prevailing on the Balance Sheet date. Transactions in foreign currency and non-monetary assets/liabilities are accounted for at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. All monetary items denominated in foreign currency are converted at the period-end exchange rate. The exchange differences arising on such conversion and on settlement of the transactions are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(j) Employee benefits

Expenses and liabilities in respect of employee benefits are recorded in accordance with Accounting Standard 15- Employee Benefits (Revised 2005).

Provident fund

The Company contributes on a defined contribution basis to Employees' Provident Fund and Employees'State Insurance Fund towards post-employment benefits, all of which are administered by the respective Government authorities, and has no further obligation beyond making its contribution, which is expensed in the year to which it pertains.

Gratuity

Gratuity is a post-employment benefit and is in the nature of a defined benefit plan. The liability recognized in the Balance Sheet in respect of gratuity is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the Balance Sheet date, together with adjustments for unrecognized actuarial gains or losses and past service costs. The defined benefit obligation is calculated by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year to which such gains or losses relate.

Compensated absences

Provision for compensated absences when determined to be a long term benefit is made on the basis of actuarial valuation as at the end of the year using projected unit credit method by an independent actuary. Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss in the year in which such gains or losses arise. Provision related to short term compensated absences of workers is made on the basis of actuarial valuation as at the end of the year.

Other short term benefits

Expense in respect of other short term benefits including performance bonus is recognized on the basis of the amount paid or payable for the period during which services are rendered by the employee.

Employee Stock Option Scheme (ESOP)

Expense in respect of stock options granted to the employees under the stock options schemes is measured at intrinsic value of the stock options in accordance with the Guidance Note on Employee Share Based Payments issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. Accordingly, the excess of market price, determined as per the guidance note, of underlying equity shares (fair value), over the exercise price of the options is recognized as deferred stock compensation expense and is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the vesting period of the options.

(k) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.

At each balance sheet date, the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

(l) Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT)

Minimum alternate tax ('MAT') credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognised as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in guidance note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT credit entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT credit entitlement to the extent it is not reasonably certain that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period.

(m) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of dilutive potential equity shares.

(n) Provisions

A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

(o) Contingent liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statement.

(p) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term bank deposits with an original maturity of three months or less.


Mar 31, 2014

(a) Tangible fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Fixed assets under construction and cost of assets not ready for use before the year-end, are presented as capital work in progress.

Depreciation on tangible assets other than leasehold improvements is provided on written down value method at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. In respect of assets acquired/sold during the year, depreciation has been provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the days of addition or disposal. Depreciation on leasehold improvements is provided over their respective lease period or the estimated useful life of the leased assets, whichever is shorter.

All individual assets costing Rs.5,000 or less are depreciated at 100% on pro-rata basis based on the period the asset has been in use.

(b) Intangible assets and amortization

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Depreciation on intangible assets is provided on written down value method at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

(c) Leases Operating leases:

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Lease payments under an operating lease are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line method over the lease term.

Finance leases:

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased asset, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the lessee''s incremental borrowing rate. If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

(d) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred.

(e) Impairment

At each Balance Sheet date, the Company assesses whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount and the reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If at the Balance Sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost and is accordingly reversed in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(f) Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long term investments.

Long-term investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long term investments is made when the decline is other than temporary in nature.

Current investments are stated at lower of cost and market value determined on an individual investment basis.

(f) Inventories

Inventories are valued as follows:

Raw materials and packing materials are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined based on first in first out method.

Finished goods are valued at lower cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials, labor, and all other costs of purchase incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined based on first in first out method. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and to make the sale.

(g) Revenue recognition Revenue from sale of goods:

Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer i.e. on delivery of goods to customers, revenue is recognized net of returns and trade discounts.

Others:

* Income from interest is accounted for on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable rate of interest.

* Store display income and insurance claims are accounted on receipt basis.

* Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive payment is established.

(h) Foreign currency transactions

Monetary items at the Balance Sheet date are translated using the rates prevailing on the Balance Sheet date. Transactions in foreign currency and non-monetary assets/liabilities are accounted for at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. All monetary items denominated in foreign currency are converted at the period-end exchange rate. The exchange differences arising on such conversion and on settlement of the transactions are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(i) Employee benefits

Expenses and liabilities in respect of employee benefits are recorded in accordance with Accounting Standard 15- Employee Benefits (Revised 2005) "Revised AS 1 5" of Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006

i) Provident fund

The Company contributes on a defined contribution basis to Employees'' Provident Fund and Employees'' State Insurance Fund towards post-employment benefits, all of which are administered by the respective Government authorities, and has no further obligation beyond making its contribution, which is expensed in the year to which it pertains.

ii) Gratuity

Gratuity is a post-employment benefit and is in the nature of a defined benefit plan. The liability recognized in the Balance Sheet in respect of gratuity is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the Balance Sheet date, together with adjustments for unrecognized actuarial gains or losses and past service costs. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year to which such gains or losses relate.

iii) Compensated absences

Compensated absences can only be availed during the calendar year at the end of which, any balance remaining shall lapse. Liability in respect of compensated absences has been recognized on the basis of earned leave available at the end of the financial year.

iv) Other short term benefits

Expense in respect of other short term benefits including performance bonus is recognized on the basis of the amount paid or payable for the period during which services are rendered by the employee.

v) Employee Stock Option Scheme (ESOS)

Expense in respect of stock options granted to the employees under the stock options schemes is measured at intrinsic value of the stock options in accordance with the Guidance Note on Employee Share Based Payments issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. Accordingly, the excess of market price, determined as per the guidance note, of underlying equity shares (fair value), over the exercise price of the options is recognized as deferred stock compensation expense and is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the vesting period of the options.

(j) Share issue expenses

The share issue expenses are adjusted against the balance in Securities Premium Account as permitted under Section 78 of the Companies Act, 1956.

(k) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current income-tax and deferred tax. Current income-tax is determined in respect of taxable income with deferred tax being determined as the tax effect of timing differences representing the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originate in one period, and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent period(s). Such deferred tax is quantified using rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the end of the financial year.

(I) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of dilutive potential equity shares.

(m) Contingent liabilities and provisions

Depending upon the facts of each case and after due evaluation of legal aspects, claims against the Company not acknowledged as debts are treated as contingent liabilities. In respect of statutory dues disputed and contested by the Company, contingent liabilities are provided for and disclosed as per original demand without taking into account any interest or penalty that may accrue thereafter. The Company makes a provision when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event where the outflow of economic resources is probable and a reliable estimate of the amount of obligation can be made. Possible future or present obligations that may but will probably not require outflow of resources or where the same cannot be reliably estimated, has been disclosed as a contingent liability in the financial statements.

(n) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term bank deposits with an original maturity of three months or less.

(o) Measurement of Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit/ (loss) from continuing operations. In its measurement, the Company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs and tax expense.


Mar 31, 2013

(a) Tangible fixed assets and depreciation

Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Fixed assets under construction and cost of assets not ready for use before the year-end, are presented as capital work in progress.

Depreciation on tangible assets other than leasehold improvements is provided on written down value method at the rates prescribed under Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956. In respect of assets acquired/sold during the year, depreciation has been provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the days of addition or disposal. Depreciation on leasehold improvements is provided over their respective lease period or the estimated useful life of the leased assets, whichever is shorter.

(b) Intangible assets and amortization

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful life not exceeding six years.

The amortization period and the amortization method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from previous estimates, the amortization period is changed accordingly.

(c) Leases Operating leases:

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases.Lease payments under an operating lease are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line method over the lease term.

Finance leases:

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased asset, are capitalised at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the lessee''s incremental borrowing rate. If there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

(d) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred.

(e) Impairment

At each balance sheet date, the Company assesses whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount and the reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost and is accordingly reversed in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(f) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long term investments.

Long-term investments are stated at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of long term investments is made when the decline is other than temporary in nature.

Current investments are stated at lower of cost and market value determined on an individual investment basis.

(g) Inventories

Inventories are valued as follows:

Raw materials, stores, spare parts and packing materials are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, raw materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished goods in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined based on first in first out method.

Work-in-progress and finished goods (including consignment stock) are valued at lower cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials, labour, and all other costs of purchase incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined based on first in first out method. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and to make the sale.

(h) Revenue recognition

Revenue from sale of goods:

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer i.e. on delivery of goods to customers, revenue is recognised net of returns and trade discounts.

Others:

- Income from interest is accounted for on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable rate of interest.

- Store display income and insurance claims are accounted on receipt basis.

- Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

(i) Foreign currency transactions

Monetary items at the balance sheet date are translated using the rates prevailing on the balance sheet date. Transactions in foreign currency and non-monetary assets/liabilities are accounted for at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. All monetary items denominated in foreign currency are converted at the period-end exchange rate. The exchange differences arising on such conversion and on settlement of the transactions are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(j) Employee benefits

Expenses and liabilities in respect of employee benefits are recorded in accordance with Accounting Standard 15- Employee

Benefits (Revised 2005) "Revised AS 15" of Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006.

i) Provident fund

The Company contributes on a defined contribution basis to Employees'' Provident Fund and Employees'' State Insurance Fund towards post-employment benefits, all of which are administered by the respective Government authorities, and has no further obligation beyond making its contribution, which is expensed in the year to which it pertains.

ii) Gratuity

Gratuity is a post-employment benefit and is in the nature of a defined benefit plan. The liability recognised in the balance sheet in respect of gratuity is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date, together with adjustments for unrecognised actuarial gains or losses and past service costs. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year to which such gains or losses relate.

iii) Compensated absences

Compensated absences are encashed at the end of each financial year or subsequent to year end and cannot be carried forward. Liability in respect of compensated absences has been recognised on the basis of earned leave available at the end of the year.

iv) Other short term benefits

Expense in respect of other short term benefits including performance bonus is recognised on the basis of the amount paid or payable for the period during which services are rendered by the employee.

v) Employee Stock Option Scheme (ESOS)

Expense in respect of stock options granted to the employees under the stock options schemes is measured at intrinsic value of the stock options in accordance with the Guidance Note on Employee Share Based Payments issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. Accordingly, the excess of market price, determined as per the guidance note, of underlying equity shares (fair value), over the exercise price of the options is recognised as deferred stock compensation expense and is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the vesting period of the options.

(k) Share issue expenses

The share issue expenses are adjusted against the balance in Securities Premium Account as permitted under Section 78 of the Companies Act, 1956.

(l) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises current income-tax and deferred tax. Current income-tax is determined in respect of taxable income with deferred tax being determined as the tax effect of timing differences representing the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originate in one period, and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent period(s). Such deferred tax is quantified using rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the end of the financial year.

(m) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of dilutive potential equity shares.

(n) Contingent liabilities and provisions

Depending upon the facts of each case and after due evaluation of legal aspects, claims against the Company not acknowledged as debts are treated as contingent liabilities. In respect of statutory dues disputed and contested by the Company, contingent liabilities are provided for and disclosed as per original demand without taking into account any interest or penalty that may accrue thereafter. The Company makes a provision when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event where the outflow of economic resources is probable and a reliable estimate of the amount of obligation can be made. Possible future or present obligations that may but will probably not require outflow of resources or where the same cannot be reliably estimated, has been disclosed as a contingent liability in the financial statements.

(o) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term bank deposits with an original maturity of three months or less.

(p) Measurement of Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA).

As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, the Company has elected to present earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company measures EBITDA on the basis of profit/ (loss) from continuing operations. In its measurement, the Company does not include depreciation and amortization expense, finance costs and tax expense.

 
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