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Accounting Policies of Va Tech Wabag Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2017

1 | Nature of Operations

VA Tech Wabag Limited (''the Company''), its subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures (collectively referred to as ''the Group'') is one of the world''s leading companies in the water treatment field. The Company''s principal activities include design, supply, installation, construction and operational management of drinking water, waste water treatment, industrial water treatment and desalination plants. The shares of the Company are listed in the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE). The Company is domiciled in India and its registered office and its principal place of business is ''WABAG HOUSE'', No.17, 200 Feet Thoraipakkam - Pallavaram Main Road, Sunnambu Kolathur, Chennai - 600 117.

2 | General information and statement of compliance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)

The standalone financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) as per Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standard) Amendment Rules, 2016 as notified under section 133 of Companies Act, 2013 (the "Act”) and other relevant provisions of the Act.

The Company has adopted all the Indian Accounting Standards and the adoption was carried out in accordance with Ind AS 101 First time adoption of Indian Accounting Standards. The transition was carried out from Accounting Principles generally accepted in India as prescribed under Section 133 of the Act, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (IGAAP), which was the previous GAAP.

The standalone financial statements as at and for the year ended 31 March 2017 are approved and authorized for issue by the Board of Directors on 25 May 2017.

The standalone financial statements of the Company are prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis except for certain financial assets and financial liabilities that have been measured at fair value. These standalone financial statements are presented in lakhs of Indian rupees '' which is also the Company''s functional currency, except per share data and as otherwise stated. Figures for the previous years have been regrouped/rearranged wherever considered necessary to conform to the figures presented in the current year.

3 | Summary of significant accounting policies

3.1 Overall considerations

The standalone financial statements have been prepared using the significant accounting policies and measurement basis summarized below. These accounting policies have been used throughout all periods presented in the standalone financial statements, except where the Company has applied certain accounting policies and exemptions upon transition to Ind AS.

Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.

In accordance with Ind AS 101, the Company presents three balance sheets, two statement of profit and loss, two statements of cash flows and two statements of changes in equity and related notes, including comparative information for all statements presented, in its first Ind AS financial statements. In future periods, Ind AS 1 requires two comparative periods to be presented for the balance sheet only in certain circumstances.

3.2 Investments in subsidiaries, joint venture, associates and joint operations

Investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates are accounted at cost less impairment, if any. Investments in joint operations are accounted by using proportionate consolidation method in the standalone financial statements. The Company does not have any investments in joint operations for the year ended 31 March 2017.

3.3 Foreign currency translation Functional and presentation currency

The standalone financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees '', which is also the functional currency of the Company.

Foreign currency transactions and balances Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency of the Company, using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions, duly approximated. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the measurement of monetary items denominated in foreign currency at year-end exchange rates are recognized as other income in statement of profit and loss.

Non-monetary items are not re-translated at year-end and are measured at historical cost (translated using the exchange rates at the transaction date), except for non-monetary items measured at fair value which are translated using the exchange rates at the date when fair value was determined.

3.4 Revenue recognition

Revenue is measured at the fair value of consideration received or receivable by the Company for goods supplied and services provided, excluding trade discounts, Value Added Taxes and other applicable taxes and are recognized upon the performance of service or transfer of risk to the customer.

Revenue is recognized when the amount can be measured reliably, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company, the costs incurred or to be incurred can be measured reliably, and when the criteria for each of the Company''s different activities has been met. These activity-specific recognition criteria are based on the goods or services provided to the customer and the contract conditions in each case, and are as described below.

Construction contracts

Contract revenue and Contract costs in respect of construction contracts, execution of which is spread over different accounting periods is recognized as revenue and expense respectively by reference to the basis of percentage of completion method of the project at the reporting date.

The percentage of completion is measured by reference to the contract costs incurred up to the end of the reporting period as a percentage of total estimated costs for each contract. Only costs that reflect work performed are included in cost incurred to date.

When the Company cannot measure the outcome of a contract reliably, revenue is recognized only to the extent of contract costs that have been incurred and are recoverable. Contract costs are recognized in the period in which they are incurred. In situations when it is probable that the total contract costs will exceed total contract revenues, the expected loss is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

The gross amount due from customers for contract work is presented within trade receivables for all contracts in progress for which costs incurred plus recognized profits (less recognized losses) exceeds progress billing. The gross amount due to customers for contract work is presented within other liabilities for all contracts in progress for which progress billings exceed costs incurred plus recognized profits (less recognized losses).

Operations and maintenance

The revenue from operations and maintenance for water and waste water treatment is recognized over the period during which the service is rendered.

Interest, dividends, duty drawback and other entitlements

Income from interest is being accounted for on-time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable rate of interest.

Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.

Income from duty drawback and export benefit under duty free credit entitlements is recognized in the statement of profit and loss, when right to receive license as per terms of the scheme is established in respect of exports made and there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the export proceeds, as applicable.

3.5 Cost of sales and services

Cost of sales and services comprise costs including estimated costs that are directly related to the contract, attributable to the contract activity in general and such costs that can be allocated to the contract and specifically chargeable to the customer under the terms of the contracts, which is charged to the statement of profit and loss.

3.6 Property, plant and equipment Land

Land (other than investment property) held for use in production or administration is stated at cost. As no finite useful life for land can be determined, related carrying amounts are not depreciated.

Buildings and other equipment Buildings and other equipment (comprising plant and machinery, furniture and fittings, electrical equipment, office equipment, computers and vehicles) are initially recognized at acquisition cost, including any costs directly attributable to bringing the assets to the location and condition necessary for them to be capable of operating in the manner intended by the Company''s management. Buildings and other equipment are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and any impairment losses. Cost of property, plant and equipment not ready for the intended use before reporting date is disclosed as capital work in progress.

Subsequent expenditure incurred on an item of property, plant and equipment is added to the book value of that asset only if this increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Depreciation on assets is provided on straight-line method at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except for vehicles where the management believes that the useful life of 5 years would best represent the period over which the management expects to use these assets and the residual value is 20% of the acquisition cost which is considered to be the amount recoverable at the end of the asset''s useful life. Hence the useful life of these assets is different from that prescribed under Part C of Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013.

Gains or losses arising on the disposal of property, plant and equipment are determined as the difference between the disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the assets and are recognized in statement of profit and loss within other income or other expenses.

The components of assets are capitalized only if the life of the components vary significantly and whose cost is significant in relation to the cost of respective asset. The life of components in assets are determined based on technical assessment and past history of replacement of such components in the assets.

3.7 Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, the intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment, if any.

Software is stated at cost less accumulated amortization and are being amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful life of 5 years.

Amortization has been included within depreciation & amortization expense.

Gains or losses that arise on disposal or retirement of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying value of an intangible asset and are recognized in profit and loss when the intangible asset is derecognized.

The amortization period and method are reviewed at each balance sheet date. Residual values and useful lives are reviewed at each reporting date. In addition, they are subject to impairment as detailed in note 3.8.

3.8 Impairment testing of intangible assets and property, plant and equipment For impairment assessment purposes, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are largely independent cash inflows (cash-generating units). As a result, some assets are tested individually for impairment and some are tested at cash-generating unit level. Goodwill (if any) is allocated to those cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from synergies of a related business combination and represent the lowest level within the Company at which management monitors goodwill.

All individual assets or cash-generating units are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable.

An impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the asset''s (or cash-generating units) carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount, which is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value-in-use. To determine the value-in-use, management estimates expected future cash flows from each cash-generating unit and determines a suitable discount rate in order to calculate the present value of those cash flows. The data used for impairment testing procedures are directly linked to the Company''s latest approved budget, adjusted as necessary to exclude the effects of future reorganizations and asset enhancements. Discount factors are determined individually for each cash-generating unit and reflect current market assessments of the time value of money and asset-specific risk factors.

Impairment losses for cash-generating units reduce first the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to that cash-generating unit. Any remaining impairment loss is charged pro-rata to the other assets in the cash-generating unit. With the exception of goodwill, all assets are subsequently reassessed for indications that an impairment loss previously recognized may no longer exist. An impairment loss is reversed if the asset''s or cash-generating unit''s recoverable amount exceeds its carrying amount.

3.9 Operating leases

All leases other than finance lease are treated as operating leases. Where the Company is a lessee, payments on operating lease agreements are recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Associated costs, such as maintenance and insurance, are expensed as incurred.

3.10 Finance leases

Management applies judgment in considering the substance of a lease agreement and whether it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased asset. Key factors considered include i) the length of the lease term in relation to the economic life of the asset ii) the present value of the minimum lease payments in relation to the asset''s fair value, and iii) whether the Company obtains ownership of the asset at the end of the lease term.

For leases of land and buildings, the minimum lease payments are first allocated to each component based on the relative fair values of the respective lease interest. If the minimum lease payments cannot be allocated reliably between the two components, entire lease is classified as a finance lease, unless it is clear that both elements are operating leases, in which case the entire lease is classified as an operating lease. Each component is then evaluated separately for possible treatment as a finance lease, taking into consideration the fact that land normally has an indefinite economic life.

The interest element of lease payments is charged to statement of profit and loss, as finance costs over the period of the lease.

3.11 Financial instruments

Financial assets (other than trade receivables) and financial liabilities are recognized when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the financial instrument and are measured initially at fair value adjusted for transaction costs, except for those carried at fair value through statement of profit and loss which are measured initially at fair value. Subsequent measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities is described below. Trade receivables are recognized at their transaction price as the same do not contain significant financing component.

a) Classification and subsequent measurement of financial assets

For the purpose of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified and measured based on the entity''s business model for managing the financial asset and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset at:

a. Amortized cost

b. Fair Value Through Other Comprehensive Income (FVTOCI) or

c. Fair Value Through Profit or Loss (FVTPL)

All financial assets are reviewed for impairment at least at each reporting date to identify whether there is any objective evidence that a financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. Different criteria to determine impairment are applied for each category of financial assets, which are described below.

b) Financial assets at amortized cost Includes assets that are held within a business model where the objective is to hold the financial assets to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms gives rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

These assets are measured subsequently at amortized cost using the effective interest method. The loss allowance at each reporting period is evaluated based on the expected credit losses for next 12 months and credit risk exposure. The Company shall also measure the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on that financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition.

c) Financial assets at Fair Value Through Other Comprehensive Income (FVTOCI)

Includes assets that are held within a business model where the objective is both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets along with the contractual terms giving rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. At initial recognition, the Company based on its assessment makes an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income the changes in the fair value of an investment in an equity instrument that is not held for trading. These elections are made on an instrument-by instrument (i.e., share-by-share) basis. If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, impairment gains or losses and foreign exchange gains and losses, are recognized in other comprehensive income. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to profit or loss, even on sale of investment. The dividends from such instruments are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

The fair value of financial assets in this category are determined by reference to active market transactions or using a valuation technique where no active market exists.

The loss allowance at each reporting period is evaluated based on the expected credit losses for next 12 months and credit risk exposure. The Company shall also measure the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on that financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition. The loss allowance shall be recognized in other comprehensive income and shall not reduce the carrying amount of the financial asset in the balance sheet.

d) Financial assets at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss (FVTPL)

Financial assets at FVTPL include financial assets that are designated at FVTPL upon initial recognition and financial assets that are not measured at amortized cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income. All derivative financial instruments fall into this category, except for those designated and effective as hedging instruments, for which the hedge accounting requirements apply. Assets in this category are measured at fair value with gains or losses recognized in statement of profit and loss. The fair value of financial assets in this category are determined by reference to active market transactions or using a valuation technique where no active market exists.

The loss allowance at each reporting period is evaluated based on the expected credit losses for next 12 months and credit risk exposure. The Company shall also measure the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on that financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition. The loss allowance shall be recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Hedge accounting

To qualify for hedge accounting, the hedging relationship must meet several strict conditions with respect to documentation, probability of occurrence of the hedged transaction and hedge effectiveness.

These arrangements have been entered into to mitigate currency exchange risk arising from certain legally binding sales and purchase orders denominated in foreign currency. For the reporting periods under review, the Company has not designated any forward currency contracts as hedging instruments.

e) Trade receivables

The Company follows ''simplified approach'' for recognition of impairment loss allowance on Trade receivables which does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognizes impairment loss allowance based on lifetime Expected Credit Loss at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

f) De-recognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognized (i.e. removed from the Company''s standalone balance sheet) when:

i. The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

ii. The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ''pass-through'' arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognize the transferred asset to the extent of the Company''s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognizes an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.

g) Classification, subsequent measurement and de-recognition of financial liabilities Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss or at amortized cost.

The Company''s financial liabilities include borrowings, trade and other payables and derivative financial instruments.

h) Subsequent measurement

Financial liabilities are measured subsequently at amortized cost using the effective interest method except for derivatives and financial liabilities designated at FVTPL, which are carried subsequently at fair value with gains or losses recognized in statement of profit and loss (other than derivative financial instruments that are designated and effective as hedging instruments).

Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified debtor fails to make a payment when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognized initially as a liability at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind-AS 109 and the amount recognized less cumulative amortization.

All interest-related charges and, if applicable, changes in an instrument''s fair value that are reported in statement of profit and loss are included within finance costs or finance income.

De-recognition

A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the de-recognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

3.12 Inventories

Inventory of stores and spares are stated at lower of cost and net realizable value and is determined on weighted average cost method. Cost of inventories include all other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated cost to completion and applicable selling expenses.

Construction work in progress are contract costs incurred for a future activity on a contract and are recognized as an asset if it is probable that they would be recovered. The cost comprises of material and other expenses directly attributable to the contract.

3.13 Income taxes

Tax expense recognized in statement of profit and loss comprises the sum of deferred tax and current tax not recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.

Calculation of current tax is based on tax rates in accordance with tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period. Deferred income taxes are calculated using the liability method on temporary differences between tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at reporting date. Deferred taxes pertaining to items recognized in other comprehensive income are also disclosed under the same head.

Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that the underlying tax loss or deductible temporary difference will be utilized against future taxable income. This is assessed based on the Company''s forecast of future opening results, adjusted for significant non-taxable income and expenses and specific limits on the use of any unused tax loss or credit. Deferred tax is not provided on the initial recognition of goodwill, or on the initial recognition of an asset or liability unless the related transaction is a business combination or affects tax or accounting profit.

Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognized in full, although Ind AS 12 ''Income Taxes'' specifies limited exemptions. As a result of these exemptions the Company does not recognize deferred tax liability on temporary differences relating to goodwill, or to its investments in subsidiaries.

Changes in deferred tax assets or liabilities are recognized as a component of tax income or expense in statement of profit and loss, except where they relate to items that are recognized in other comprehensive income (such as re-measurement of net defined benefit plan) or directly in equity, in which case the related deferred tax is also recognized in other comprehensive income or equity, respectively.

3.14 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand and demand deposits, together with other short-term, highly liquid investments maturing within 3 months from the date of acquisition that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

3.15 Equity, reserves and dividend payments

Share capital represents the nominal (par) value of shares that have been issued and paid-up.

Other components of equity include the following:

i. Accumulated other comprehensive income which includes re-measurement of net defined benefit liabilities.

ii. General reserve represents the accumulated surplus transferred from the Statement of Profit and Loss.

iii. Share premium includes any premiums received on issue of share capital. Any transaction costs associated with the issuing of shares are deducted from share premium, net of any related income tax benefits.

iv. Surplus in the statement of profit and loss includes all current and previous period retained profits.

v. Stock option outstanding account includes the value of equity-settled share based payment transactions with employees.

All transactions with owners are recorded separately within equity.

3.16 Post-employment benefits and short-term employee benefits Defined contribution plan

a. Contribution to Provident Fund is in the nature of defined contribution plan and are made to a recognized fund.

b. Contribution to Superannuation Fund is in the nature of defined contribution plan and is remitted to Insurance Company in accordance with the scheme framed by the Corporation.

The Company has no legal or constructive obligations to pay contributions in addition to its fixed contributions, which are recognized as an expense in the period that related employee services are received.

provident fund

The Company makes contribution to the statutory provident fund in accordance with Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952, which is a defined contribution plan, and contribution paid or payable is recognized as an expense in the period in which it falls due.

Superannuation Fund

Contribution made towards Superannuation Fund (funded by payments to Insurance Company) which is a defined contribution plan, is charged as expenses on accrual basis. There are no obligations other than the contribution made to respective fund.

Defined benefit plan

Under the Company''s defined benefit plans, the amount of benefit that an employee will receive on retirement is defined by reference to the employee''s length of service and final salary. The legal obligation for any benefits remains with the Company, even if plan assets for funding the defined benefit plan have been set aside. Plan assets may include assets specifically designated to a long-term benefit fund as well as qualifying insurance policies.

The defined benefit plans maintained by the Company are as below:

i. Gratuity

The liability recognized in the statement of financial position for defined benefit plans is the present value of the Defined Benefit Obligation (DBO) at the reporting date less the fair value of plan assets. Management estimates the DBO annually with the assistance of independent actuaries. This is based on standard rates of inflation, salary growth rate and mortality. Discount factors are determined close to each year-end by reference to high quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid and that have terms to maturity approximating the terms of the related gratuity liability.

Service cost on the Company''s defined benefit plan is included in employee benefits expense. Employee contributions, all of which are independent of the number of years of service, are treated as a reduction of service cost. Actuarial gains and losses resulting from measurements of the net defined benefit liability are included in other comprehensive income.

The plan assets represent qualifying insurance policies that are administered by Insurance Company.

ii. Leave salary - compensated absences

The Company also extends defined benefit plans in the form of compensated absences to employees. Provision for compensated absences is made on actuarial valuation basis.

3.17 Employees stock option plan

Share-based compensation benefits are provided to employees via "Employee Stock Option Scheme 2010” of the Company.

The fair value of options granted under the "Employee Stock Option Scheme 2010” is recognized as an employee benefits expense with a corresponding increase in equity. The total amount to be expensed is determined by reference to the fair value of the options granted:

a) including any market performance conditions (e.g., the entity''s share price) including any market performance conditions (e.g., the entity''s share price)

b) excluding the impact of any service and non-market performance vesting conditions (e.g. profitability, sales growth targets and remaining an employee of the entity over a specified time period) and

c) including the impact of any non-vesting conditions (e.g. the requirement for employees to save or holdings shares for a specific period of time).

3.18 provisions, contingent assets and contingent liabilities

Provisions for warranties, legal disputes, or other claims are recognized when the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of economic resources will be required from the Company and amounts can be estimated reliably. Timing or amount of the outflow may still be uncertain.

Provisions are measured at the estimated expenditure required to settle the present obligation, based on the most reliable evidence available at the reporting date, including the risks and uncertainties associated with the present obligation. Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required in settlement is determined by considering the class of obligations as a whole. Provisions are discounted to their present values, where the time value of money is material.

Any reimbursement that the Company is virtually certain to collect from a third party with respect to the obligation is recognized as a separate asset. However, this asset may not exceed the amount of the related provision.

No liability is recognized if an outflow of economic resources as a result of present obligations is not probable. Such situations are disclosed as contingent liabilities if the outflow of resources is remote.

The Company does not recognize contingent assets unless the realization of the income is virtually certain, however these are assessed continually to ensure that the developments are appropriately disclosed in the standalone financial statements.

3.19 Earnings per equity share

Basic earnings per equity share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events including a bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares). For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per equity share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

3.20 Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit/(loss) before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future receipts or payments. In the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents includes cash in hand, cheques on hand, balances with banks in current accounts and other short- term highly liquid investments with original maturities of 3 months or less, as applicable.

3.21 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalized during the period of time that is necessary to complete and prepare the asset for its intended use or sale. Other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred and reported in finance costs.

3.22 Significant management judgment in applying accounting policies and estimation uncertainty When preparing the standalone financial statements, management makes a number of judgments, estimates and assumptions about the recognition and measurement of assets, liabilities, income and expenses.

(i) Significant management judgment

The following are significant management judgments in applying the accounting policies of the Company that have the most significant effect on the standalone financial statements.

Recognition of construction contract revenues Recognizing construction contract revenue also requires significant judgment in determining actual work performed and the estimated costs to complete the work (refer note 36).

Recognition of deferred tax assets

The extent to which deferred tax assets can be recognized is based on an assessment of the probability that future taxable income will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and tax loss carry forwards can be utilized. In addition, significant judgment is required in assessing the impact of any legal or economic limits or uncertainties in various tax jurisdictions.

(ii) Estimation uncertainty

Information about estimates and assumptions that have the most significant effect on recognition and measurement of assets, liabilities, income and expenses is provided below. Actual results may be substantially different.

Impairment of non-financial assets In assessing impairment, management estimates the recoverable amount of each asset or cash- generating units based on expected future cash flows and uses an interest rate to discount them. Estimation uncertainty relates to assumptions about future operating results and the determination of a suitable discount rate.

Inventories

Management estimates the net realizable values of inventories, taking into account the most reliable evidence available at each reporting date. The future realization of these inventories may be affected by future technology or other market-driven changes that may reduce future selling prices.

Defined Benefit Obligation (DBO) Management''s estimate of the DBO is based on a number of critical underlying assumptions such as attrition rate, mortality, discount rate and anticipation of future salary increases. Variation in these assumptions may significantly impact the DBO amount and the annual defined benefit expenses (as analyzed in Note 20).

Useful lives of depreciable assets Management reviews its estimate of the useful lives of depreciable assets at each reporting date, based on the expected utility of the assets. Uncertainties in these estimates relate to technological obsolescence that may change the utility of certain software and IT equipment.

Fair value measurement

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

i. In the principal market for the asset or liability, or

ii. In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability

Management uses valuation techniques to determine the fair value of financial instruments (where active market quotes are not available) and non-financial assets. This involves developing estimates and assumptions consistent with how market participants would price the instrument. Management bases its assumptions on observable data as far as possible but this is not always available. In that case management uses the best information available. Estimated fair values may vary from the actual prices that would be achieved in an arm''s length transaction at the reporting date (see Note 42).

Current and non-current classification All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013. Based on the nature of products and time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents, the company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current or non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

3.23 Transfer pricing

As per the Transfer pricing norms introduced in India with effect from 1 April 2001, the Company is required to use certain specific methods in computing arm''s length price of international transactions between the associated enterprises and maintain prescribed information and documents relating to such transactions. The appropriate method to be adopted will depend on the nature of transactions/class of transactions, class of associated persons, functions performed and other factors, which have been prescribed. The Transfer pricing study for the fiscal year ended 31 March 2017 is in progress and accordingly, the contracts may be amended subsequently and related adjustment, if any, will be quantified upon completion of this study. However, in the opinion of the Management, the outcome of the study will not have material impact on the Company''s results.


Mar 31, 2013

1.1 Basis of accounting

The financial statements are prepared under the historic cost convention on accrual basis of accounting in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") applicable in India. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central Government in exercise of the power conferred under sub-section (1)(a) of Section 642 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. The management evaluates all recently issued or revised accounting standards on an ongoing basis.

1.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting periods. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from those estimates and revisions, if any, are recognised in the current and future periods.

1.3 Tangible assets and depreciation/ amortisation

Tangible assets are stated at acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost of acquisition comprises of purchase price and directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use and is net of refundable duties and taxes as applicable. Cost of fixed assets not ready for the intended use before such date is disclosed as capital work in progress.

Subsequent expenditure incurred on an item of tangible asset is added to the book value of that asset only if this increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Gains or losses that arise on disposal or retirement of an asset are measured as the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying value of an asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised. Depreciation on assets is provided on written down value method at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

1.4 Intangibles

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, the intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment, if any.

Goodwill represents the excess of acquisition cost over the carrying amount of the Company''s share of the identifiable net assets of the acquiree at the date of acquisition. Goodwill is amortised on a straight line basis over its estimated useful life of 5 years.

Software is stated at cost less accumulated amortization and are being amortised on a straight line basis over the estimated useful life of 5 years.

Gains or losses that arise on disposal or retirement of an asset are measured as the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying value of an asset and are recognised in the Statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

The amortisation period and method are reviewed at each balance sheet date. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from the previous estimates, the amortisation period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefit from the asset, the method of amortisation is changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 5, Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

1.5 Impairment of assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. An asset''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''s or cash generating unit''s net selling price and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of those from other assets or group of assets. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount and the reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the Statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost and is accordingly reversed in the statement of profit and loss.

1.6 Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and are intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Long-term investments are valued at cost. Provision is made for diminution in value to recognize a decline, if any, other than that of temporary in nature. Current investments are valued at lower of cost and fair market value. Gains or losses that arise on disposal of an investment are measured as the difference between disposal proceeds and the carrying value and are recognised in the Statement of profit and loss.

1.7 Inventories

Inventory of stores and spares are stated at lower of cost and net realizable value and is determined on weighted average cost method. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated cost to completion and applicable selling expenses.

Construction work in progress are contract costs incurred for a future activity on a contract and are recognized as an asset if it is probable that they would be recovered. The cost comprises of material and other expenses directly attributable to the contract.

1.8 Revenue recognition

Revenue is measured on the basis of consideration received or receivable by the Company for goods supplied and services provided, excluding trade discounts, VAT and other applicable taxes and are recognised upon the performance of service or transfer of risk to the customer.

Revenue is recognised when the amount of revenue can be measured reliably, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company, the costs incurred or to be incurred can be measured reliably, and when the criteria for each of the Company''s different activities has been met. These activity-specific recognition criteria are based on the goods or solutions provided to the customer and the contract conditions in each case, and are as described below.

Operations and Maintenance

The revenue from operations and maintenance for water and waste water treatment is recognised over the period during which the service is rendered.

Construction contracts

Contract Revenue and Contract Costs in respect of construction contracts, execution of which is spread over different accounting periods is recognized as revenue and expense respectively by reference to the basis of percentage of completion method of the project at the Balance Sheet date.

Determination of revenues under the percentage of completion method by the Company is based on estimates (some of which are technical in nature) concerning the percentage of completion, which is a proportion of work certified to contract value, costs to completion, expected revenue from the contract and the foreseeable losses of completion.

Foreseeable losses, if any, which are based on technical estimates, are provided in the accounts irrespective of the work done. Unearned revenue on contracts where progress billings exceed costs incurred plus recognized profits (less loss) is the gross advance amount received from customers for contract work and is presented as a liability for all contracts in progress.

Other revenues

Income from interest is being accounted for on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable rate of interest. Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive is established by the reporting date. Income from duty drawback and export benefit under duty free credit entitlements is recognized in the statement of profit and loss, when right to receive license as per terms of the scheme is established in respect of exports made and there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the export proceeds, as applicable.

1.9 Cost of Sales and services

Cost of sales and services comprise costs including estimated costs that are directly related to the contract, attributable to the contract activity in general and such costs that can be allocated to the contract and specifically chargeable to the customer under the terms of the contracts, which is charged to the statement of profit and loss account based on the percentage of revenue recognised as per accounting policy (2.8) above, in consonance with the concept of matching costs and revenue. Final adjustment is made on completion of the applicable project.

1.10 Taxation

Provision for tax for the year comprises current income tax and deferred tax. Provision for current income tax is made based on the estimated tax liability in accordance with the relevant tax rates and tax laws.

Current tax is payable on taxable profits, which differ from profit or loss in the financial statements. Current tax is computed based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years. Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed by the Company at each balance sheet date and the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset is written down to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised.

Unrecognised deferred tax assets of earlier years are re-assessed and recognised to the extent that it has become reasonably certain that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

The Company offsets deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if the Company has a legally enforceable right to set off assets against liabilities representing current tax.

1.11 Foreign currency translations

Transactions in foreign currency and non-monetary assets are accounted for at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. All monetary items denominated in foreign currency are converted at the year-end exchange rate. The exchange differences arising on such conversion and on settlement of the transactions are dealt with in the statement of profit and loss Gain or loss on forward exchange contract, not in the nature of hedge, is calculated based on difference between forward rate available at the reporting date for the remaining maturity of the contract and the contracted forward rate. The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as income or expense over the life of contract and exchange differences on such contracts is recognised as income or expense in the reporting period in which the exchange rate change.

1.12 Retirement and other employee benefits Provident fund

The Company makes contribution to the statutory provident fund in accordance with Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952, which is a defined contribution plan, and contribution paid or payable is recognized as an expense in the period in which it falls due.

Gratuity

Gratuity is a post employment benefit and is in the nature of a defined benefit obligation. The liability recognised in the balance sheet in respect of gratuity is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated at the balance sheet date by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses arising from past experience and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss in the year in which such losses or gains are determined. Compensated absences

Liability in respect of compensated absences becoming due or expected to be availed after the balance sheet date is estimated on the basis of an actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses arising from past experience and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss in the year in which such losses or gains are determined. Accumulated compensated absences which are expected to be availed or encashed beyond 12 month from the end of the year end are treated as other long term employee benefits. Superannuation Fund

Contribution made towards Superannuation Fund (funded by payments to ICICI Prudential Life Insurance) which is a defined contribution plan, is charged as expenses on accrual basis. There are no obligations other than the contribution made to respective fund.

1.13 Employees Stock Option Plan

The accounting value of stock options is determined on the basis of "intrinsic value" representing the excess of the market price on the date of grant over the exercise price of the shares granted under the "Employees Stock Option Scheme" of the Company, and is being amortised as "Deferred employees compensation" on a straight-line basis over the vesting period in accordance with the Guidance Note 18 "Employee share-based payments" issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India and the Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme Guidelines, 1999 issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India.

1.14 Contingent liabilities and provisions

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event i.e., it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. A disclosure of the contingent liability is made when there is a possible or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources.

1.15 Cash and Cash equivalents

In the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalent includes cash in hand, cheques on hand, balances with banks in current accounts and other short term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.

1.16 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events including a bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares). For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

1.17 Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight- line basis over the lease term.


Mar 31, 2012

1.1 Basis of accounting

The financial statements are prepared under the historic cost convention on accrual basis of accounting in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") applicable in India. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central Government in exercise of the power conferred under sub-section (1)(a) of Section 642 and relevant the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. The management evaluates all recently issued or revised accounting standards on an ongoing basis.

1.2 Changes in presentation and disclosure of financial statements

Pursuant to the notification of the revised Schedule VI under the Companies Act, 1956, the Company has prepared and presented its financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2012 in accordance with the notification and has consequently reclassified its previous year figures to confirm with the current year's classification as specified in the revised Schedule VI notification. Until the previous year ended 31 March 2011, the Company was using the pre-revised Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 for preparation and presentation of its financial statements. Except for accounting of dividend on investment in subsidiaries, the adoption of the revised Schedule VI does not impact the recognition or measurement principles followed for preparation of financial statements. However, the revised Schedule VI has impacted the presentation and disclosures made in the financial statements generally and particularly the presentation of the Balance sheet of the Company.

1.3 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting periods. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from those estimates and revisions, if any, are recognized in the current and future periods.

1.4 Tangible assets and depreciation/ amortization

Tangible assets are stated at acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost of acquisition comprises of purchase price and directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use and is net of CENVAT credits as applicable. Cost of fixed assets not ready for the intended use before such date is disclosed as capital work in progress.

Subsequent expenditure incurred on an item of Tangible asset is added to the book value of that asset only if this increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.

Gains or losses that arise on disposal or retirement of an asset are measured as the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying value of an asset and are recognized in the Statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

Depreciation on assets is provided on written down value method at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

1.5 Intangibles

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, the intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment, if any.

Goodwill represents the excess of acquisition cost over the carrying amount of the Company's share of the identifiable net assets of the acquire at the date of acquisition. Goodwill is amortized on a straight line basis over its estimated useful life of 5 years. Software is stated at cost less accumulated amortization and are being amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful life of 5 years.

Gains or losses that arise on disposal or retirement of an asset are measured as the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying value of an asset and are recognized in the Statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized. The amortization period and method are reviewed at each balance sheet date. If the expected useful life of the asset is significantly different from the previous estimates, the amortization period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefit from the asset, the method of amortization is changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes are accounted in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 5, Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.

1.6 Impairment of assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. An asset's recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's or cash generating unit's net selling price and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of those from other assets or group of assets. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount and the reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the Statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost and is accordingly reversed in the statement of profit and loss.

1.7 Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and are intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investments are made are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long term investments. Long term investments are valued at cost. Provision is made for diminution in value to recognize a decline, if any other than that of temporary in nature. Current investments are valued at lower of cost and fair market value. Gains or losses that arise on disposal of an investment are measured as the difference between disposal proceeds and the carrying value and are recognised in the Statement of profit and loss.

1.8 Inventory

Inventory of stores and spares are stated at lower of cost and net realizable value and is determined on weighted average cost method. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated cost to completion and applicable selling expenses.

Construction work in progress are contract costs incurred for a future activity on a contract and are recognized as an asset if it is probable that they would be recovered. The cost comprises of material and other expenses directly attributable to the contract.

1.9 Revenue Recognition

Revenue is measured on the basis of consideration received or receivable by the Company for goods supplied and services provided, excluding trade discounts, VAT and other applicable taxes and are recognized upon the performance of service or transfer of risk to the customer.

Revenue is recognized when the amount of revenue can be measured reliably, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity, the costs incurred or to be incurred can be measured reliably, and when the criteria for each of the Company's different activities has been met. These activity-specific recognition criteria are based on the goods or solutions provided to the customer and the contract conditions in each case, and are as described below.

Operations and Maintenance

The revenue from operations and maintenance for water and waste water treatment is recognized over the period during which the service is rendered.

Construction contracts

Contract Revenue and Contract Costs in respect of construction contracts, execution of which is spread over different accounting periods is recognized as revenue and expense respectively by reference to the basis of percentage of completion method of the project at the Balance Sheet date.

Determination of revenues under the percentage of completion method by the Company is based on estimates (some of which are technical in nature) concerning the percentage of completion, which is a proportion of work certified to contract value, costs to completion, expected revenue from the contract and the foreseeable losses of completion.

Foreseeable losses, if any, which are based on technical estimates, are provided in the accounts irrespective of the work done.

Unearned revenue on contracts where progress billings exceed costs incurred plus recognized profits (less loss) is the gross advance amount received from customers for contract work and is presented as a liability for all contracts in progress.

Other revenues

Income from interest is being accounted for on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable rate of interest. Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive is established by the reporting date.

Income from duty drawback is recognized on accrual basis as revenue on completion of export sale, as applicable.

1.10 Cost of Sales and services

Cost of sales and services comprise costs including estimated costs that are directly related to the contract, attributable to the contract activity in general and such costs that can be allocated to the contract and specifically chargeable to the customer under the terms of the contracts, which is charged to the statement of profit and loss account based on the percentage of revenue recognized as per accounting policy (2.9) above, in consonance with the concept of matching costs and revenue. Final adjustment is made on completion of the applicable project.

1.11 Taxation

Provision for tax for the year comprises current income tax and deferred tax. Provision for current income tax is made based on the estimated tax liability in accordance with the relevant tax rates and tax laws.

Current tax is payable on taxable profits, which differ from profit or loss in the financial statements. Current tax is computed based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years. Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed by the Company at each balance sheet date and the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset is written down to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized.

Unrecognized deferred tax assets of earlier years are re-assessed and recognized to the extent that it has become reasonably certain that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The Company offsets deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if the Company has a legally enforceable right to set off assets against liabilities representing current tax.

1.12 Foreign currency translations

Transactions in foreign currency and non-monetary assets are accounted for at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. All monetary items denominated in foreign currency are converted at the year-end exchange rate. The exchange differences arising on such conversion and on settlement of the transactions are dealt with in the statement of profit and loss.

Gain or loss on forward exchange contract, not in the nature of hedge, is calculated based on difference between forward rate available at the reporting date for the remaining maturity of the contract and the contracted forward rate. The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortized as income or expense over the life of contract and exchange differences on such contracts is recognized as income or expense in the reporting period in which the exchange rate change.

1.13 Retirement and other employee benefits Provident fund

The Company makes contribution to the statutory provident fund in accordance with Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952, which is a defined contribution plan, and contribution paid or payable is recognized as an expense in the period in which services are rendered by the employee.

Gratuity

Gratuity is a post employment benefit and is in the nature of a defined benefit plan. The liability recognized in the balance sheet in respect of gratuity is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated at the balance sheet date by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses arising from past experience and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss in the year in which such losses or gains are determined.

Compensated absences

Liability in respect of compensated absences becoming due or expected to be availed after the balance sheet date is estimated on the basis of an actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses arising from past experience and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to the profit and loss account in the year in which such losses or gains are determined. Accumulated compensated absences which are expected to be availed or encased beyond 12 month from the end of the yearend are treated as other long term employee benefits.

Superannuation Fund

Contribution made towards Superannuation Fund (funded by payments to ICICI Prudential Life insurance) which is a defined contribution plan, is charged to revenue on accrual basis. There are no obligations other than the contribution made to respective trust.

1.14 Employees Stock Option Plan

The accounting value of stock options is determined on the basis of "intrinsic value" representing the excess of the market price on the date of grant over the exercise price of the shares granted under the "Employees Stock Option Scheme" of the Company, and is being amortized as "Deferred employees compensation" on a straight-line basis over the vesting period in accordance with the Guidance Note 18 "Employee share-based payments" issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India and the Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme Guidelines, 1999 issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India.

1.15 Contingent liabilities and provisions

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event i.e., it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. A disclosure of the contingent liability is made when there is a possible or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources.

1.16 Cash and Cash equivalents

In the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalent includes cash in hand, cheques on hand, balances with banks in current accounts and other short term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.

1.17 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events including a bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares). For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

1.18 Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight- line basis over the lease term.


Mar 31, 2011

A. basis of accounting

The financial statements are prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") applicable in India. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 issued by the Central Government in exercise of the power conferred under sub-section (1)(a) of Section 642 and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. The management evaluates all recently issued or revised accounting standards on an ongoing basis.

b. Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting periods. Although these estimates are based upon managements knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from those estimates and revisions, if any, are recognised in the current and future periods.

c. Fixed assets and depreciation/ amortisation

Fixed assets are stated at acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost of acquisition is inclusive of duties, taxes, freight and other directly attributable costs incurred to bring the assets to its working condition for intended use and are net of CENVAT credits as applicable.

Advances paid towards acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each balance sheet date and cost of fixed assets not ready for their intended use before such date are disclosed as capital work-in-progress.

Depreciation on assets is provided on written down value method at the rates and in the manner prescribed in schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

d. Intangibles

Goodwill represents the excess of acquisition cost over the carrying amount of the Companys share of the identifiable net assets of the acquiree at the date of acquisition. Goodwill is amortised over 5 years.

Software is stated at cost less accumulated amortization and are being amortised over the estimated useful life of 5 years.

e. borrowing costs

Borrowing costs that are attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the profit and loss account as incurred.

f. Impairment of assets

The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount and the reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the profit and loss account. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciated historical cost and is accordingly reversed in the profit and loss account.

g. Investments

Long-term investments are valued at cost. Provision is made for diminution in value to recognize a decline, if any other than that of temporary in nature. Current investments are valued at lower of cost and fair market value.

h. Inventory

Inventory of stores and spares are stated at lower of cost and net realizable value and is determined on weighted average cost method. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less any applicable selling expenses.

Construction work in progress are contract costs incurred for a f uture activity on a contract and are recognized as an asset if it is probable that they would be recovered. The cost comprises of material and other expenses directly attributable to the contract.

i. Revenue recognition and receivables

Revenue is measured on the basis of consideration received or receivable by the Company for goods supplied and services provided, excluding trade discounts, VAT and other applicable taxes and are recognised upon the performance of service or transfer of risk to the customer.

Revenue is recognised when the amount of revenue can be measured reliably, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity, the costs incurred or to be incurred can be measured reliably, and when the criteria for each of the Companys different activities has been met. These activity-specific recognition criteria are based on the goods or solutions provided to the customer and the contract conditions in each case, and are as described below.

Operations and Maintenance

The revenue from operations and maintenance for water and waste water treatment is recognised over the period during which the service is rendered.

construction contracts

Contract Revenue and Contract Costs in respect of construction contracts, execution of which is spread over different accounting periods is recognized as revenue and expense respectively by reference to the basis of percentage of completion method of the project at the Balance Sheet date.

Determination of revenues under the percentage of completion method by the Company is based on estimates (some of which are technical in nature) concerning the percentage of completion, costs to completion, expected revenue from the contract and the foreseeable losses of completion.

Foreseeable losses, if any, which are based on technical estimates, are provided in the accounts irrespective of the work done.

Unearned revenue on contracts where progress billings exceed costs incurred plus recognized profits (less loss) is the gross advance amount received from customers for contract work and is presented as a liability for all contracts in progress.

Interest and dividend income

Income from interest is being accounted for on time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable rate of interest. Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive is established.

Provision for doubtful debts

The Company creates a provision for doubtful debts @ 5% for amount outstanding over 1 year, 25% for amount outstanding over 2 years and 100% for amount outstanding over 3 years.

j. cost of revenue

Cost of revenue includes estimated internal development costs, external development charges, construction costs and development/construction materials, which is charged to the profit and loss account based on the percentage of revenue recognised as per accounting policy (i) above, in consonance with the concept of matching costs and revenue. Final adjustment is made on completion of the applicable project.

k. Taxation

Provision for tax for the year comprises current income tax and deferred tax. Provision for current income tax is made based on the estimated tax liability in accordance with the relevant tax rates and tax laws.

Current tax is payable on taxable profits, which differ from profit or loss in the financial statements. Current tax is computed based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years. Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets of earlier years are re-assessed and recognised to the extent that it has become reasonably certain that future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.

l. Foreign currency translations

Transactions in foreign currency and non-monetary assets are accounted for at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. All monetary items denominated in foreign currency are converted at the year-end exchange rate. The exchange differences arising on such conversion and on settlement of the transactions are dealt with in the profit and loss account.

Gain or loss on forward exchange contract, not in the nature of hedge, is calculated based on difference between forward rate available at the reporting date for the remaining maturity of the contract and the contracted forward rate. The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as income or expense over the life of contract and exchange differences on such contracts is recognised as income or expense in the reporting period in which the exchange rate change.

m. Employee benefits

Expenses and liabilities in respect of employee benefits are recorded in accordance with Accounting Standard 15 - Employee Benefits issued by the Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006.

Provident fund

The Company makes contribution to statutory provident fund in accordance with Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952, which is a defined contribution plan, and contribution paid or payable is recognized as an expense in the period in which services are rendered by the employee.

Gratuity

Gratuity is a post employment benefit and is in the nature of a defined benefit plan. The liability recognised in the balance sheet in respect of gratuity is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated at the balance sheet date by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses arising from past experience and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to the profit and loss account in the year in which such losses or gains are determined.

Compensated absences

Liability in respect of compensated absences becoming due or expected to be availed after the balance sheet date is estimated on the basis of an actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses arising from past experience and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to the profit and loss account in the year in which such losses or gains are determined.

Superannuation Fund

Contribution made towards Superannuation Fund (funded by payments to ICIC Prudential Life insurance) which is a defined contribution plan, is charged to revenue on accrual basis. There are no obligations other than the contribution made to respective trust.

n. employees Stock Option Plan

The accounting value of stock options is determined on the basis of "intrinsic value" representing the excess of the market price on the date of grant over the exercise price of the shares granted under the "Employees Stock Option Scheme" of the Company, and is being amortised as "Deferred employees compensation" on a straight-line basis over the vesting period in accordance with the Guidance Note 18 "Employee share- based payments" issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

o. contingent liabilities and provisions

Depending upon the facts of each case and after due evaluation of legal aspects, claims against the Company not acknowledged as debts are treated as contingent liabilities. In respect of statutory dues disputed and contested by the Company, contingent liabilities are provided for and disclosed as per original demand without taking into account any interest or penalty that may accrue thereafter. The Company makes a provision when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event where the outflow of economic resources is probable and a reliable estimate of the amount of obligation can be made. Possible future or present obligations that may but will probably not require outflow of resources or where the same cannot be reliably estimated, has been made as a contingent liability in the Financial Statements.

p. earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events including a bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares). For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

q. Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased term, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Profit and Loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

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