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Accounting Policies of Vedanta Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2017

1 Company overview

Vedanta Limited (formerly known as Sesa Sterlite Limited), ‘Vedanta’ or the ‘Company’ is a public limited Company domiciled in India and has its registered office at 1st Floor, ‘C’ wing, Unit 103, Corporate Avenue, Atul Projects, Chakala, Andheri (East), Mumbai-400093, Maharashtra. Vedanta’s equity shares are listed on National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange in India and its American depository shares (“ADS”) are listed on New York Stock Exchange in United States of America. Each ADS represents four equity shares. Vedanta is majorly-owned by and is a controlled subsidiary of Vedanta Resources Plc, the London listed diversified natural resource Company.

The Company is principally engaged in the business of exploration, production and sale of aluminium, iron ore, copper, commercial power and oil and gas.

The Company’s aluminium business (Jharsuguda aluminium) principally consists of production of 2.0 mtpa alumina at Lanjigarh, Odisha, production of 0.5 mtpa aluminium at Jharsuguda, Odisha and captive power plants situated at Jharsuguda & Lanjigarh. The Company is also setting up a 1.25 mtpa aluminium smelter at Jharsuguda, 4.0 mtpa of alumina refinery at Lanjigarh and 210 MW power plant at Lanjigarh.

The Company’s iron ore business (Iron ore) consist of iron ore exploration, mining, beneficiation and exports. Vedanta has iron ore mining operations in the States of Goa and Karnataka. Vedanta is also in the business of manufacturing pig iron and metallurgical coke.

The Company’s copper business (Copper India) principally consists of custom smelting and includes a copper smelter, a refinery, a phosphoric acid plant and power plants at Tuticorin, Tamilnadu and a refinery and two copper rod plants at Silvassa in the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

The Company’s power business comprise of 600 MW thermal coal based power facility in the State of Odisha.

The Company’s oil and gas business is engaged in surveying, prospecting, drilling, exploring, acquiring, developing, producing, transporting, marketing, distributing and generally dealing in minerals, oils, petroleum, gas and related by-products and other activities incidental to the same. As part of its business activities, the Company also holds interests in its subsidiary companies which have been granted rights to explore and develop oil and gas exploration blocks. The oil and gas business largely operates in the state of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. (Refer note 4).

These are the Company’s separate financial statements.

The details of Company’s material subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures are given in note 46.

2 Basis of preparation of financial statements

(a) Basis of preparation and Compliance with Ind AS

For all periods upto and including the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company had prepared its financial statements in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India and complied with the accounting standards (Previous GAAP) as notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read together with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014, to the extent applicable, and the presentation requirements of the Companies Act, 2013.

Pursuant to the notification dated February 16, 2015, issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, the Company has adopted Indian Accounting Standards notified under Section 133 read with Rule 4A of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015, Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016 as amended and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 (collectively, “Ind AS”) with effect from April 1, 2016 and the Company is required to prepare its financial statements in accordance with Ind AS for the year ended March 31, 2017. These financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2017 are the first financial statements the company has prepared in accordance with Ind AS.

The transition to Ind AS was carried out in accordance with Ind AS 101 First- Time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards with the date of transition as April 01, 2015. Refer note 55 for descriptions of the effect of the transition and reconciliations required as per Ind AS 101.

These financial statements are approved for issue by the Board of Directors on May 15, 2017.

(b) Basis of measurement

The financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis using historical cost convention and on an accrual method of accounting, except for certain financial assets and liabilities which are measured at fair value/amortised cost (Refer note 3(i) below).

3 Significant accounting policies

The Company has applied the following accounting policies to all periods presented in the financial statements.

(a) Functional and presentation currency

The financial statements are prepared in Indian Rupees, which is the Company’s presentation Currency and the functional currency for all its operations except for oil and gas operations which has a US Dollar functional currency. All financial information presented in Indian Rupees has been rounded to the nearest Crore with two decimal places, unless stated otherwise.

(b) Current and non-current classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current / non-current classification.

An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

- it is expected to be realized in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the Company’s normal operating cycle.

- it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

- it is expected to be realized within 12 months after the reporting date; or

- it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

- it is expected to be settled in the Company’s normal operating cycle;

- it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

- it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or

- the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

All other liabilities are classified as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non current only.

(c) Revenue recognition

Revenues are measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of discounts, volume rebates, outgoing sales taxes and other indirect taxes excluding excise duty.

Excise duty is a liability of the manufacturer which forms part of the cost of production, irrespective of whether the goods are sold or not. Since the recovery of excise duty flows to Company on its own account, revenue includes excise duty

Sale of goods

Revenues from sales of goods are recognised when all significant risks and rewards of ownership of the commodity sold are transferred to the customer which usually is on delivery of the commodity to the shipping agent. Revenues from sale of by-products are included in revenue.

Certain of the Company’s sales contracts provide for provisional pricing based on the price on The London Metal Exchange (“LME”), as specified in the contract, when shipped. Final settlement of the price is based on the applicable price for a specified future period. The company’s provisionally priced sales are marked to market using the relevant forward prices for the future period specified in the contract and is adjusted in revenue.

Revenue from oil, gas and condensate sales represents the Company’s share (net of Government’s share of profit petroleum) of oil, gas and condensate production, recognized on a direct entitlement basis, when significant risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyers. Government’s share of profit petroleum is accounted for when the obligation (legal or constructive), in respect of the same arises.

Revenue from sale of power is recognised when delivered and measured based on rates as per bilateral contractual agreements with buyers and at rate arrived at based on the principles laid down under the relevant Tariff Regulations as notified by the regulatory bodies, as applicable.

Revenue from rendering of services is recognised on the basis of work performed. .

Interest income

Interest income from debt instruments is recognised using the effective interest rate method. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to the gross carrying amount of a financial asset. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses.

Dividends

Dividend income is recognised in the statement of profit and loss only when the right to receive payment is established, provided it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the Company, and the amount of the dividend can be measured reliably.

(d) Property, plant and equipment

(i) Mining properties

The costs of mining properties, which include the costs of acquiring and developing mining properties and mineral rights, are capitalised as property, plant and equipment under the heading “Mining properties” in the year in which they are incurred.

When a decision is taken that a mining property is viable for commercial production (i.e. when the company determines that the mining property will provide sufficient and sustainable return relative to the risks and the company decided to proceed with the mine development), all further pre-production primary development expenditure other than land, buildings, plant and equipment is capitalised as part of the cost of the mining property until the mining property is capable of commercial production.

Exploration and evaluation assets are recognized as assets at their cost of acquisition, subject to meeting the commercial production criteria as above and are subject to impairment review on annual basis, or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist.

The stripping cost incurred during the production phase of a surface mine is deferred to the extent the current period stripping cost exceeds the average period stripping cost over the life of mine and recognised as an asset if such cost provides a benefit in terms of improved access to ore in future periods and certain criteria are met. When the benefit from the stripping costs are realised in the current period, the stripping costs are accounted for as the cost of inventory. If the costs of inventory produced and the stripping activity asset are not separately identifiable, a relevant production measure is used to allocate the production stripping costs between the inventory produced and the stripping activity asset. The Company uses the expected volume of waste compared with the actual volume of waste extracted for a given value of ore production for the purpose of determining the cost of the stripping activity asset.

Deferred stripping cost are included in mining properties within property, plant and equipment and disclosed as a part of mining properties. After initial recognition, the stripping activity asset is depreciated on a unit of production method over the expected useful life of the identified component of the ore body.

In circumstance, where a property is abandoned, the cumulative capitalized costs relating to the property are written off in the same period.

Commercial reserves are proved and probable reserves. Changes in the commercial reserves affecting unit of production calculations are dealt with prospectively over the revised remaining reserves.

(ii) Oil and gas assets- (developing/producing assets)

For oil and gas assets a successful efforts based accounting policy is followed. Costs incurred prior to obtaining the legal rights to explore an area are expensed immediately to the statements of profit and loss.

All costs incurred after the technical feasibility and commercial viability of producing hydrocarbons has been demonstrated are capitalised within property, plant and equipment - development/producing assets on a field-by-field basis. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only where it either enhances the economic benefits of the development/producing asset or replaces part of the existing development/producing asset. Any remaining costs associated with the part replaced are expensed.

Net proceeds from any disposal of development/ producing assets are credited against the previously capitalised cost. A gain or loss on disposal of a development/producing asset is recognised in the statements of profit and loss to the extent that the net proceeds exceed or are less than the appropriate portion of the net capitalised costs of the asset.

(iii) Other property, plant and equipment

The initial cost of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, and any directly attributable costs of bringing an asset to working condition and location for its intended use. It also includes the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located. Items such as spares are capitalized when they meet the definition of property, plant and equipment.

If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment. Likewise, expenditure towards major inspections and overhauls are identified as a separate component and depreciated over the expected period till the next overhaul expenditure.

Land acquired free of cost or at below market rate from the government is recognized at fair value with corresponding credit to deferred income.

On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to use the fair value of certain items of plant and equipment and land on the date of transition and designate the same as deemed cost as at April 01, 2015. For the remaining assets, the Company has applied Ind AS retrospectively, from the date of their acquisition. Also Refer note 55 on First time adoption of Ind AS.

Subsequent costs and disposal

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of property, plant and equipment is added to its book value only if it increases the future economic benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance/life. All other expenses on existing property, plant and equipment, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains and losses on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment are determined by comparing the proceeds from disposal with the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment, and are recognized net within other income/other expenses in statement of profit and loss

(iv) Capital-work-in-progress

Assets in the course of construction are capitalized in capital work in progress account. At the point when an asset is capable of operating in the manner intended by management, the cost of construction is transferred to the appropriate category of property, plant and equipment. Costs (net of income) associated with the commissioning of an asset are capitalised until the period of commissioning has been completed and the asset is ready for its intended use.

(v) Depreciation, depletion and amortisation expense

Mining properties and other assets in the course of development or construction and freehold land are not depreciated.

Mining properties

The capitalised mining properties are amortised on a unit-of-production basis over the total estimated remaining commercial reserves of each property or group of properties and are subject to impairment review.

Oil and gas assets

All expenditures carried within each field are amortised from the commencement of production on a unit of production basis, which is the ratio of oil and gas production in the period to the estimated quantities of commercial reserves at the end of the period plus the production in the period, generally on a field-by-field basis or group of fields which are reliant on common infrastructure.

Commercial reserves are proven and probable oil and gas reserves, which are defined as the estimated quantities of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids which geological, geophysical and engineering data demonstrate with a specified degree of certainty to be recoverable in future years from known reservoirs and which are considered commercially producible.

Costs used in the unit of production calculation comprise the net book value of capitalised costs plus the estimated future field development costs required to access commercial reserves. Changes in the estimates of commercial reserves or future field development costs are dealt with prospectively

Other assets

Depreciation on other property, plant and equipment is calculated using the straight-line method (SLM) to allocate their cost, net of their residual values, over their estimated useful lives (determined by the management based on technical estimates) or, in the case of certain leased assets, the shorter lease term as given below. The asset’s residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at the end of each reporting period.

(e) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if a ny.

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life on a straight line basis. Software is amortised over the estimated useful life of software license of 5 years. Amounts paid for securing mining rights are amortised over the period of the mining lease of 20 years. The amortization period and the amortization method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is different from previous estimates, the change is accounted for prospectively as a change in accounting estimate.

(f) Exploration and evaluation intangible assets

Exploration and evaluation expenditure incurred after obtaining the mining right or the legal right to explore are capitalised as exploration and evaluation assets (intangible assets) and stated at cost less impairment. Exploration and evaluation assets are transferred to property, plant and equipment when the technical feasibility and commercial viability has been determined. Exploration and evaluation assets are assessed for impairment indicators atleast annually. Exploration and evaluation expenditure incurred prior to obtaining the mining right or the legal right to explore are expensed as incurred.

Exploration expenditure includes all direct and allocated indirect expenditure associated with finding specific mineral resources which includes depreciation and applicable operating costs of related support equipments and facilities and other costs of exploration activities:

Acquisition costs - costs associated with acquisition of licenses and rights to explore, including related professional fees.

General exploration costs - costs of surveys and studies, rights of access to properties to conduct those studies (e.g., costs incurred for environment clearance, defense clearance, etc.), and salaries and other expenses of geologists, geophysical crews and other personnel conducting those studies.

Costs of exploration drilling and equipping exploration and appraisal wells - Expenditure incurred on the acquisition of a license interest is initially capitalised on a license-by-license basis. Costs are held, undepleted, within exploration and evaluation assets until such time as the exploration phase on the license area is complete or commercial reserves have been discovered.

Exploration expenditure incurred in the process of determining oil and gas exploration targets is capitalised within “Exploration and evaluation assets” (intangible assets) and subsequently allocated to drilling activities. Exploration drilling costs are initially capitalised on a well-by-well basis until the success or otherwise of the well has been established. The success or failure of each exploration effort is judged on a well-by-well basis.

Following appraisal of successful exploration wells, if commercial reserves are established and technical feasibility for extraction demonstrated, then the related capitalised exploration costs are transferred into a single field cost center within property, plant and equipment - development/producing assets after testing for impairment. Where results of exploration drilling indicate the presence of hydrocarbons which are ultimately not considered commercially viable, all related costs are written off to profit or loss.

Net proceeds from any disposal of an exploration asset are initially credited against the previously capitalised costs. Any surplus proceeds are credited to the statement of profit and loss.

(g) Non-current assets held for sale

Non-current assets and disposal groups are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. This condition is regarded as met only when the sale is highly probable and the asset (or disposal group) is available for immediate sale in its present condition. Management must be committed to the sale which should be expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification.

Non-current assets and disposal groups classified as held for sale are not depreciated and are measured at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Such assets and disposal groups are presented separately on the face of the balance sheet.

(h) Impairment of non-financial assets

Impairment charges and reversals are assessed at the level of cash-generating units. A cash-generating unit (CGU) is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generate cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or group of assets.

The Company assess at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. The Company conducts an internal review of asset values annually, which is used as a source of information to assess for any indications of impairment or reversal of previously recognised impairment losses. External factors, such as changes in expected future prices, costs and other market factors are also monitored to assess for indications of impairment or reversal of previously recognised impairment losses.

If any such indication exists then an impairment review is undertaken and the recoverable amount is calculated, as the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and the asset’s value in use.

Fair value less costs of disposal is the price that would be received to sell the asset in an orderly transaction between market participants and does not reflect the effects of factors that may be specific to the entity and not applicable to entities in general. Fair value for mineral and oil and gas assets is generally determined as the present value of the estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continued use of the asset, including any expansion prospects, and its eventual disposal, using assumptions that an independent market participant may take into account. These cash flows are discounted at an appropriate post tax discount rate to arrive at the net present value.

Value in use is determined as the present value of the estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continued use of the asset in its present form and its eventual disposal. The cash flows are discounted using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted. Value in use is determined by applying assumptions specific to the company’s continued use and cannot take into account future development. These assumptions are different to those used in calculating fair value and consequently the value in use calculation is likely to give a different result to a fair value calculation.

The carrying amount of the CGU is determined on a basis consistent with the way the recoverable amount of the CGU is determined.

If the recoverable amount of an asset or CGU is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset or CGU is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Any reversal of the previously recognised impairment loss is limited to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined if no impairment loss had previously been recognised.

Exploration and evaluation assets:

In assessing whether there is any indication that an exploration and evaluation asset may be impaired, the company considers, as a minimum, the following indications:

- the period for which the entity has the right to explore in the specific area has expired during the period or will expire in the near future, and is not expected to be renewed;

- substantive expenditure on further exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources in the specific area is neither budgeted nor planned;

- exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources in the specific area have not led to the discovery of commercially viable quantities of mineral resources and the entity has decided to discontinue such activities in the specific area;

- sufficient data exist to indicate that, although a development in the specific area is likely to proceed, the carrying amount of the exploration and evaluation asset is unlikely to be recovered in full from successful development or by sale; and

- reserve information prepared annually by external experts.

When a potential impairment is identified, an assessment is performed for each area of interest in conjunction with the group of operating assets (representing a cash-generating unit) to which the exploration and evaluation assets is attributed. Exploration areas in which reserves have been discovered but require major capital expenditure before production can begin, are continually evaluated to ensure that commercial quantities of reserves exist or to ensure that additional exploration work is under way or planned. To the extent that capitalised expenditure is no longer expected to be recovered, it is charged to the statement of profit and loss.

(i) Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

(i) Financial Assets - Recognition

All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.

For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:

- Debt instruments at amortised cost

A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:

a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the profit or loss.

- Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI)

A ‘debt instrument’ is classified as FVOCI if both of the following criteria are met:

a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

b) The asset’s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.

Debt instruments included within the FVOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the interest income, impairment losses & reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to profit or loss. Interest earned whilst holding FVOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.

- Debt instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.

In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or

FVOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ‘accounting mismatch’). The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.

Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes being recognized in profit or loss.

- Equity instruments

All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading and contingent consideration recognised by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS 103 applies are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to the statement of profit or loss, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. For equity instruments which are classified as FVTPL all subsequent fair value changes are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

(ii) Financial Assets - derecognition

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows on the financial asset in a transaction in which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred.

(iii) Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets:

- Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities and deposits

- Financial assets that are debt instruments and are measured as at FVOCI

-Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 18

The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on trade receivables.

The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

At each reporting date, for recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognising impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.

Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date

ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR.

ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the year is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit or loss. The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:

- Financial assets measured at amortised cost: ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.

- Debt instruments measured at FVOCI: Since financial assets are already reflected at fair value, impairment allowance is not further reduced from its value. Rather, ECL amount is presented as ‘accumulated impairment amount’ in the OCI.

For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.

The Company does not have any purchased or originated credit-impaired (POCI) financial assets, i.e., financial assets which are credit impaired on purchase/ origination.

(iv) Financial liabilities - Recognition & Subsequent measurement

Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, or as loans, borrowings and payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.

All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of financial liabilities at amortised cost, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables and borrowings including bank overdrafts and derivative financial instruments.

The subsequent measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:

- Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.

Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in profit or loss.

Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/ loss are not subsequently transferred to profit or loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the statement of profit or loss. The Company has not designated any financial liability as at fair value through profit and loss.

- Financial liabilities at amortised cost (Loans & Borrowings)

After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.

Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in profit or loss.

(v) Financial liabilities - Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

(vi) Embedded derivatives

An embedded derivative is a component of a hybrid (combined) instrument that also includes a non-derivative host contract - with the effect that some of the cash flows of the combined instrument vary in a way similar to a stand-alone derivative. An embedded derivative causes some or all of the cash flows that otherwise would be required by the contract to be modified according to a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index, or other variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable is not specific to a party to the contract. Reassessment only occurs if there is either a change in the terms of the contract that significantly modifies the cash flows that would otherwise be required or a reclassification of a financial asset out of the fair value through profit or loss.

If the hybrid contract contains a host that is a financial asset within the scope of Ind AS 109, the Company does not separate embedded derivatives. Rather, it applies the classification requirements contained in Ind AS 109 to the entire hybrid contract. Derivatives embedded in all other host contracts are accounted for as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not held for trading or designated at fair value though profit or loss. These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss, unless designated as effective hedging instruments.

(vii) Equity instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of any entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

(viii) Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

(ix) Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

Initial recognition and subsequent measurement

In order to hedge its exposure to foreign exchange, interest rate, and commodity price risks, the Company enters into forward, option, swap contracts and other derivative financial instruments. The Company does not hold derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.

Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to profit or loss, except for the effective portion of cash flow hedges, which is recognised in OCI and later reclassified to profit or loss when the hedge item affects profit or loss or treated as basis adjustment if a hedged forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability.

For the purpose of hedge accounting, hedges are classified as:

- Fair value hedges when hedging the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognised asset or liability or an unrecognised firm commitment

- Cash flow hedges when hedging the exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction or the foreign currency risk in an unrecognised firm commitment

- Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation

At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Company formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Company wishes to apply hedge accounting and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The documentation includes the Company’s risk management objective and strategy for undertaking hedge, the hedging/ economic relationship, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged, hedge ratio and how the entity will assess the effectiveness of changes in the hedging instrument’s fair value in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item’s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. Such hedges are expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows and are assessed on an ongoing basis to determine that they actually have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which they were designated.

Hedges that meet the strict criteria for hedge accounting are accounted for, as described below:

i. Fair value hedges

Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recognised in profit or loss immediately, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk.

When an unrecognised firm commitment is designated as a hedged item, the subsequent cumulative change in the fair value of the firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk is recognised as an asset or liability with a corresponding gain or loss recognised in profit or loss. Hedge accounting is discontinued when the company revokes the hedge relationship, the hedging instrument or hedged item expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised or no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting.

ii. Cash flow hedges

The effective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recognised in OCI in the cash flow hedge reserve, while any ineffective portion is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

Amounts recognised as OCI are transferred to profit or loss when the hedged transaction affects profit or loss, such as when the hedged financial income or financial expense is recognised or when a forecast sale occurs when the hedged item is the cost of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability, the amounts recognised as OCI are transferred to the initial carrying amount of the non-financial asset or liability.

If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised without replacement or rollover (as part of the hedging strategy), or if its designation as a hedge is revoked, or when the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI remains separately in equity until the forecast transaction occurs or the foreign currency firm commitment is met.

(j) Financial guarantees

Financial guarantees issued by the Company on behalf of group companies are designated as ‘Insurance Contracts’. The Company assess at the end of each reporting period whether its recognised insurance liabilities (if any) are adequate, using current estimates of future cash flows under its insurance contracts. If that assessment shows that the carrying amount of its insurance liabilities is inadequate in the light of the estimated future cash flows, the entire deficiency is recognised in profit or loss.

(k) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest expense as per Effective Interest Rate (EIR) and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs directly relating to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying capital project under construction are capitalised and added to the project cost during construction until such time that the assets are substantially ready for their intended use i.e. when they are capable of commercial production. Where funds are borrowed specifically to finance a project, the amount capitalised represents the actual borrowing costs incurred. Where surplus funds are available out of money borrowed specifically to finance a project, the income generated from such current investments is deducted from the total capitalized borrowing cost. Where the funds used to finance a project form part of general borrowings, the amount capitalised is calculated using a weighted average of rates applicable to relevant general borrowings of the company during the year. Capitalisation of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to profit and loss during the extended periods when the active development on the qualifying assets is interrupted.

EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial liability or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the amortised cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options).

(l) Buyers’ Credit

The Company enters into arrangements whereby financial institutions make direct payments to suppliers for raw materials and project materials. The financial institutions are subsequently repaid by the company at a later date providing working capital timing benefits. These are normally settled up to twelve months (for raw materials) and up to 36 months (for project materials). Where these arrangements are for raw materials with a maturity of up to twelve months, the economic substance of the transaction is determined to be operating in nature and these are recognised as operational buyers’ credit (under Trade and other payables). Where these arrangements are for project materials with a maturity up to thirty six months, the economic substance of the transaction is determined to be financing in nature, and these are classified as projects buyers’ credit within borrowings in the statement of financial position.

(m) Leases

Determining whether an arrangement contains lease

At inception of an arrangement, the Company determines whether the arrangement is or contains a lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

Arrangements containing a lease have been evaluated as on the date of transition i.e. April 01, 2015 in accordance with Ind-AS 101 First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standard. Lease arrangements including both land and building have been separately evaluated for finance or operating lease at the date of transition to Ind ASs basis the facts and circumstances existing as at that date. Also, Refer note 55 on first time adoption of Ind AS for the related transition provisions.

At inception or on reassessment of an arrangement that contains lease, the Company separates payments and other consideration required by the arrangement into those for the lease and those for other elements on the basis of their relative fair values. If the Company concludes for a finance lease that is impracticable to separate the payments reliably, then an asset and a liability are recognised at an amount equal to the fair value of the underlying asset; subsequently the liability is reduced as payments are made and an imputed finance cost on the liability is recognised using the Company’s incremental borrowing rate.

Company as a lessee

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.

Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company’s general policy on the borrowing costs. Contingent rentals are recognised as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.

A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Unless the payments are structured to increase in line with general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increase.

Company as a lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognised as revenue in the period in which they are earned.

Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.

(n) Inventories

Inventories including work-in-progress are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value, less any provision for obsolescence. Cost is determined on the following basis:

- purchased copper concentrate and stores and spares relating to oil and gas business are recorded at cost on a first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) basis; all other materials including stores and spares are valued on a weighted average basis;

- finished products are valued at raw material cost plus costs of conversion, comprising labor costs and an attributable proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal levels of activity and are moved out of inventory on a FIFO basis. However finished goods of oil and condesate is determined on a quarterly weighted average basis; and

- By-products and scrap are valued at net realisable value.

Net realisable value is determined based on estimated selling price, less further costs expected to be incurred to completion and disposal.

(o) Government Grant

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that (i) the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them, and (ii) the grant/subsidy will be received.

When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognised as income on a systematic basis in profit or loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate

Where the grant relates to an asset, it is recognised as deferred income and released to income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset and presented within other income.

When the Company receives grants of non-monetary assets, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value amounts and released to profit or loss over the expected useful life in a pattern of consumption of the benefit of the underlying asset.

When loans or similar assistance are provided by governments or related institutions, with an interest rate below the current applicable market rate, the effect of this favorable interest is regarded as a government grant. The loan or assistance is initially recognised and measured at fair value and the government grant is measured as the difference between the initial carrying value of the loan and the proceeds received. The loan is subsequently measured as per the accounting policy applicable to financial liabilities.

(p) Taxation

Tax expense represents the sum of current tax and deferred tax.

Current tax is provided at amounts expected to be paid (or recovered) using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date and includes any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.

Subject to exceptions below, deferred tax is provided, using the balance sheet method, on all deductible temporary differences at the reporting date between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes, on carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax loss;

* deferred income tax is not recognised on the initial recognition (including MAT) of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss; and

* deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is more likely than not that they will be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or equity).

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets (including MAT credit available) is reviewed at each reporting date and is adjusted to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Company intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.

(q) Retirement benefits schemes

The Company operates or participates in a number of defined benefits and defined contribution schemes, the assets of which (where funded) are held in separately administered funds. For defined benefit pension schemes, the cost of providing benefits under the plans is determined by actuarial valuation separately for each plan using the projected unit credit method by independent qualified actuaries as at the year end.

Remeasurements including, effects of asset ceiling and return on plan asets (excluding amounts including in interest on the net defined benefit liability) and actuarial gains and losses arising in the year are recognised in full in other comprehensive income and are not recycled to the profit or loss. For defined contribution schemes, the amount charged to the statements of profit or loss in respect of pension costs and other post retirement benefits is the contributions payable in the year, recognised as and when the employee renders related services.

Past service costs are recognised in profit or loss on the earlier of:

- The date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and

-The date that the Company recognises related restructuring costs

Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Company recognises the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the consolidated statement of profit and loss:

- Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non-routine settlements; and

- Net interest expense or income.

(r) Share-based payments

Certain employees (including executive directors) of the company receive part of their remuneration in the form of share-based payment transactions, whereby employees render services in exchange for shares or rights over shares (‘equity-settled transactions’).

The resultant increase in equity is recorded in share based payment reserve.

The cost of equity-settled transactions with employees is measured at fair value at the date at which they are granted. The fair value of share awards with market-related vesting conditions are determined with the assistance of an external valuer and the fair value at the grant date is expensed on a proportionate basis over the vesting period based on the Company’s estimate of shares that will eventually vest. The estimate of the number of awards likely to vest is reviewed at each balance sheet date up to the vesting date at which point the estimate is adjusted to reflect the current expectations. Amounts recharged to subsidiaries in respect of awards granted to employees of subsidiaries are recognised as intercompany debtors until repaid.

In case of cash-settled transactions, a liability is recognised for the fair value of cash-settled transactions. The fair value is measured initially and at each reporting date up to and including the settlement date, with changes in fair value recognised in employee benefits expense. The fair value is expensed over the period until the vesting date with recognition of a corresponding liability. The fair value is determined with the assistance of an external valuer.

(s) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

Provisions represent liabilities for which the amount or timing is uncertain. Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive), as a result of past events, and it is probable that an outflow of resources, that can be reliably estimated, will be required to settle such an obligation.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows to net present value using an appropriate pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. Unwinding of the discount is recognized in profit or loss as a finance cost. Provisions are reviewed at each reporting date and are adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

Contingent assets are not recognised but disclosed in the financial statements when an inflow of economic benefits is probable.

(t) Restoration, rehabilitation and environmental costs

An obligation to incur restoration, rehabilitation and environmental costs arises when environmental disturbance is caused by the development or ongoing production of a mine or oil fields. Such costs, discounted to net present value, are provided for and a corresponding amount is capitalised at the start of each project, as soon as the obligation to incur such costs arises. These costs are charged to profit or loss over the life of the operation thr


Mar 31, 2015

(a) Basis of preparation

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared on an accrual basis under historical cost convention and in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (''Indian GAAP'') to comply with the Accounting Standards specified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules 2014 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act 2013. The accounting policies adopted in the presentation of the financial statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year.

(b) Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known/materialise.

(c) Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value, less any provision for obsolescence. Materials and other supplies held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Cost is determined on the following basis:

(i) purchased copper concentrate is recorded at cost on a First In First Out ("FIFO") basis; all other raw materials including stores and spares are valued on a weighted average basis;

(ii) finished products and work-in-progress are valued at raw material cost plus costs of conversion, comprising labour costs and an attributable proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal levels of activity and are moved out of inventory on a weighted average basis except in case of copper finished products and work-in-progress which is determined on FIFO basis;

(iii) Immaterial by-products and scrap are valued at net realisable value.

Net realisable value is determined based on estimated selling price, less further costs expected to be incurred to completion and disposal.

(d) Depreciation and amortization

Depreciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its estimated residual value.

Depreciation on tangible fixed assets has been provided on straight line method (SLM) as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except that:

(i) Mining leases are amortised in proportion to actual quantity of ore extracted there from.

(ii) Amounts paid as stamp duties and other statutory levies for renewal of owned mining leases are amortised over the operating period of lease.

(iii) Individual items of assets costing upto Rs. 5,000 are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

(iv) Additions on account of insurance spares, additions/ extensions forming an integral part of existing plants and the revised carrying amount of the assets identified as impaired, are depreciated over residual life of the respective fixed assets.

(v) Lease hold lands and buildings are amortised over the duration of lease.

(vi) Railway wagons procured under Wagon Investment Scheme (WIS) are depreciated at the rate of 10% per annum on straight line method basis.

In respect of plant and equipment and certain assets, the life of the assets have been assessed based on management''s assessment of independent technical evaluation/ advice, taking into account, inter-alia, the nature of the assets, the estimated usage of the assets, the operating condition of the assets, past history of replacement and maintenance support.

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life. Software is amortised on straight line method over the useful life of the asset or 5 years whichever is shorter. Amounts paid for securing mining rights are amortised over the period of the mining lease. The estimated useful life of the intangible assets and the amortisation period are reviewed at the end of each financial year and the amortisation period is revised to reflect the changed pattern, if any.

(e) Revenue recognition

(i) Sale of goods:

Revenue is recognised when significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods sold are transferred to the customer and the commodity has been delivered to the shipping agent/customer and it can be reliably measured and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Revenue from operations comprises of sale of goods, services, scrap, export incentives and includes excise duty and are net of sales tax/value added tax and rebates and discounts.

Revenue from sale of power is recognised when delivered and measured based on rates as per bilateral contractual agreements with buyers / at rate arrived at based on the principles laid down under the relevant Tariff Regulations as notified by the regulatory bodies, as applicable.

(ii) Export incentives:

Export benefits are accounted for in the year of exports based on eligibility and when there is no uncertainty in receiving the same.

(lii) Income from services:

Revenue in respect of contracts for services is recognised when the services are rendered and related costs are incurred.

(iv) Other income:

-Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis by reference to the principal outstanding and at the interest rate applicable.

-Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive dividend is established.

(f) Import of copper concentrate and sale of copper and slime

In accordance with the prevailing international market practice, purchase of copper concentrate and sale of copper and slime are accounted for on provisional invoice basis pending final invoice in terms of purchase contract / sales contract respectively. The cases where quotational period prices are not finalised as at the year end are restated at forward LME / LBMA rates as at the year end and adjustments are madebased on the metal contents as per laboratory assessments done by the Company pending final invoice.

(g) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed assets, are carried at historical cost (net of MODVAT / CENVAT / VAT) less accumulated depreciation / amortization and impairment losses, if any. Costs include non refundable taxes and duties, borrowing costs and other expenses incidental to the acquisition and installation upto the date the asset is ready for intended use.

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use and other capital work in progress are carried at cost, comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable interest till the commissioning of the project.

The Company has adopted para 46/46A of AS 11 - The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates and accordingly the cost of acquisition is adjusted for exchange differences relating to long-term foreign currency monetary liabilities attributable to the acquisition of fixed assets and the adjusted cost of respective fixed assets are depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets.

The Company''s mining leases having ore reserves are not valued, however, amounts paid to government authorities towards renewal of owned mining leases are capitalised as a part of mining rights.

Fixed assets retired from active use and held for sale are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realisable value and are disclosed separately under "Other current assets".

Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset and whose use is expected to be irregular are capitalised and depreciated over the useful life of the principal item of the relevant assets.

Expenditure during construction period:

All costs attributable to the construction of project or incurred in relation to the project under construction, net of income, during the construction / pre-production period, are aggregated under expenditure during construction period to be allocated to individual identified assets on completion.

(h) Intangible assets

Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses. The cost of intangible assets comprises its purchase price and any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use and net of any trade discounts and rebates.

(i) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets upto the date when such assets are ready for their intended use. Other borrowing costs are charged as expense in the year in which they are incurred. Capitalisation of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during the extended periods when active development on the qualifying assets is interrupted.

(j) Foreign currency transactions

Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

Foreign currency monetary items outstanding at the balance sheet date are restated at year end rates. In case of monetary items which are hedged by derivative instruments, the valuation is done in accordance with accounting policy (n) on "Derivative instruments".

Any income or expense on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss except that in respect of long term foreign currency monetary items relatable to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets, such difference is adjusted to the carrying cost of the depreciable fixed assets. In respect of other long term foreign currency monetary items, the same is transferred to "Foreign Currency Monetary Translation Difference Account" and amortised over the balance period of such long term foreign currency monetary items but not beyond March 31,2020.

Non monetary foreign currency items are carried at cost.

(k) Employee benefits

(i) Short-term :

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentive and compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service.

(ii) Long-term:

(a) Provident fund and family pension:

The employees of the Company are entitled to receive benefits in the form of provident fund and family pension, a defined benefit plan and a defined contribution plan, in which both employees and the Company make monthly / annual contributions equal to specified percentage of employee''s salary. The contributions, as specified under law, are made to the provident fund set up as irrevocable trust by the Company or to respective Regional Provident Fund commissioner. The Company is liable for monthly / annual contributions and shortfall, if any, in the fund assets based on the specified rates of return. Such contributions and shortfall, if any is recognised as expenses in the year incurred.

(b) Superannuation / Annuity fund:

The Company provides for a superannuation/ annuity fund, a defined contribution plan, for certain categories of employees. The contributions are made annually at a pre-determined proportion of employee''s salary to insurance companies which administer the fund. The Company recognises such contributions as expense over the period of services rendered.

(c) Gratuity:

The Company accounts for the net present value of its obligations for gratuity benefits, a defined benefit plan, based on an independent actuarial valuation carried out at each Balance Sheet date using the projected unit credit method. Annual contributions are made by the Company to gratuity funds established as trusts or managed by insurance companies. Actuarial gains and losses are immediately recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(l) Investments

(i) Long-term investments are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of investments.

(ii) Current investments are carried individually, at lower of cost and fair value.

Cost of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

(m) Issue expenses

Expenses of debenture / bond / floating rate note issued are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss over the tenure of the instrument. Expenses related to equity and equity related instruments are adjusted against the securities premium account.

(n) Derivative instruments

The Company enters into forwards, options, swaps contract and other derivative financial instruments, in order to hedge its exposure to foreign exchange, interest rate and commodity price risks. The Company neither holds nor issues any derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.

The premium and discount arising at inception of forward contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract.

Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The hedged item is recorded at fair value. Gain or loss if any, is recorded in the Statement of Profit and Loss and is offset by the gain or loss from the change in the fair value of the derivative.

Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges and are determined to be an effective hedge are recorded in hedging reserve account. Any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in hedging reserve is retained in hedging reserve until the forecast transaction occurs. Amounts deferred to hedging reserve are recycled in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the periods when the hedged item is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss or when the portion of the gain or loss is determined to be an ineffective hedge.

If a hedge of a forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial assets or a non-financial liability, or a forecast transaction for a non-financial asset or non-financial liability becomes a firm commitment for which cash flow hedge accounting is applied, the associated gains and losses that were recognized in hedging reserve are included in the initial cost or other carrying amount of the asset and liability.

Derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting and are outstanding at the balance sheet date are marked to market and gains or losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in hedging reserve is transferred to Statement of Profit and Loss for the year.

(o) Taxation

Tax expenses for the year, comprising of current and deferred tax are included in the determination of net profit or loss of the period. Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the prevailing tax laws.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset, if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.

Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of items other than unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward losses only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. However, if there are unabsorbed depreciation, carry forward of losses and items relating to capital losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise the assets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date for their realiability.

(p) Impairment of assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment, if any indication of impairment exists.

If the carrying amount of the assets exceed the estimated recoverable amount, impairment is recognised for such excess amount. The impairment loss is recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount, in which case any impairment loss of the revalued asset is treated as a revaluation decrease to the extent a revaluation reserve is available for that asset.

The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Net selling price is the amount obtainable from the sale of an asset in an arm''s length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties, less the costs of disposal. Net selling price is determined as the present value of the estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continued use of the asset, including any expansion prospects, and its eventual disposal, using assumptions that an independent market participant may take into account. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor.

When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset (other than a revalued asset) in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, to the extent the amount was previously charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. In case of revalued assets such reversal is not recognised.

(q) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are not recognised but are disclosed in the financial statements. Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

(r) Segment reporting

The Company identifies primary segments based on the nature of risks and returns, the organization structure and the internal reporting system. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit / loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the Board of Directors in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment results, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment.

Inter-segment revenue is accounted on the basis of transactions which are primarily determined based on market / fair value factors.

Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relates to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis have been included under "unallocated revenue / results / assets /liabilities".

(s) Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using indirect method as set out in Accounting Standard (AS) -3 "Cash Flow Statement", whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts orpayments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash comprises cash at bank and in hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

(t) Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year is adjusted for events of bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares, if any.

(u) Operating cycle

Based on the nature of products / activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.


Mar 31, 2013

I) Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

ii) Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amount of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported amount of income and expenses during the year. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known /materialised.

iii) Inventories

Inventories are valued at lower of cost (on weighted average basis) and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. Cost includes all charges in bringing the goods to the point of sale including octroi and other levies, transit insurance and receiving charges. Finished goods and work in progress include apportionment of fixed and variable overheads and excise duty, wherever applicable.

iv) Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

v) Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciation has been provided for on the straight line method (SLM) as per the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, except in respect of the following assets:

- Vehicles, furniture and computers are depreciated at an annual rate of 20%, 10% and 30% respectively to bring it in line with the useful life of the assets.

- Railway wagons procured under Wagon Investment Scheme (WIS) are depreciated at the rate of 10% per annum on SLM basis.

- Mining leases in proportion to actual quantity of ore extracted there from.

- Amounts paid for renewal of forest clearances and stamp duties in respect of owned mining leases over the operating period of lease.

- Individual items of assets costing upto Rs. 5,000 are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

Depreciation is charged from the month of the date of purchase in the case of acquisitions made during the year.

In respect of assets sold, depreciation is provided up to the month prior to the date of sale.

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life. Computer software expenses are amortised over the period of the license or thirty six months, as the case may be.

vi) Revenue recognition

Sale of goods

Revenue is recognised when significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods sold are transferred to the customer and the goods have been delivered to the shipping agent/customer. Revenue represents the invoice value of goods provided to third parties net of discounts and adjustments arising on analysis variances. Revenues include excise duty but exclude sales tax and value added tax.

Sale of services

Revenues for services is recognised on rendering of services.

Other Income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis by reference to the principal outstanding and at the interest rate applicable.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive dividend is established.

vii) Fixed assets (Tangible and Intangible)

Fixed assets are carried at historical cost (net of available Central and State VAT credit) less accumulated depreciation / amortisation and impairment losses, if any. Cost of fixed assets include purchase price, expenses incidental to making the assets ready for its intended use, attributable borrowing costs and net of any trade discounts and rebates.

The Company''s mining leases having ore reserves are not valued, however, amounts paid to government authorities towards renewal of forest clearances and stamp duties in respect of owned mining leases are capitalised as a part of mining rights.

Machinery Spares

Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset and whose use is expected to be irregular are capitalised and depreciated over the useful life of the principal item of the relevant assets.

Capital work in progress

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use and other capital work in progress are carried at cost, comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable interest.

viii) Foreign currency transactions and translations

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximates the rate at the date of the transaction. Monetary items outstanding at the reporting date are restated at the year end rates. Non-monetary items are carried at historical cost. Exchange differences arising on restatement or settlement is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

ix) Foreign currency forward contracts

The Company enters into forward contracts to hedge its exposure to foreign currency. The Company does not hold these forward contracts for trading or speculative purposes. The premium or discount arising at the inception of such contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the reporting period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of such a forward exchange contract is recognised as income or as expense for the period.

x) Government grants, subsidies and export incentives

Government grants and subsidies are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants / subsidy will be received.

Export benefits are accounted for in the year of exports based on eligibility and when there is no uncertainty in receiving the same.

xi) Investments

Long term investments are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of investments, if any. Current investments are carried individually, at lower of cost and fair value. Cost of investments include acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

xii) Employee benefits

Short term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service.

Long term employee benefits Defined contribution plans:

Provident fund:

The Company''s contribution to the provident fund and pension fund paid / payable during the year is debited to the Statement of Profit and Loss. The shortfall in provident fund, if any, between the return guaranteed by the statute and actual earnings of the Fund is provided for by the Company and contributed to the Fund. The net actuarial liability of the Company''s obligation for interest rate guarantee is determined at the year end based on an independent actuarial valuation and the shortfall, if any, recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Annuity fund:

The Company has a defined contribution plan for certain categories of employees, wherein it annually contributes a predetermined proportion of employee''s salary to an insurance company which administers the fund. The Company recognises such contributions as an expense over the period of services rendered.

Defined benefit plans:

Gratuity fund:

The Company accounts for the net actuarial liability of its obligations for gratuity benefits based on an independent actuarial valuation determined using the projected unit credit method carried out as at the year end. Based on the above determined obligation, the Company makes contribution to funds managed by insurance companies. Actuarial gains and losses are immediately recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Compensated absence:

The liability in respect of compensated absence for employees is determined on the basis of an independent actuarial valuation carried out at the end of the year and differential liability recognised as expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

xiii) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to interest cost. Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition or construction of assets requiring a substantial period of time are capitalised. All other borrowing costs including exchange differences on foreign currency loans to the extent regarded as an adjustment to interest cost are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss and included under ''Finance costs''.

xiv) Segment reporting

The Company is in the business of mining and sale of iron ore and manufacture and sale of metallurgical coke and pig iron. All of the Company''s establishments are located in one country i.e. India. The revenues from other than sale of iron ore, metallurgical coke and pig iron are either incidental to the above three businesses or of non-recurring nature. Therefore, the Company operates in three business segments.

Segment revenues, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis, have been included under ''Unallocated revenues / expenses / assets / liabilities''

xv) Taxes on income

The Company''s income taxes include taxes on the Company''s taxable profits, adjustment attributable to earlier periods and changes in deferred taxes. Valuation of all tax liabilities/receivables are carried at current amounts and in accordance with the enacted tax laws and in the case of deferred taxes, at rates that have been substantively enacted.

Deferred tax is calculated to correspond to the tax effect arising when final tax is determined. Deferred tax corresponds to the net effect of tax on all timing differences which occur as a result of items being allowed for income tax purposes during a period different from when they were recognised in the financial statements.

xvi) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed for impairment at each balance sheet date, if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. If there are indicators of impairment, an assessment is made to determine whether the asset''s carrying value exceeds its recoverable amount. Whenever the carrying value of an asset exceeds recoverable amount, impairment is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

xvii) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on the best estimate of the amount required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. A contingent liability is disclosed unless the possibility of an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is remote. A contingent asset is neither recognised nor disclosed.


Mar 31, 2012

I) Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards notified under Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 and the relevant provisions thereof.

ii) use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities] on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known /materialised.

iii) Inventories

Inventories are valued at lower of cost (on weighted average basis) and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. Cost includes all charges in bringing the goods to the point of sale including octroi and other levies, transit insurance and receiving charges. Finished goods and work in progress include apportionment of fixed and variable overheads.

iv) Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.

v) Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciation has been provided for on the straight line method (SLM) as per the rates prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956, except in respect of the following assets:

- Vehicles, furniture and computers are depreciated at an annual rate of 20%, 10% and 30% respectively to bring it in line with the useful life of the assets.

- Railway wagons procured under Wagon Investment Scheme (WIS) are depreciated at the rate of 10% per annum on SLM basis.

- Mining leases in proportion to actual quantity of ore extracted there from.

- Amounts paid for renewal of forest clearances of owned mining leases over the operating period of lease.

- Individual items of assets costing upto Rs 5,000 are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

Depreciation is charged from the month of the date of purchase in the case of acquisitions made during the year. In respect of assets sold, depreciation is provided up to the month prior to the date of sale.

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life. Expenses on implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning - SAP are amortised over thirty six months.

vi) Revenue recognition

Sale of goods

Revenue is recognised when significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods sold are transferred to the customer and the commodity has been delivered to the shipping agent/customer. Revenue represents the invoice value of goods and services provided to third parties net of discounts, sales tax/value added tax and adjustments arising on analysis variances.

Income from services

Revenue in respect of contracts for services is recognised on completion of services.

Other Income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis by reference to the principal outstanding and at the interest rate applicable.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive dividend is established.

vii) Tangible fixed assets

Fixed assets, except for the leasehold mine at Karnataka, are carried at historical cost (net of available Central and State VAT credit) less accumulated depreciation / amortisation and impairment losses, if any. Costs include expenses incidental to the installation of assets and attributable borrowing and financing costs incurred upto the date the asset is ready for its intended use.

The iron ore reserves of the leased mine located in Karnataka were valued and shown as fixed assets by erstwhile A. Narrain Mines Ltd. (ANML). The Company continues to show the value of the said mining lease as fixed assets after merger of the said ANML. The Company's other mining leases having ore reserves, however, are not valued. Amounts paid to government authorities towards renewal of forest clearances in respect of owned mining leases are capitalized as a part of mining leases.

Machinery Spares

Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset and whose use is expected to be irregular are capitalised and depreciated over the useful life of the principal item of the relevant assets.

Capital work in progress

Projects under which assets are not ready for their intended use and other capital work in progress are carried at cost, comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable interest.

viii) intangible assets

Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an intangible asset comprises its purchase price and any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use and net of any trade discounts and rebates.

ix) Foreign currency transactions and translations

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Year end balances of monetary assets and liabilities are translated at the year end rates. Exchange difference arising on restatement or settlement is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

x) Foreign currency forward contracts

The Company enters into forward derivative financial instruments to hedge its exposure to foreign currency. The Company does not hold derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes. Derivative financial instruments are initially recorded at their fair value on the date of the derivative transaction and are re-measured at their fair value at subsequent balance sheet dates.

Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges are recorded in Reserves and Surplus. Amount deferred to Reserves and Surplus are recycled in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period when the hedged item is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are marked to market at the balance sheet date and gains or losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss immediately.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in Reserves and Surplus is kept in reserves and surplus until the forecast transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in Reserves and Surplus is transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year.

xi) Government grants, subsidies and export incentives

Government grants and subsidies are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants / subsidy will be received.

Export benefits are accounted for in the year of exports based on eligibility and when there is no uncertainty in receiving the same.

xii) investments

Long term investments are carried individually at cost less provision for diminution, other than temporary, in the value of investments, if any. Current investments are carried individually, at lower of cost and fair value.

xiii) Employee benefits

Short term employee benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised during the year when the employees render the service.

Long term employee benefits Defined contribution plans:

Provident fund:

The Company's contribution to the provident fund and pension fund paid / payable during the year is debited to the Statement of Profit and Loss. The shortfall in provident fund, if any, between the return guaranteed by the statute and actual earnings of the Fund is provided for by the Company and contributed to the Fund. The net actuarial liability of the Company's obligation for interest rate guarantee has been determined at the year end based on an independent actuarial valuation and the shortfall, if any, recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Annuity fund:

The Company has a defined contribution plan for certain categories of employees, wherein it annually contributes a predetermined proportion of employee's salary to an insurance company which administers the fund. The Company recognises such contributions as an expense over the period of services rendered.

Defined benefit plans:

Gratuity fund:

The Company accounts for the net actuarial liability of its obligations for gratuity benefits based on an independent actuarial valuation determined on the basis of the projected unit credit method carried as at the year end. Based on the above determined obligation, the Company makes contribution to funds managed by insurance companies. Actuarial gains and losses are immediately recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Compensated absence:

The liability in respect of compensated absence for employees is determined on the basis of an independent actuarial valuation carried out at the end of the year and differential liability recognised as expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

xiv) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs include interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition or construction of assets requiring a substantial period of time are capitalised.

All other borrowing costs including exchange differences on foreign currency loans to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the interest costs are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss and included under "Finance costs".

xv) Segment reporting

The Company is in the business of mining and sale of iron ore and manufacture and sale of metallurgical coke and pig iron. All of the Company's establishments are located in one country i.e. India. The revenues from other than sale of iron ore, metallurgical coke and pig iron are either incidental to the above three businesses or of non- recurring nature. Therefore the Company operates in three business segments.

Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis, have been included under "Unallocated revenue / expenses / assets / liabilities".

xvi) taxes on income

The Company's income taxes include taxes on the Company's taxable profits, adjustment attributable to earlier periods and changes in deferred taxes. Valuation of all tax liabilities/receivables are carried at current amounts and in accordance with the enacted tax laws and in the case of deferred taxes, at rates that have been substantively enacted.

Deferred tax is calculated to correspond to the tax effect arising when final tax is determined. Deferred tax corresponds to the net effect of tax on all timing differences which occur as a result of items being allowed for income tax purposes during a period different from when they were recognised in the financial statements.

xvii) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of fixed assets are reviewed for impairment, if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. If there are indicators of impairment, an assessment is made to determine whether the asset's carrying value exceeds its recoverable amount. Whenever the carrying value of an asset exceeds recoverable amount, impairment is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

xviii) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. A contingent liability is disclosed unless the possibility of an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is remote. A contingent asset is neither recognised nor disclosed.


Mar 31, 2011

I) Basis of accounting

The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention to comply in all material respects with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

ii) Use of estimates

The presentation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known / materialised.

iii) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised when significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods sold are transferred to the customer and the commodity has been delivered to the shipping agent/customer.

Revenue represents the invoice value of goods and services provided to third parties net of discounts, sales taxes/value added taxes, and is after considering adjustments on final invoices (arising on analysis variances) received upto the year end.

Revenue in respect of contracts for services is recognised on completion of services.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive dividend is established.

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis by reference to the principal outstanding and at the interest rate applicable.

iv) Employee benefits

a. Provident fund: The Company’s contribution to the recognised provident fund, pension fund and employees deposit linked insurance scheme paid/payable during the year is debited to the Profit and Loss Account.

b. Gratuity fund: The Company accounts for the net actuarial liability of its obligations for gratuity benefits based on an independent actuarial valuation determined on the basis of the projected unit credit method carried as at the year end. Based on the above determined obligation, the Company makes contribution to funds managed by insurance companies. Actuarial gains and losses are immediately recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

c. Annuity fund: The Company has a defined contribution plan for certain categories of employees, wherein it annually contributes a predetermined proportion of employee’s salary to an insurance company which administers the fund. The Company recognises such contributions as an expense over the period of services rendered.

d. Compensated absence: The liability in respect of compensated absence for employees is determined on the basis of an independent actuarial valuation carried out at the end of the year and differential liability recognised as expense in the Profit and Loss Account.

v) Investments

Long-term investments are stated at cost less provision for diminution. Provision for diminution is made to recognise decline (other than temporary) in the value of investments, if any. Current investments are stated at cost or market value, whichever is lower.

vi) Inventories

Raw material, consumable stores and spares are held for use in production and are valued at cost determined on the basis of weighted average method.

Work-in-progress, stock of iron ore, metallurgical coke and pig iron are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value. Cost includes raw material and proportion of fixed and variable overheads.

vii) Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Year end balance of monetary assets and liabilities are translated at the year end rates. Exchange difference arising on restatement or settlement is charged to the Profit and Loss Account.

viii) Foreign currency forward contracts

The Company enters into forward derivative financial instruments to hedge its exposure to foreign currency. The Company does not hold derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes. Derivative financial instruments are initially recorded at their fair value on the date of the derivative transaction and are re- measured at their fair value at subsequent balance sheet dates.

Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the Profit and Loss Account.

Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges are recorded in Reserves and Surplus. Amount deferred to Reserves and Surplus are recycled in the Profit and Loss Account in the period when the hedged item is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

Derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are marked to market at the balance sheet date and gains or losses are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account immediately.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in Reserves and Surplus is kept in reserves and surplus until the forecast transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in Reserves and Surplus is transferred to the Profit and Loss Account for the year.

ix) Fixed assets

Fixed assets except for the leasehold mine at Karnataka, are stated at their original cost along with taxes, duties (net of Modvat/Cenvat availed, if any), freight and interest on borrowings up to the date of commissioning for operation, attributable to acquisition/construction of the concerned assets.

The iron ore reserves of the leased mine located in Karnataka were valued and shown as fixed assets by erstwhile A. Narrain Mines Ltd. (ANML). The Company continues to show the value of the said mining lease as fixed assets after merger of said ANML. The Company’s other mining leases having ore reserves, however, are not valued. Amounts paid to Government authorities towards renewal of forest clearances in respect of owned mining leases are capitalized as a part of mining leases.

x) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition or construction of assets requiring a substantial period of time are capitalised. All other borrowing costs including exchange differences on foreign currency loans are charged to revenue.

xi) Depreciation

Depreciation, except on the leasehold mine at Karnataka, and in respect of vehicles, furniture, computers and railway wagons is provided for on Straight Line Method (SLM) at the rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. In respect of vehicles, furniture and computers, depreciation has been charged on SLM method at annual rate of 20%, 10% and 30% respectively to bring it in line with the useful life of the assets. The cost of railway wagons procured under Wagon Investment Scheme (WIS) is being depreciated at the rate of 10% per annum on a Straight Line basis. The value of mining leases capitalised are amortised in proportion to actual quantity of ore extracted therefrom. Amounts paid towards renewal of forest clearances in respect of owned mining lease are amortised over the operating period of the lease. Fixed assets costing less than Rs. 5,000 are wholly depreciated in the year of acquisition. Expenses on implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning - SAP are amortized over thirty six months.

Depreciation has been charged from the month of the date of purchase in the case of acquisitions made during the year. In respect of assets sold, depreciation is provided up to the month prior to the date of sale.

xii) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of tangible fixed assets are reviewed for impairment, if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. If there are indicators of impairment, an assessment is made to determine whether the asset’s carrying value exceeds its recoverable amount. Whenever the carrying value of an asset exceeds recoverable amount, impairment is charged to the Profit and Loss Account.

xiii) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. A contingent liability is disclosed unless the possibility of an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is remote. A contingent asset is neither recognised nor disclosed.

xiv) Segment reporting

The Company is in the business of mining and sale of iron ore, manufacture and sale of metallurgical coke and pig iron. All of the Company’s establishments are located in one country i.e. India. The revenues from other than sale of ore, metallurgical coke and pig iron are either incidental to the above three businesses or of non-recurring nature. Therefore the Company operates in three business segments.

Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis, have been included under “Unallocated revenue/ expenses/ assets/ liabilities”.

xv) Taxes on income

The Company’s income taxes include taxes on the Company’s taxable profits, adjustment attributable to earlier periods and changes in deferred taxes. Valuation of all tax liabilities/receivables are carried at current amounts and in accordance with enacted tax regulations, rates or in the case of deferred taxes those that have been substantially enacted.

Deferred tax is calculated to correspond to the tax effect arising when final tax is determined. Deferred tax corresponds to the net effect of tax on all timing differences which occur as a result of items being allowed for income tax purposes during a period different from when they were recognised in the financial statements.

xvi) Accounting for government grants/refunds

Government grants/subsidies and refunds due from Government Authorities are accounted when there is reasonable certainty of their realisation.


Mar 31, 2010

I) Basis of accounting

The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention to comply in all material respects with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

ii) Use of estimates

The presentation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) on the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Difference between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the period in which the results are known /materialised.

iii) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised when significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods sold are transferred to the customer and the commodity has been delivered to the shipping agent/customer. Revenue represents the invoice value of goods and services provided to third parties net of discounts, sales taxes/value added taxes, and is after considering adjustments on final invoices (arising on analysis variances) received upto the year end.

Revenue in respect of contracts for services is recognised on completion of services.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive dividend is established.

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis by reference to the principal outstanding and at the interest rate applicable.

iv) Employee benefits

a. Provident fund: The Company’s contribution to the recognised provident fund, pension fund and employees’ deposit linked insurance scheme paid / payable during the year is debited to the Profit and Loss Account.

b. Gratuity Fund: The Company accounts for the net actuarial liability of its obligations for gratuity benefits based on an independent actuarial valuation determined on the basis of the projected unit credit method carried as at the year end. Based on the above determined obligation, the Company makes contribution to funds managed by insurance companies. Actuarial gains and losses are immediately recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

c. Annuity fund: The Company has a defined contribution plan for cer tain categories of employees, wherein it annually contributes a predetermined proportion of employee’s salar y to an insurance company which administers the fund. The Company recognises such contributions as an expense over the period of ser vices rendered.

d. Compensated absences: The liability in respect of compensated absences for employees is determined on the basis of an independent actuarial valuation carried out at the end of the year and differential liability recognised as expense in the Profit and Loss Account.

v) Investments

Long term investments are stated at cost less provision for diminution. Provision for diminution is made to recognise decline (other than temporary) in the value of investments, if any. Current investments are stated at cost or market value, whichever is lower.

vi) Inventories

Raw material, consumable stores and spares are held for use in production and are valued at cost determined on the basis of weighted average method.

Work in progress, stock of iron ore and metallurgical coke are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value. Cost includes raw material and proportion of fixed and variable overheads.

vii) Foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Year end balance of monetary assets and liabilities are translated at the year end rates. Exchange difference arising on restatement or settlement is charged to the Profit and Loss Account.

viii) Foreign currency forward contracts

The Company enters into forward derivative financial instruments to hedge its exposure to foreign currency. The Company does not hold derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes. Derivative financial instruments are initially recorded at their fair value on the date of the derivative transaction and are re-measured at their fair value at subsequent balance sheet dates.

Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the Profit and Loss Account.

Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges are recorded in Reserves and Surplus. Amount deferred to Reserves and Surplus are recycled in the Profit and Loss Account in the period when the hedged item is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

Derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are marked to market at the balance sheet date and gains or losses are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account immediately.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in Reserves and Surplus is kept in reserves and surplus until the forecast transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in Reserves and Surplus is transferred to the Profit and Loss Account for the year.

ix) Fixed assets

Fixed assets except for the leasehold mine at Karnataka, are stated at their original cost along with taxes, duties (net of Modvat/Cenvat availed, if any) and freight interest on borrowings up to the date of commissioning for operation, attributable to acquisition/construction of the concerned assets.

The iron ore reserves of the leased mine located in Karnataka were valued and shown as fixed assets by erstwhile A. Narrain Mines Ltd. (ANML). The Company continues to show the value of the said mining lease as fixed assets after merger of said ANML. The Company’s other mining leases having ore reserves, however, are not valued. Amounts paid to Government authorities towards renewal of forest clearances in respect of owned mining leases are capitalized as a part of mining leases.

x) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition or construction of assets requiring a substantial period of time are capitalised. All other borrowing costs including exchange differences on foreign currency loans are charged to revenue.

xi) Depreciation

Depreciation except on the leasehold mine at Karnataka, and in respect of vehicles, furniture, computers and railway wagons is provided for on Straight Line Method (SLM) at the rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956. In respect of vehicles, furniture and computers depreciation has been charged on SLM method at annual rate of 20%, 10% and 30% respectively to bring it in line with the useful life of the assets. The cost of railway wagons procured under Wagon Investment Scheme (WIS) is being depreciated at the rate of 10% per annum on a Straight Line basis. The value of mining leases capitalised are amortised in proportion to actual quantity of ore extracted therefrom. Amounts paid towards renewal of forest clearances in respect of owned mining lease are amortised over the operating period of the lease. Fixed assets costing less than Rs. 5,000 are wholly depreciated in the year of acquisition.

Depreciation has been charged from the month of the date of purchase in the case of acquisitions made during the year. In respect of assets sold, depreciation is provided up to the month prior to the date of sale.

xii) Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of tangible fixed assets are reviewed for impairment, if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. If there are indicators of impairment, an assessment is made to determine whether the asset’s carrying value exceeds its recoverable amount. Whenever the carrying value of an asset exceeds recoverable amount, impairment is charged to the Profit and Loss Account.

xiii) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets: A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of a past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to their present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. A contingent liability is disclosed unless the possibility of an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is remote. A contingent asset is neither recognised nor disclosed.

xiv) Segment reporting

The Company is in the business of mining and sale of iron ore and manufacture and sale of metallurgical coke. All of the Company’s establishments are located in one country i.e India. The revenues from other than sale of ore and metallurgical coke are either incidental to the above two businesses or of non-recurring nature. Therefore the Company operates in two business segments.

Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis, have been included under “Unallocated revenue / expenses / assets / liabilities”

xv) Taxes on income

The Company’s income taxes include taxes on the Company’s taxable profits, fringe benefits tax, adjustment attributable to earlier periods and changes in deferred taxes. Valuation of all tax liabilities/ receivables are carried at current amounts and in accordance with enacted tax regulations, rates or in the case of deferred taxes those that have been substantially enacted.

Deferred tax is calculated to correspond to the tax effect arising when final tax is determined. Deferred tax corresponds to the net effect of tax on all timing differences which occur as a result of items being allowed for income tax purposes during a period different from when they were recognised in the financial statements.

xvi) Accounting for government grants/refunds Government grants/subsidies and refunds due from Government Authorities are accounted when there is reasonable certainty of their realisation.

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