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Accounting Policies of Vikas WSP Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2015

1.1. Basis of preparation

The financial statements are prepared under historical cost convention on accrual basis in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India, applying the accounting standards notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read with Rule 7 of the CompanL (Accounts) Rules, 2014, as applicable and the relevant provisions of Companies Act. 2013 ('Act').

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the company's normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the schedule III to the companies Act, 2013. Company has determined its operating cycle as twelve months for the purpose of current/ non-curreni classification of assets and liabilities.

1.2. Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions which affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of the reporting period. The Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known/ materialized.

1.3. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

1.4. Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods are transferred to the customer. In case of export sales this coincides with shipment of goods.

Revenue in case of sale of domestic products is recognised at the point of dispatch which coincides with the transfer of risks and rewards of ownership.

1.5. Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. Cost includes inward freight, duties, taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition and installation incurred up to the date of commissioning of the assets.

1.6. Depreciation and Amortisation Tangible Assets

Depreciation is provided under the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the assets at the rates specified under Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013.

Assets costing below Rs. 5,000 are depreciated fully in the year of purchase.

Intangible Assets

Computer Software are amortised over a period of 5 years.

1.7. Inventories

Inventories are valued as follows:

1.8. Foreign exchange transactions

Foreign exchange transactions are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing at the date of transaction. Foreign currency assets and liabilities remaining unsettled at the Balance Sheet date are translated at the rates of exchange prevailing on

that date. Gains/ losses arising on account of realisation/ settlement of foreign exchange transactions and on translation of foreign currency assets and liabilities are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

1.9. Employee benefits Short-term employee benefits

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits. Benefits such as salaries, wages, and bonus etc. are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined contribution plans

The employee's provident fund scheme is a defined contribution plan. The Company's contribution paid / payable under the scheme is recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined benefit plans

The Company's gratuity plan is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rate used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans, is based on the market yields on Government securities as at the Balance Sheet date Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

1.10. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or productions of qualifying assets is capitalised as part of assets. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred

1.11. Segment Reporting

Segment accounting policies are in line with the accounting policies of the company. In addition, the following specific accounting policies have been followed for segment reporting:

- Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly identifiable with/allocable to the segment.

- Expenses that are directly identifiable with/allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. Expenses which relate to the company as a whole and not allocable to segments are included under "Unallocable expenditure".

- Income which relates to the company as a whole and not allocable to segment is included in "Unallocable income"

- Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments.

1.12. Leases

Assets leased by the Company in its capacity as lessee, where the Company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance lease. Such lease are capitalised at the inception of the lease at lower of the fair value or the present value of the minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each year.

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incident to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor, are recognized as operating lease. Lease payments under operating leases are recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis.

1.13. Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are computed using the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share are computed using the weighted average number of equity and dilutive equity equivalent shares outstanding during the year, except where results would be anti-dilutive.

1.14. Taxation

Income tax expense comprises current tax, (that is amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the Income tax laws) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing difference between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liability and/ or deferred tax assets is recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future. However, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date and are written down or written up to reflect the amount that is reasonably/ virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised.

In accordance with the provisions of Section 115JAA of the Income-tax Act, 1961, the Company is allowed to avail credit equal to the excess of Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) over normal income tax for the assessment year for which MAT is paid. MAT credit so determined can be carried forward for set-off for ten succeeding assessment years from the year in which such credit becomes allowable. MAT credit can be set-off only in the year in which the Company is liable to pay tax as per the normal provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 and such tax is in excess of MAT for that year. Accordingly, MAT credit entitlement is recognised only to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal tax during the specified period

1.15. Impairment of assets

Management reviews the carrying amount of all assets at each Balance Sheet date using internal and external sources of information to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such Indication exists, the recoverable amount of the assets or its cash generating unit is estimated. Impairment occurs where the carrying value of the assets or its cash generating unit exceeds the present value of future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of the asset or its cash generating unit and its eventual disposal. An impairment loss is recognized in the statement of profit and loss whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount and is determined as the excess of the carrying amount over the higher of the asset's net sales price or present value as determined above. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the assets carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.

1.16. Contingencies

A provision is created when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.


Mar 31, 2013

1.1. Basis of preparation

The financial statements are prepared under historical cost convention on accrual basis in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India, applying the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, (as amended) and other relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the company''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in Revised Schedule VI to the companies Act, 1956. Company has determined its operating cycle as twelve months for the purpose of current/ non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

1.2. Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions which affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of the reporting period. The Difference between the actual results and estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known/ materialized.

1.3. Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. Cost includes inward freight, duties, taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition and installation incurred up to the date of commissioning of the assets.

1.4. Depreciation

Depreciation is provided under the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the assets which are equal to the rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 except in case of plant and machinery where depreciation is provided at the rate of 7.69%.

Assets costing below Rs. 5,000 are depreciated fully in the year of purchase.

1.5. Inventories

Inventories are valued as follows:

Raw materials, stores and spares and packing materials

Lower of cost and net realisable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

Work in progress and finished goods

Lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion to make the sale.

1.6. Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

1.7. Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods are transferred to the customer. In case of export sales this coincides with shipment of goods.

Revenue in case of sale of domestic products is recognised at the point of despatch which coincides with the transfer of risks and rewards of ownership.

1.8. Foreign exchange transactions

Foreign exchange transactions are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing at the date of transaction. Foreign currency assets and liabilities remaining unsettled at the Balance Sheet date are translated at the rates of exchange prevailing on that date. Gains/ losses arising on account of realisation/ settlement of foreign exchange transactions and on translation of foreign currency assets and liabilities are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

1.9. Employee benefits Short-term employee benefits

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits. Benefits such as salaries, wages, and bonus etc. are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined contribution plans

The employee''s provident fund scheme is a defined contribution plan. The Company''s contribution paid / payable under the scheme is recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined benefit plans

The Company''s gratuity plan is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rate used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans, is based on the market yields on Government securities as at the Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

1.10. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or productions of qualifying assets is capitalised as part of assets. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

1.11. Segment Reporting

Segment accounting policies are in line with the accounting policies of the company. In addition, the following specific accounting policies have been followed for segment reporting:

- Segment revenue includes sales and other income directly identifiable with/allocable to the segment.

- Expenses that are directly identifiable with/allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result. Expenses which relate to the company as a whole and not allocable to segments are included under "Unallocable expenditure".

- Income which relates to the company as a whole and not allocable to segment is included in "Unallocable income"

- Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments.

1.12. Leases

Assets leased by the Company in its capacity as lessee, where the Company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance lease. Such lease are capitalised at the inception of the lease at lower of the fair value or the present value of the minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each year.

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incident to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor, are recognized as operating lease. Lease payments under operating leases are recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis.

1.13. Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are computed using the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share are computed using the weighted average number of equity and dilutive equity equivalent shares outstanding during the year, except where results would be anti-dilutive.

1.14. Taxation

Income tax expense comprises current tax, (that is amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the Income tax laws) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing difference between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liability and/ or deferred tax assets is recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future. However, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date and are written down or written up to reflect the amount that is reasonably/ virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised.

In accordance with the provisions of Section 115JAA of the Income-tax Act, 1961, the Company is allowed to avail credit equal to the excess of Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) over normal income tax for the assessment year for which MAT is paid. MAT credit so determined can be carried forward for set-off for ten succeeding assessment years from the year in which such credit becomes allowable. MAT credit can be set-off only in the year in which the Company is liable to pay tax as per the normal provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 and such tax is in excess of MAT for that year. Accordingly, MAT credit entitlement is recognised only to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal tax during the specified period.

1.15. Impairment of assets

Management reviews the carrying amount of all assets at each Balance Sheet date using internal and external sources of information to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the assets or its cash generating unit is estimated. Impairment occurs where the carrying value of the assets or its cash generating unit exceeds the present value of future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of the asset or its cash generating unit and its eventual disposal. An impairment loss is recognized in the statement of profit and loss whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount and is determined as the excess of the carrying amount over the higher of the asset''s net sales price or present value as determined above. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the assets carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.

1.16. Contingencies

A provision is created when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.


Mar 31, 2012

1a. Terms/rights attached to equity shares

The Company has one class of equity shares having a par value of Re. 1 per share. Each holder of equity shares is entitled to one vote per share. The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting, except in case of Interim dividend.

In the event of liquidation of the Company, the equity shareholders are eligible to receive the remaining assets of the Company after distribution of all preferential amounts.. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.

2a. Nature of security, terms of repayment and defaults made for secured borrowings

Nature of Security

The Company had obtained secured loan for general corporate purposes including capital expenditure for expansion projects and augmentation of long term working capital of Rs. 8,000 (sanctioned amount) from IFCI Limited secured by exclusive charge and mortgage on all moveable and immoveable fixed assets of the Company situated at Plot no. E-255 to 257 in RIICO Industrial Area and Plot no. F-92 in Udyog Vihar, Sri Ganganagar. Mr. B. D. Agarwal, Mrs. Bimla Devi Jindal and Mr. Megh Raj Jindal, the promoters anddirectors of the Company have pledged their shareholding aggregating to 17,859,018 (previous year 20,346,000) equity shares of Re 1 each and have also provided their personal guarantees. All the promoters and their associates have pledged their entire shareholding in Vikas Granaries Limited (Companies under the same management) aggregating 12,340,000 equity shares of Rs. 10 each. (previous year 12,340,000 equity shares of Rs. 10 each).

Terms of repayment

The loan is repayable in installments of Rs. 400 lakhs per quarter.

Defaults made during the year

The lender issued a letter dated 7 April 2011 to Recall the loans in view of the continuous defaults committed by the Company in payment of principal, interest and other moneys along with terms and conditions to comply with. Accordingly, the lender classified the Company's account as a non-performing asset on 7 April 2011. Further, the lender took symbolic possession of the assets of the Company under section 13(2) of Chapter III of The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcements of Security Interest Act, 2002 on 27 June 2011.

As part of the recovery proceedings, the lender officials sought possession of the fixed assets of the Company situated at E 255-257 and F 92 in the RIICO Industrial Area in Sri Ganganagar, which were pledged against the loan, vide a possession notice dated 27 June 2011. Additionally, the lender published a sale notice, dated 7 July 2011 in a local newspaper, in respect of the fixed assets of the Company situated at E 255-257 and F 92 in the RIICO Industrial Area in Sri Ganganagar, which were pledged against the loan.

In response to the actions of the lender, the Company filed an application against the lender in the Debt Recovery Tribunal - II, Delhi (DRT) on 6 July 2011 stating that the Company will clear all dues with interest by 30 September 2011 and requested to reclassify the account as ‘standard'. DRT vide its order dated 8 August 2011, set aside the proceedings initiated by the lender and directed the management to clear the overdues along with interest, as per the original repayment schedule by 30 September 2011. Management has repaid all overdue installments along with interest by 30 September 2011 in accordance with the directives of the DRT and accordingly, the lender has reclassified the Company's account as a ‘standard account'.

3a. Nature of security and terms of repayment for secured borrowings

(i) The Company has obtained a packing credit limit and foreign documentary bill purchase/discounting facility of Rs. 1,500 each from Punjab National Bank secured by hypothecation of inventory, demand bill accompanied by invoice and bill of lading evidencing shipment of goods and mortgage of immoveable assets of the Company at B-86/87 Udyog Vihar, RIICO Industrial Area, Sri Ganga Nagar and lien on fixed deposits of Rs. 1,571.38 (previous year Nil)

Mr. Meghraj Jindal, Mrs. Bimla Devi Jindal and Mr. B.D. Agarwal, the promoters and directors of the Company have also provided their personal guarantees.

The Company has obtained additional packing credit limit and foreign documentary bill purchase/ discounting facility of Rs. 3,000 which is interchangeable from Bank of India secured by hypothecation of inventory, demand bill accompanied by invoice and bill of lading evidencing shipment of goods and frst charge over land, building, plant and machinery situated at SP-241 and second charge over land, building, plant and machinery situated at B-86/87, Udyog Vihar, RIICO Industrial Area, Sri Ganga Nagar. Mr. Meghraj Jindal, Mrs. Bimla Devi Jindal and Mr. B.D. Agarwal, the promoters and directors of the Company have also provided their personal guarantees.

(ii) The demand loan of Rs. Nil (previous year Rs. 34) obtained from Union Bank of India is secured against the fixed deposits (pledged) with the bank.

(iii) The Company has obtained funds by pledging its stock with third party.


Mar 31, 2010

1) Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention, on the accrual basis of accounting i accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in India and comply with the mandator accounting standards as specified in Rule 3 of the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, and in accordanc with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, to the extent applicable.

2) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with the generally accepted accounting principles require management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, the disclosur of contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenue and expense Examples of such estimates include provisions of future obligation under employee retirement benefit plans, the usefu lives of fixed assets.

Actual results could differ from those estimates. Any revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively i current and future periods. Contingencies are recorded when it is probable that a liability will be incurred and th amount can be reasonably estimated.

3) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost includes inward freight, duties, taxes an incidental expenses related to acquisition and installation incurred up to the date of commissioning of the assets.

4) Depreciation

Depreciation is provided under the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the assets which ar equal to the rates specified in Schedule XIV of the Act. Assets costing below Rs. 5,000 are depreciated fully in the year o purchase.

5) Inventories Inventories are valued as follows:

Raw materials, stores and spares and packaging materials

Lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.

Work in progress and finished goods

Lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and to make the sale.

6) Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

Sale of goods

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods are transferred to the customer. In case of export sales this coincides with shipment of goods.

Revenue in case of sale of domestic products is recognised at the point of despatch which coincides with the transfer of risks and rewards of ownership.

7) Employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits. Benefits such as salaries, wages, and bonus etc. are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined contribution plans

The employees provident fund scheme is a defined contribution plan. The Companys contribution paid / payable under the scheme is recognised as an expense in the profit and loss account during the period in which the employee renders the related service.

Defined benefit plans

The Companys gratuity plan is a defined benefit plan. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on an actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognises each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation. The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rate used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans, is based on the market yields on Government securities as at the balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss Account.

8) Foreign exchange transactions

Foreign exchange transactions are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing at the date of transaction. Foreign currency assets and liabilities remaining unsettled at the balance sheet date are translated at the rates of exchange prevailing on that date. Gains / losses arising on account of realisation/ settlement of foreign exchange transactions and on translation of foreign currency assets and liabilities are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.

9) Taxation

Income tax expense comprises current tax, (that is amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the Income tax laws) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing difference between accounting income and taxable income for the period).

The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liability and / or deferred tax assets is recognised using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realised in future. However, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty of realisation of such assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date and are written down or written up to reflect the amount that is reasonably / virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realised.

The Finance Act, 2009 has abolished the Fringe Benefit Tax with effect from 1 April 2009. In accordance with the circular number F.No.385/05/2010-IT (B) dated 29 January 2010 issued by Central Board of Direct Taxes, the advance fringe benefit tax paid by the Company subsequent to 31 March 2009 has been treated as advance income-tax for the Assessment Year 2010-11.

In accordance with the provisions of Section 115JAA of the Income-tax Act, 1961, the Company is allowed to avail credit equal to the excess of Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) over normal income tax for the assessment year for which MAT is paid. MAT credit so determined can be carried forward for set-off for ten succeeding assessment years from the year in which such credit becomes allowable. MAT credit can be set-off only in the year in which the Company is liable to pay tax as per the normal provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 and such tax is in excess of MAT for that year. Accordingly, MAT credit entitlement is recognised only to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal tax during the specified period.

10) Contingencies

A provision is created when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

11) Impairment of assets

Management reviews the carrying amount of all assets at each Balance Sheet date using internal and external sources of information to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the assets or its cash generating unit is estimated. Impairment occurs where the carrying value of the assets or its cash generating unit exceeds the present value of future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of the asset or its cash generating unit and its eventual disposal. An impairment loss is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount and is determined as the excess of the carrying amount over the higher of the assets net sales price or present value as determined above. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the assets carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.

12) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or productions of qualifying assets is capitalised as part of assets. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

13) Research cost

Revenue expenditure incurred on research is charged to profit and loss account in the year it is incurred.

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