Like for stocks, market capitalization is computed as the stock's current market price multiplied with the number of its outstanding shares, stock exchanges across the world are also accorded top position based on the market cap.
Now talking about first the Indian stock exchange, record and incessant gains has propelled Indian indices to log new highs and this has even pushed the market cap of Indian stock exchanges to even let it pip top global stock exchanges. Global liquidity push that amid huge lap up of NFOs is making its way into Indian markets and even improving macro situation is being favourable for the markets that over time is also seeing improvement in the Covid 19 situation.
US stock markets:
As of September 17, US stock markets command a market cap of US$119 trillion. The history of Stock Exchange in the US dates back to 1700 which was the result of group of merchants who undertook the Buttonwood Tree Agreement. The first stock exchange of the US was the Philadelphia Stock Exchange.
Then came up another crucial stock exchange there NASDAQ or National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations.
Now as we are in the 21st century, the US market being the most developed and their futures markets have a considerable impact of the emerging market stock market. There are 3 major indices S&P 500, Dow Jones and Nasdaq.
As per Indian Standard time (IST), trading in the US markets begins at 7 pm and ends at 1:30 am on both the NASDAQ and NYSE.
China Stock Market:
China's stock market capitalization has been at $50.99 trillion. The Chinese stock exchange totally revolves around the Shanghai stock exchange whose history dates back to the 18th century, The establishment of this stock exchange took a long time and for war related reasons.
China's main index is Shanghai composite market index. Another stock exchange that has prominence there in China is the Shenzen Stock Exchange. Both of these stock markets begin trading at 7 am IST and continue the trade until 12:30 pm.
3. Japan’s stock market:
Japan's stock market was established in the year 1878 and as of June 2020 it has more than 3700 listed companies and total market cap as of September 2021 stood at $7.37 trillion.
Nikkei is the prominent index of Japan. For Japan it is said that after the highs it scaled in 1989, the uphill journey to re-climb and regain the lost ground has been the longest in the history of any of the major economy.
For the Japanese stock market, the forecast has been that it will perform well in light of the increase in the pace of vaccination and as there is likely to be an increase due to strong corporate earnings as well the government's economic stimulus measures.
The Japanse stock market opens at 5:30 am Indian time and functions till 11:30 am.
4. Hong Kong Stock Market:
The Hong Kong Stock exchange or HKEX has the main index as Hang Seng. Accordingly, its functioning or operations begin at 6:45 am IST and resume till 1:30 pm IST.
The index there tracks the performance of as many as 50 top companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock exchange. It is free floating, capitalization-weighted index. The Hang Seng has a base value of 100 as of June 30, 1964.
A brief history of Hong Kong Stock market:
In 1999 budget announcements, the The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (SEHK), Hong Kong Futures Exchange Limited (HKFE) demutualised and in association with Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited (HKSCC), merged under a single holding company, HKEX.
Notably, Hong Kong stock exchange as of September 2021, ranks as the fourth top stock market globally based on m-cap at $6.41 trillion.
5. UK Stock market:
As of September 2021, the UK stock market commands a market cap of $3.66 trillion. The stock exchange in the UK in existence since 1801 is probably the oldest exchanges globally.
London Stock Exchange with index as FTSE trades between 1:30 am IST to 10:00pm. The index basically tracks the performance of 100 most capitalized companies which trade on the London Stock Exchange. Typically, FTSE companies represent close to 80% of the total m-cap of the London Stock exchange.
6. Indian stock markets:
The country's stock market after record gains is now the sixth leading stock market globally based on m-capitalisation at $3.44 trilllion, higher than that of France and Canada.
As per reports, valuations are quite sharp with Sensex trading at 25.53 one-year forward PE, way ahead of other emerging markets. Notably, the host of factors such as government policies, improving macros, rapid pace of vaccination and immense liquidity which is finding its way into Indian markets is supporting Indian markets on a positive side.