Online banking transactions transactions are related to internet banking, mobile banking, card not present (CNP) transactions) etc.
Often at times there could be a misuse of cards and there is a fraud transaction and money is lost by an individual. The question that often arises is:
Who bears the losses of a fraud online banking transaction?
The answer to that question can be divided into two parts according to the RBI:
(a) Zero Liability of a Customer
A customer's entitlement to zero liability shall arise where the unauthorised transaction occurs in the following events:
Contributory fraud/ negligence/ deficiency on the part of the bank (irrespective of whether or not the transaction is reported by the customer).
Third party breach where the deficiency lies neither with the bank nor with the customer but lies elsewhere in the system, and the customer notifies the bank within three working days of receiving the communication from the bank regarding the unauthorised transaction.
(b) Limited Liability of a Customer
A customer shall be liable for the loss occurring due to unauthorised transactions in the following cases:
In cases where the loss is due to negligence by a customer, such as where he has shared the payment credentials, the customer will bear the entire loss until he reports the unauthorised transaction to the bank. Any loss occurring after the reporting of the unauthorised transaction shall be borne by the bank.
In cases where the responsibility for the unauthorised electronic banking transaction lies neither with the bank nor with the customer, but lies elsewhere in the system and when there is a delay (of four to seven working days after receiving the communication from the bank) on the part of the customer in notifying the bank of such a transaction, the per transaction liability of the customer shall be limited to the transaction value or the amount as stipulated in the guidelines.
Reversal Timeline for Zero Liability/Limited Liability of customer
On being notified by the customer, the bank shall credit (shadow reversal) the amount involved in the unauthorised electronic transaction to the customer's account within 10 working days from the date of such notification by the customer (without waiting for settlement of insurance claim, if any). Banks may also at their discretion decide to waive off any customer liability in case of unauthorised electronic banking transactions even in cases of customer negligence. The credit shall be value dated to be as of the date of the unauthorised transaction.