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Accounting Policies of Nava Bharat Ventures Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2017

1 CORPORATE INFORMATION:

Nava Bharat Ventures Limited ("the Company") was incorporated on November 07, 1972 under the Companies Act, 1956. The Company is listed on Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE). At present the Company is engaged in the business of manufacture of Ferro alloys, Sugar and generation of Power.

These Financial Statements were approved by the Board of Directors and authorized for issue on May 27, 2017.

2 BASIS OF PREPARATION:

These are the first Financial Statements prepared by the Company complying in all material respects with the notified Accounting Standards under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 as amended by the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India.

The Company has consistently applied the accounting policies used in the preparation of opening balance sheet as at April 01, 2015 throughout all periods presented in these financial statements, as if these policies had always been in effect and are covered by Ind AS 101 ''''First-time adoption of Indian Accounting Standards''''. The transition was carried out from accounting principles generally accepted in India (''''Previous GAAP'''') as defined in Ind AS 101. The reconciliation of effects of the transition as required by Ind AS 101 is disclosed in Note No. 57 to these financial statements.

The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for financial instruments which have been measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies mentioned below.

3 SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES:

a) Significant accounting estimates, assumptions and judgments:

The preparation of Company''s financial statements requires management to make accounting estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the accompanying disclosures of contingencies at the end of the reporting period. Uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities affected in future periods.

Estimates and assumptions:

The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation of uncertainty at the reporting date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial years, are described below. The assumptions and estimates made by the company are based on parameters available when the financial statements were prepared. Existing circumstances and assumptions about future developments, however, may change due to market change or circumstances arising that are beyond the control of the Company. Such changes are reflected in the assumptions when they occur.

i. Impairment of non-current assets:

Impairment exists when the carrying value of an asset or cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount, which is the higher of its fair value less cost of disposals and its value in use. The fair value less cost of disposals is calculated based on available data from binding sales transactions, conducted at arm''s length, for similar assets or observable market prices less incremental costs for disposing of the asset. The value in use calculation is based on a Discounted Cash Flow ("DCF") model. The value in use is sensitive to the discount rate (generally weighted average cost of capital) used for the DCF model as well as the expected future cash-inflows and the growth rate used for exploration purposes.

ii. Defined Benefit Plans:

The present value of the gratuity obligation is determined using actuarial valuation. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, rate of increment in salaries and mortality rates. Due to complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All the assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.

iii. Fair Value measurement of financial instruments:

When the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities on reporting date cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques i.e., the DCF model. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets.

v. Contingencies:

Management judgment is required for estimating the possible inflow/outflow of resources, if any, in respect of contingencies/ claims/litigations against the Company/by the Company as it is not possible to predict the outcome of pending matters with accuracy.

vi. Property, Plant and Equipment

Based on evaluations done by technical assessment team, the management has adopted the useful life and residual value of its Property, Plant and Equipment. Management believes that the assigned useful lives and residual value are reasonable.

vii. Intangibles:

Internal technical or user team assess the useful lives of Intangible assets. Management believes that assigned useful lives are reasonable.

viii. Income Taxes:

Management judgment is required for the calculation of provision for income taxes and deferred tax assets/liabilities. The Company reviews at each balance sheet date the carrying amount of deferred tax assets/liabilities. The factors used in estimates may differ from actual outcome which could lead to significant adjustment to the amounts reported in the financial statements.

Judgments:

In the process of applying the Company''s accounting policies, management has made the following judgments, which have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the financial statements.

i. Operating lease commitments - Company as a lessee:

The Company has taken on lease certain commercial properties for its business operations and the lease rentals for the said properties are subject to escalations during the tenure of lease. However, as these escalations were in the nature of general inflation to compensate for the less or’s expected inflationary cost increase, the company is directly charging the lease payments to the statement of profit and loss instead of following straight line method of charging lease payments.

ii. Water Drawing Rights:

The Company has obtained the water drawing rights, for its power projects, from Government authorities initially for a period of 5 - 10 years as the case may be. The management of the company believes that the water drawing rights will be extended further. Hence, the company has considered the useful life of water pipelines as 40 years to amortize the erection cost of pipeline, in line with the life of thermal power plants.

b) Current Vs Non-current classifications:

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current / non-current classification.

An asset is treated as current when it satisfies the below mentioned criteria:

i. Expected to be realized or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle;

ii. Held primarily for the purpose of trading;

iii. Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period, or

iv. Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

All other assets are classified as non-current assets.

A liability is classified as current when it satisfies

the below mentioned criteria:

i. Expected to settle the liability in normal operating cycle;

ii. Held primarily for the purpose of trading;

iii. Due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

iv. There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period

All other liabilities are classified as noncurrent.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents.

c) Property, Plant and Equipment:

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost net of input tax credits, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and all attributable cost, to bring the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of property, plant and equipment which take substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to put to use.

The Company adopted cost model as its accounting policy, in recognition of the property, plant and equipment and recognizes transaction value as the cost.

Capital work in progress includes cost of property, plant and equipment under installation/under development as at the balance sheet date.

An item of Property, Plant and Equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Property, Plant and Equipment which are found to be not usable or retired from active use or when no further benefits are expected from their use are removed from property, plant and equipment and the carrying amount net of scrap value, if any is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss.

The improvements/modifications carried on the lease hold land/property are recognized as lease hold improvements and are written off over the primary lease period or the life of such improvement whichever is lower.

d) Investment Properties:

Property that is held for long-term rental yields or for capital appreciation or both, and that is not occupied by the Company, is classified as investment property. Investment property is measured initially at its cost, including related transaction costs and where applicable borrowing costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment loss, if any.

Subsequent expenditure is capitalized to the asset''s carrying amount only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred. When part of an investment property is replaced, the carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognized.

Investment properties are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. The useful life of buildings, classified as Investment properties, is considered as 60 years. The useful life has been determined based on technical evaluation performed by the management''s expert.

Investment properties are derecognized either when they have been disposed of or when they are permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from their use. The difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset is recognized in profit or loss in the period of derecognition.

e) Intangible Assets:

Computer software:

Computer software are recognized at cost and are amortized over the useful life as estimated by the Management which is about 3 years for all of the intangible computer software assets.

Water Drawing Rights:

Cost incurred towards obtaining the initial water drawing rights, for its power projects, from Government and the cost incurred by the company in erecting water pipelines to draw water from the resources which are recognized as Intangible assets are amortized over the estimated useful life of 40 years.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. The assessment of indefinite life is reviewed annually to determine whether the indefinite life continues to be supportable. If not, the change in useful life from indefinite to finite is made on a prospective basis.

An intangible asset is derecognized on disposal, or when no future economic benefits are expected from their use. Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset, measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, and are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

f) Impairment of non-financial assets:

i. The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

ii. Reversal of impairment losses recognized in prior years is recorded when there is an indication that the impairment losses recognized for the asset are no longer existing or have decreased.

g) Leases:

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys the right to use the asset(s), even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

Classification on inception of lease:

a. Operating lease:

Leases where the less or effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases.

b. Finance Lease:

A lease is classified as a finance lease where the less or transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to the ownership of the leased item.

Accounting of Operating leases:

a. Where the Company is the lessee:

Lease payment in case of operating leases are charged to profit and loss statement on straight line basis over the lease term. In case the escalation in operating lease payments are in line with the expected general inflation rate then the lease payments are charged to statement of profit and loss instead of straight line method.

b. Where the Company is the less or:

Lease income is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Costs, including depreciation is recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

h) Inventories:

Raw materials, stores and spares, work in progress, traded and finished goods are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Costs are assigned to individual items of inventory and are determined based on weighted average method.

Cost of raw materials and traded goods comprises cost of purchases and includes all other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost of work-in-progress and finished goods comprises direct materials, direct labour and an appropriate proportion of variable and fixed overhead expenditure, the latter being allocated based on normal operating capacity.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment are recognized in accordance with this Ind AS-16 when they meet the definition of Property, Plant and Equipment. Otherwise, such items are classified as inventory. Spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value.

i) Revenue recognition:

Revenue is measured at the fair value of consideration received or receivable and is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company. Specifically, the following basis is adopted for various sources of income:

i. Sale of goods:

Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of goods have passed to the buyer, which generally coincides with delivery. Amounts disclosed as revenue are inclusive of excise duty and net of returns, trade allowances, rebates, value added taxes. Revenue from export sales is recognized on the date of bill of lading, based on the terms of export.

ii. Sale of Thermal Power

Revenue is recognized based on Joint Meter Reading (JMR) at the contracted rates periodically. Amounts disclosed as revenue are net of rebates.

iii. Income from services:

Revenue from conversion of ferro alloy and other service income is recognized based on proportionate completion method. Proportionate completion is measured by the management on the most appropriate basis for different class of services.

iv. Guarantee Commission:

Guarantee commission is recognized as an income over the life of financial guarantee contract on a time proportion basis.

v. Interest/dividend:

Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable. Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive payment is established.

vi. Export Benefits:

Export benefits in the form of Duty Drawback are recognized on accrual and Focus Product Scheme (FPS) are recognized on realization.

vii. Other Sundry Incomes:

Insurance claims and conversion escalations are accounted for on realization.

j) Foreign currency transactions:

i. Functional and Reporting Currency:

The Company''s functional and reporting currency is Indian National Rupee.

ii. Initial Recognition:

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amounts the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

iii. Conversion on reporting date:

Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions.

iv. Exchange Differences:

Exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting monetary items of Company at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year or reported in previous financial statements are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise.

k) Government Grants and Subsidies:

Government grants are recognized where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with.

Government grants relating to income are deferred and recognized in the profit or loss over the period necessary to match them with the costs that they are intended to compensate and presented within other income.

Government grants relating to the purchase of property, plant and equipment are included in noncurrent liabilities as deferred income and are credited to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the expected lives of the related assets and presented within other income.

Government grants relating to loans or similar assistance with an interest rate below the current applicable market rate are initially recognized and measured at fair value. The effect of this favorable interest is regarded as a government grant and is measured as the difference between the initial carrying value of the loan and the proceeds received. The loan is subsequently measured as per the accounting policy applicable to financial liabilities.

l) Retirement and other employee benefits:

i. Employer''s contribution to Provident Fund/ Employee State Insurance which is in the nature of defined contribution scheme is expensed off when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the fund.

ii. Gratuity liability is in the nature of defined benefit obligation. Such liability is provided based on independent actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year as per the requirements of Ind AS 19 "Employee Benefits". Actuarial gain/ (loss) in the valuation are recognized as other comprehensive income for the period.

iii. Compensated absences which are in the nature of defined benefit obligation are provided for based on estimates of independent actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year as per the requirements of Ind AS 19 "Employee Benefits".

m) Borrowing Costs:

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.

n) Segment Reporting:

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the Executive Management/Chief operating decision maker ("CODM").

The board of directors of the company has identified the Chairman as the CODM.

o) Dividends:

Annual dividend distribution to the shareholders is recognized as a liability in the period in which the dividend is approved by the shareholders. Any interim dividend paid is recognized on approval by Board of Directors. Dividend payable and corresponding tax on dividend distribution is recognized directly in equity.

p) Earnings Per Share:

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the profit for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period, net off treasury shares.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the profit for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

q) Provisions:

Provisions are recognized when there is a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, as a result of a past event, when it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not recognized for future operating losses.

Any reimbursement that the Company can be virtually certain to collect from a third party with respect to the obligation is recognized as a separate asset. However, this asset may not exceed the amount of the related provision.

Provisions are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate. If it is no longer probable that an outflow of economic resources will be required to settle the obligation, the provisions are reversed. Where the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provisions due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.

r) Contingencies:

Where it is not probable that an inflow or an outflow of economic resources will be required, or the amount cannot be estimated reliably, the asset or the obligation is not recognized in the statement of balance sheet and is disclosed as a contingent asset or contingent liability. Possible outcomes on obligations/ rights, whose existence will only be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more future events are also disclosed as contingent assets or contingent liabilities.

s) Taxes on Income:

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the respective laws of the state. Current tax includes taxes to be paid on the profit earned during the year and for the prior periods.

Deferred income taxes are provided based on the balance sheet approach considering the temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available.

t) Prior period items:

In case prior period adjustments are material in nature the Company prepares the restated financial statement as required under Ind AS 8 - "Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors". Immaterial items pertaining to prior periods are shown under respective items in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

u) Cash and cash equivalents:

Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and at bank, deposits held at call with banks, other short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to a known amount of cash which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value and are held for meeting short-term cash commitments.

For the Statement of Cash Flows, cash and cash equivalents consists of short term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdraft as they are being considered as integral part of the Company''s cash management.

v) Treasury shares:

Own fully paid equity instruments held by the company, pursuant to order of Hon''ble High Court of Andhra Pradesh dated 30.12.1996 in the Scheme of amalgamation of Nav Chrome Limited with the company, which are vested in a Trustee for the benefit of the Company and which are to be sold and net sale proceeds are to be paid to the company are treated as treasury shares and reduced from other equity. Further these shares are not considered for dividend and voting rights.

w) Financial instruments:

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

Financial Assets:

i. Initial recognition and measurement:

All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are expensed in statement of profit or loss. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time

frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognized on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.

ii. Subsequent measurement:

For subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified into following categories:

a. Debt instruments at amortized cost

b. Debt instruments at fair value through profit and loss

c. Equity instruments at fair value through profit and loss

a. Debt Instruments at amortized cost:

A ''debt instrument'' is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:

i. The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

ii. Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognized in the profit or loss.

b. Debt instruments at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL):

As per the Ind AS 101 and Ind AS 109, the Company is permitted to designate the previously recognized financial asset at initial recognition irrevocably at fair value through profit or loss on the basis of facts and circumstances that exists on the date of transition to Ind AS. Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

c. Equity Instruments at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL):

Equity instruments/Mutual funds in the scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable. Subsequent changes in the fair values at each reporting date are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

iii. Derecognition:

A financial asset or where applicable, a part of a financial asset is primarily derecognized when:

a. The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

b. The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ''pass-through'' arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognize the transferred asset to the extent of the Company''s continuing involvement.

iv. Impairment of financial assets:

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the debt instruments, that are measured at amortized cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance.

Expected credit loss is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive.

The management uses a provision matrix to determine the impairment loss on the portfolio of trade and other receivables. Provision matrix is based on its historically observed expected credit loss rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward looking estimates.

Expected credit loss allowance or reversal recognized during the period is recognized as income or expense, as the case may be, in the statement of profit and loss. In case of balance sheet, it is shown as reduction from the specific financial asset.

Financial liabilities:

i. Initial recognition and measurement:

At initial recognition, all financial liabilities are recognized at fair value and in the case of loans, borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

ii. Subsequent measurement:

a. Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss:

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Gain or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognized in the profit or loss.

The Company doesn''t designate any financial liability at fair value through profit or loss.

b. Financial liabilities at amortized cost:

Amortized cost, in case of financial liabilities with maturity more than one year, is calculated by discounting the future cash flows with effective interest rate.

The effective interest rate amortization is included as finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Financial liability with maturity of less than one year is shown at transaction value.

iii. Derecognition:

A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognized in profit or loss as other income or finance costs.

x) Financial Guarantee Contracts:

A financial guarantee contract is a contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payment when due in accordance with original or modified terms of a debt instrument.

The Company measures any financial guarantee on initial recognition at their fair value.

Subsequently these contracts are measured at the higher of:

a. the amount of the loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind AS 109, and

b. the amount initially recognized, less where appropriate, cumulative amount of income recognized in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 18.

y) Fair Value Measurement:

The Company measures financial instruments at fair value at each balance sheet date.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either in the principal market for such asset or liability, or in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market which is accessible to the Company.

The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant''s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.

The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:

a. Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted market prices) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

b. Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurements is directly or indirectly observable.

c. Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.

z) Derivatives Financial Instruments:

The Company uses derivative financial instruments such as forward exchange contracts to hedge its risk associated with foreign currency fluctuations. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at contract/agreed rate on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to profit or loss.

za) Hedging Activities and Derivatives:

Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:

The company uses foreign currency denominated borrowings and foreign exchange forward contracts to manage some of its transaction exposures.

The foreign exchange forward contracts are not designated as cash flow hedges and are entered into for periods consistent with foreign currency exposure of the underlying transactions generally from one to six months.

A hedging relationship qualifies for hedge accounting if, and only if all the following conditions are met.

a) At the inception of the hedge there is formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship and the entity''s risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. That documentation shall include the identification of hedging instrument, the hedged ; item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged and how the entity will assess the : hedging instrument''s effectiveness in offsetting ( the exposure to changes in the hedged item''s ; fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. ¦

b) The hedge is expected to be highly effective ¦ in achieving offsetting changes in fair values '' or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk, consistently with the originally documented i risk management strategy for that particular hedging relationship.

c) For cash flow hedges, a forecast transaction that is the subject of the hedge must be highly probable and must present an exposure to various cash flows that could ultimately affect profit or loss.

d) The effectiveness of the hedge can be reliably measured i.e.; the fair values or the cash flows of the hedged item that are attributable to the hedged risk and the fair value of the hedging instrument can be reliably measured.

e) The hedge is assessed on an ongoing basis and determined actually to have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which the hedge was designated.

As at 31 March 2017, the company hedging instruments did not qualify for hedge accounting in accordance with the company''s policy. Hence the interest rate swap contracts are not designated in hedge relationships and are measured at fair value through profit or loss.

e. Rights attached to the Equity Shares

The company has only one class of equity shares having a face value of '' 2/- per share with one vote per each share. The company declares and pays dividends in Indian rupees. The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting.

In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the company, after distribution of all preferential amounts. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.

g. During the year the company has allotted 89,287,741 of equity shares of '' 2/- each fully paid up by way of bonus shares.

h. The paid up share capital includes 9,947,020 (previous year 4,973,510) equity shares of '' 2/- each fully paid up, owned by the company, pursuant to order of Hon''ble High Court of Andhra Pradesh dated 30.12.1996 in the Scheme of amalgamation of Nav Chrome Limited with the company, which are vested in a Trustee for the benefit of the Company which are to be sold and net sale proceeds are to be paid to the company and such shares are not considered for dividend and treated as treasury shares and reduced from other equity.

* The loans are secured by first charge by way of equitable mortgage by deposit of title deeds to cover all immovable properties of the company and hypothecation of all movable properties including movable plant and machinery, spares, tools and accessories, both present and future and a second charge by way of hypothecation of all movable properties both present and futures (except book debts) subject to prior charges created/to be created in favour of Company''s Bankers on its stocks of raw materials, semi finished and finished goods, consumable stores for securing borrowings for working capital requirements. The mortgage/charge created above shall rank paripassu with the charges created/to be created in favour of other financial institutions/banks.


Mar 31, 2016

01 CORPORATE INFORMATION:

Nava Bharat Ventures Limited (the Company) was incorporated on 7th November, 1972 and is listed on Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE). At present the Company is engaged in the business of manufacture of ferro alloys, sugar and generation of power.

02 BASIS OF ACCOUNTING:

The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the Accounting Standards specified under Section 133 of the Act, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, and in accordance with the generally accepted Accounting Principles in India under the historical cost convention and on accrual basis, except in case of assets for which provision for impairment is made and revaluation is carried out. The accounting policies are consistent with those used in the previous year.

03 SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES:

a) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

b) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (or revalued amounts, as the case may be), less accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and other attributable costs to bring the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Direct expenditure incurred and other attributable revenue costs on projects under implementation are treated as unallocated capital expenditure pending allocation to the assets and are included under Capital work-in- progress.

Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which take substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

Assets which are found to be not usable are retired from active use or when no further benefits are expected from their use are removed from books of account and carrying value, if any, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

c) Depreciation

i. Depreciation is provided considering the useful lives of respective assets, as provided and prescribed under Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.

ii. Fixed Assets costing rupees five thousand or less are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

iii. The cost of leasehold Land is amortised over the lease period.

iv. Improvements to premises taken on lease are amortised over the primary lease period.

d) Intangible Assets

i. Costs incurred towards purchase of computer software is amortised over the useful lives of such software as estimated by the management which is of three years.

ii. Expenditure incurred to acquire water drawing rights from Government/Local authorities or other parties is amortised over the primary period of right to use the facilities which is ten years for the time being.

e) Impairment

i. The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

ii. Reversal of impairment losses recognised in prior years is recorded when there is an indication that the impairment losses recognised for the asset are no longer exist or have decreased.

f) Prior period items

All items of income/expenditure pertaining to prior period, which are material, are accounted through "prior period adjustments" and the others are shown under respective heads of account in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

g) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long term investments.

Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value of each long term investment is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in nature.

h) Inventories

i. Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, raw materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on moving weighted average basis.

ii. Goods in transit are valued at Cost.

iii. Finished goods, Work in progress, Scrap, by-products, loose tools and other stock in trade are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.

iv. Cost includes direct materials, labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on weighted average basis and cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost of traded goods includes purchase and allied costs incurred to bring the inventory to its present condition and location, determined on weighted average basis.

v. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated selling costs.

i) Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable, the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Specifically the following basis is adopted:

i. Sale of Goods:

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of goods have passed to the buyer, which generally coincides with delivery. Sales are inclusive of excise duty and value added tax/sales tax and is net of sales returns and discounts. Revenue from export sales is recognised on the date of bill of lading, based on the terms of export.

ii. Income from Services:

Revenue is recognised as and when the conversion job is completed irrespective of the billing.

iii. Interest and Guarantee Commission:

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

iv. Dividends:

Dividend is recognised when the right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

v. Export Benefits:

Export entitlements in the form of Duty Drawback on accrual and Focus Product Scheme (FPS) on realisation are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

vi. Other Sundry Incomes

Insurance claims and conversion escalations are accounted for on realisation.

j) Foreign Currency Transactions

i. Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount, the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency on the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items not covered by forward contracts are restated at the exchange rates prevailing at the year end.

iii. Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising, on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise except those arising from investments in non- integral operations.

iv. Forward Exchange Contracts (Derivative Instruments) not intended for trading or speculation purposes

The Company uses derivative financial instruments including forward exchange contracts to hedge its risk associated with foreign currency fluctuations. The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognised as income or as expense for the year.

k) Government Grants and Subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the Government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

When the grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value of the assets concerned in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset.

Government grants in the form of non-monetary assets given at a concessional rate are accounted for on the basis of their acquisition cost.

l) Retirement and Other Employee Benefits

i. Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

ii. The Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective Trusts.

iii. Short term compensated absences are provided on an estimated basis. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method carried by an actuary as at the end of the year.

iv. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to Statement of Profit and Loss and are not deferred.

v. In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant, over the exercise price, is recognised as deferred compensation cost and amortised over the vesting period.

vi. Compensation paid under the company''s voluntary retirement scheme is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year of payment.

m) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of Fixed Assets, which take substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, are capitalised. Other Borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.

n) Segment Reporting Policies

i. Identification of Segments:

The Company''s operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets.

The analysis of geographical segment is based on the geographical location of the customers. The geographical segments considered for disclosure are as follows:

* Sales within India include sales to customers located within India.

* Sales outside India include sales to customers located outside India.

ii. Allocation of Common Costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment based on the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

iii. Unallocated Items:

Includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

o) Earnings per Share (Basic and Diluted)

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

p) Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases.

Where the Company is the lessee:

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor:

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

q) Taxes on Income

Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. If the Company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only, if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that such deferred tax assets can be realised against future taxable profits.

r) Provisions

A provision is recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

s) Contingent Liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non- occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

t) Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using indirect method. Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement comprise cash at bank, cash/cheques in hand and Fixed Deposits with Banks.

u) Dividends

Dividend as recommended by the Board of Directors is provided for in the accounts pending shareholders / lending institutions approval wherever applicable.


Mar 31, 2015

A) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

b) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (or revalued amounts, as the case may be), less accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and other attributable costs to bring the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Direct overhead expenditure incurred and other attributable revenue costs on projects under implementation is treated as unallocated capital expenditure pending allocation to the assets and are included under Capital work-in-progress.

Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which take substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

c) Depreciation

i. Depreciation is provided considering the useful lives of respective assets, as provided and prescribed under Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.

ii. Fixed Assets costing rupees five thousand or less are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

iii. The cost of leasehold Land is amortised over the lease period.

iv. Improvements to premises taken on lease are amortised over the primary lease period.

d) Intangible Assets

i. Costs incurred towards purchase of computer software is amortised over the useful lives of such software as estimated by the management which is of three years.

ii. Expenditure incurred to acquire water drawing rights from Government/Local authorities or other parties is amortised over the primary period of right to use the facilities which is ten years for the time being.

e) Impairment

i. The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/ external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use.In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

ii. Reversal of impairment losses recognised in prior years is recorded when there is an indication that the impairment losses recognised for the asset are no longer exist or have decreased.

f) Prior period items

All items of income/expenditure pertaining to prior period, which are material, are accounted through "prior period adjustments" and the others are shown under respective heads of account in the Profit and Loss.

g) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value of each long term investment is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in nature.

h) Inventories

i. Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, raw materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined at moving weighted average basis.

ii. Goods in transit are valued at Cost.

iii. Finished goods, Work in progress, Scrap, by-products, loose tools and other stock in trade are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.

iv. Cost includes direct materials, labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis and Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost of traded goods includes purchase and allied costs incurred to bring the inventory to its present condition and location, determined on weighted average basis.

v. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated selling costs.

i) Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Specifically the following basis is adopted:

i. Sale of Goods:

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of goods have passed to the buyer, which generally coincides with delivery. Sales are inclusive of excise duty and value added tax/sales tax and is net of sales returns and discounts. Revenue from export sales is recognised on the date of bill of lading, based on the terms of export.

ii. Income from Services:

Revenue is recognised as and when the conversion job is completed irrespective of the billing.

iii. Interest and Guarantee Commission:

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

iv. Dividends:

Dividend is recognised when the right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

v. Export Benefits:

Export Entitlements in the form of Duty Drawback on accrual and Focus Product Scheme (FPS) Schemes on realisation are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

vi. Other Sundry Incomes

Insurance claims and conversion escalations are accounted for on realisation.

j) Foreign Currency Transactions

i. Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency on the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items not covered by forward contracts are restated at the exchange rates prevailing at the year end.

iii. Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising, on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise except those arising from investments in non-integral operations.

iv. Forward Exchange Contracts (Derivative Instruments) not intended for trading or speculation purposes.

The Company uses derivative financial instruments including forward exchange contracts to hedge its risk associated with foreign currency fluctuations. The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognised as income or as expense for the year.

k) Government Grants and Subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the Government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

When the grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value of the assets concerned in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset. Government grants in the form of non-monetary assets given at a concessional rate are accounted for on the basis of their acquisition cost.

l) Retirement and Other Employee Benefits

i. Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

ii. The Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective Trusts.

iii. Short term compensated absences are provided on an estimated basis. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method carried by an actuary as at the end of the year.

iv. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to Statement of Profit and Loss and are not deferred.

v. In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant, over the exercise price, is recognised as deferred compensation cost and amortised over the vesting period.

vi. Compensation paid under the company''s voluntary retirement scheme is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year of payment.

m) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of Fixed Assets, which take substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, are capitalised. Other Borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.

n) Segment Reporting Policies

i. Identification of Segments:

The Company''s operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets.

The analysis of geographical segment is based on the geographical location of the customers. The geographical segments considered for disclosure are as follows:

* Sales within India include sales to customers located within India. *

* Sales outside India include sales to customers located outside India.

ii. Allocation of Common Costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment based on the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

iii. Unallocated Items:

Includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

o) Earnings per Share (Basic and Diluted)

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

p) Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases.

Where the Company is the lessee:

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor:

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

q) Taxes on Income

Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. If the Company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only, if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that such deferred tax assets can be realised against future taxable profits.

r) Provisions

A provision is recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

s) Contingent Liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

t) Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using indirect method. Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement comprise cash at bank, cash/cheques in hand and Fixed Deposits with Banks.

u) Dividends

Dividend as recommended by the Board of Directors is provided for in the accounts pending shareholders/lending institutions approval wherever applicable.


Mar 31, 2014

01 NATURE OF OPERATIONS:

Nava Bharat Ventures Limited (the Company) has been ncorporated on 7th November, 1972. At present the Company is engaged in the business of manufacture of ferro alloys, sugar and generation of power

02 BASIS OF ACCOUNTING:

The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the notified Accounting Standards by Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended) read with General Circular No.15/2013 dated 13th September, 2013 of Ministry of Corporate Affairs and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted Accounting Principles in India under the historical cost convention and on accrual basis, except in case of assets for which provision for impairment is made and revaluation is carried out. The accounting policies are consistent with those used in the previous year

03 SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES:

a) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates

b) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (or revalued amounts, as the case may be), less accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and other attributable costs to bring the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Direct overhead expenditure incurred and other attributable revenue costs on projects under

implementation is treated as unallocated capita expenditure pending allocation to the assets and are included under Capital work-in-progress.

Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which take substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use

c) Depreciation

Depreciation on Fixed Assets is provided on Written Down Value/Straight Line method as per Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

i. Fixed Assets costing rupees five thousand or less are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition

iii. The cost of leasehold Land is amortised over the lease period

iv. Improvements to premises taken on lease are amortised over the primary lease period

d) Intangible Assets

Costs incurred towards purchase of computer software is amortised over the useful lives of such software as estimated by the management which is of three years

i. Expenditure incurred to acquire water drawing rights from Government/Local authorities or other parties is amortised over the primary period of right to use the facilities which is ten years for the time being

e) Impairment

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any ndication of impairment based on internal/ external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life

i. Reversal of impairment losses recognised in prior years is recorded when there is an indication that the impairment losses recognised for the asset are no longer exist or have decreased

f) Prior period items

All items of income/expenditure pertaining to prior period, which are material, are accounted through "prior period adjustments" and the others are shown under respective heads of account in the Profit and Loss

g) Investments

nvestments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long term investments. Current nvestments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value of each long term investment is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in nature

h) Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, raw materials and other items held for use in the production of nventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be ncorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined at weighted average basis

i. Goods in transit are valued at Cost.

iii. Finished goods, Work in progress, Scrap, by-products, loose tools and other stock in trade are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.

iv. Cost includes direct materials, labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis and cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost of traded goods includes purchase and allied costs incurred to bring the inventory to its present condition and location, determined on weighted average basis.

v. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated selling costs

i) Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Specifically the following basis is adopted

i. Sale of Goods:

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of goods have passed to the buyer, which generally coincides with delivery. Sales are inclusive of excise duty and value added tax/sales tax and is net of sales returns and discounts Revenue from export sales is recognised on the date of bill of lading

ii. Income from Services:

Revenue is recognised as and when the conversion job is completed irrespective of the billing

iii. Interest and Guarantee Commission:

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable

iv. Dividends:

Dividend is recognised when the right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

V. Export Benefits:

Export Entitlements in the form of Duty Drawback on accrual and Duty Entitlement Pass Book (DEPB) Schemes on realisation are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

vi. Other Sundry Incomes

nsurance claims and conversion escalations are accounted for on realisation

j) Foreign Currency Transactions

i. Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency on the date of the transaction

ii. Conversion

Foreign currency monetary items not covered by forward contracts are restated at the exchange rates prevailing at the year end

iii. Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising, on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise except those arising from nvestments in non-integral operations.

iv. Forward Exchange Contracts (Derivative Instruments) not intended for trading or speculation purposes.

The Company uses derivative financial nstruments including forward exchange contracts to hedge its risk associated with foreign currency fluctuations. The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognised as ncome or as expense for the year.

k) Government Grants and Subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with

When the grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value of the assets concerned in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset. Government grants in the form of non-monetary assets given at a concessional rate are accounted for on the basis of their acquisition cost.

I) Retirement and Other Employee Benefits

i. Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

ii. The Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective Trusts.

iii. Short term compensated absences are provided on an estimated basis. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method carried by an actuary as at the end of the year.

iv. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to Statement of Profit and Loss and are not deferred

v. In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant, over the exercise price, is recognised as deferred compensation cost and amortised over the vesting period

vi. Compensation paid under the company''s voluntary retirement scheme is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year of payment.

m) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of Fixed Assets, which take substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, are capitalised. Other Borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the year in which they are ncurred

n) Segment Reporting Policies

i. Identification of Segments:

The Company''s operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets

The analysis of geographical segment is based on the geographical location of the customers. The geographical segments considered for disclosure are as follows:

- Sales within India include sales to customers located within India

- Sales outside India include sales to customers located outside India

ii. Allocation of Common Costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

iii. Unallocated Items:

Includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

o) Earnings per Share (Basic and Diluted)

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

p) Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases

Where the Company is the lessee:

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term

Where the Company is the lessor:

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss

q) Taxes on Income

Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised If the Company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only, if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that such deferred tax assets can be realised against future taxable profits.

r) Provisions

A provision is recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

s) Contingent Liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements

t) Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using indirect method Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement comprise cash at bank, cash/cheques in hand and Fixed Deposits with Banks

u) Dividends

Dividend as recommended by the Board of Directors is provided for in the accounts pending shareholders/lending institutions approva wherever applicable.


Mar 31, 2012

A) Change in accounting policy: Presentation and disclosure of financial statements:

During the year ended 31st March, 2012, the revised Schedule VI notified under the Companies Act 1956, has become applicable to the company, for preparation and presentation of its financial statements. The adoption of revised Schedule VI does not impact recognition and measurement principles followed for preparation of financial statements. However, it has significant impact on presentation and disclosures made in the financial statements. The company has also reclassified the previous year figures in accordance with the requirements applicable in the current year.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

c) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (or revalued amounts, as the case may be), less accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and other attributable costs to bring the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Direct overhead expenditure incurred on projects under implementation is treated as unallocated capital expenditure pending allocation to the assets and are included under Capital work-in-progress.

Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which take substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

d) Depreciation

i. Depreciation on Fixed Assets is provided on Written Down Value/Straight Line method as per Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

ii. Fixed Assets costing rupees five thousand or less are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

iii. The cost of leasehold Land is amortised over the lease period.

iv. Improvements to premises taken on lease are amortised over the primary lease period.

e) Intangible Assets

i. Costs incurred towards purchase of computer software is amortised over the useful lives of such software as estimated by the management which is of three years.

ii. Expenditure incurred to acquire water drawing rights from Government/Local authorities or other parties is amortised over the primary period of right to use the facilities which is ten years for the time being.

f) Impairment

i. The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

ii. Reversal of impairment losses recognised in prior years is recorded when there is an indication that the impairment losses recognised for the asset are no longer exist or have decreased.

g) Prior period items

All items of income/expenditure pertaining to prior period, which are material, are accounted through “prior period adjustments” and the others are shown under respective heads of account in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

h) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value of each long term investment is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in nature.

i) Inventories

i. Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, raw materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined at weighted average basis.

ii. Goods in transit are valued at Cost.

iii. Finished goods, Work in progress, Scrap, by-products, loose tools and other stock in trade are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.

iv. Cost includes direct materials, labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis and Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost of traded goods includes purchase and allied costs incurred to bring the inventory to its present condition and location, determined on weighted average basis.

v. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated selling costs.

j) Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Specifically the following basis is adopted:

i. Sale of Goods:

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of goods have passed to the buyer, which generally coincides with delivery. Sales are inclusive of excise duty and value added tax/sales tax and is net of sales returns and discounts. Revenue from export sales is recognised on the date of bill of lading.

ii. Income from Services:

Revenue is recognised as and when the conversion job is completed irrespective of the billing.

iii. Interest and guarantee commission:

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

iv. Dividends:

Dividend is recognised when the right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

v. Export Benefits:

Export Entitlements in the form of Duty Drawback on accrual and Duty Entitlement Pass Book (DEPB) Schemes on realisation are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

vi. Other Sundry incomes

Insurance claims and conversion escalations are accounted for on realisation.

k) Foreign Currency Transactions

i. Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency on the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion

Foreign currency monitory items not covered by forward contracts are restated at the exchange rates prevailing at the year end.

iii. Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising, on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company's monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise except those arising from investments in non-integral operations.

iv. Forward Exchange Contracts (Derivative Instruments) not intended for trading or speculation purposes.

The Company uses derivative financial instruments including forward exchange contracts to hedge its risk associated with foreign currency fluctuations. The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognised as income or as expense for the year.

l) Government Grants and Subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with

When the grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value of the assets concerned in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset. Government grants in the form of non-monetary assets given at a concessional rate are accounted for on the basis of their acquisition cost.

m) Retirement and Other Employee Benefits

i. Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

ii. The Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Statement of profit and loss of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective trusts.

iii. Short term compensated absences are provided on an estimated basis. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method carried by an actuary as at the end of the year.

iv. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to Statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

v. In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant, over the exercise price, is recognised as deferred compensation cost and amortised over the vesting period.

vi. Compensation paid under the company's voluntary retirement scheme is charged to the Statement of profit and loss in the year of payment.

n) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of Fixed Assets, which take substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, are capitalised. Other Borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.

o) Segment Reporting Policies

i. Identification of Segments:

The Company's operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets.

The analysis of geographical segment is based on the geographical location of the customers. The geographical segments considered for disclosure are as follows:

- Sales within India include sales to customers located within India.

- Sales outside India include sales to customers located outside India.

ii. Allocation of Common Costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

iii. Unallocated Items:

Includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

p) Earnings per Share (Basic and Diluted)

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

q) Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases.

Where the Company is the lessee

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the Statement of profit and loss. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expense in the Statement of profit and loss.

r) Taxes on Income

Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. If the Company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only, if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that such deferred tax assets can be realised against future taxable profits.

s) Provisions

A provision is recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

t) Contingent Liabilities

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

u) Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using indirect method. Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement comprise cash at bank, cash/cheques in hand and Fixed Deposits with Banks.

v) Dividends

Dividend as recommended by the Board of Directors is provided for in the accounts pending shareholders/lending institutions approval.


Mar 31, 2011

A) Basis of Accounting

The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the notifed accounting standards by Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules,2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted Accounting Principles in India under the historical cost convention on and accrual basis, except in case of assets for which provision for impairment is made and revaluation is carried out. The accounting policies are consistent with those used in the previous year.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

c) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (or revalued amounts, as the case may be), less accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and other attributable costs to bring the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Direct overhead expenditure incurred on projects under implementation is treated as unallocated capital expenditure pending allocation to the assets and are included under Capital work-in-progress.

Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which take substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

d) Depreciation

i. Depreciation on Fixed Assets is provided on Written Down Value/Straight Line method as per Schedule XIV of the Companies Act, 1956.

ii. Fixed Assets costing rupees fve thousand or less are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

iii. The cost of leasehold Land is amortised over the lease period.

iv. Improvements to premises taken on lease are amortised over the Primary lease period of three years.

e) Intangible Assets

i. Costs incurred towards purchase of computer software is amortised over the useful lives of such software as estimated by the management which is of three years.

ii. Expenditure incurred to acquire water drawing rights from Government/Local authorities or other parties is amortised over the primary period of right to use the facilities which is ten years for the time being

f) Impairment

i. The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognised wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset’s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash fows are discounted to their present value at the

Schedules annexed to and forming part of the accounts for the year ended 31st March 2011

weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

ii. Reversal of impairment losses recognised in prior years is recorded when there is an indication that the impairment losses recognised for the asset are no longer exist or have decreased.

g) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classifed as current investments. All other investments are classifed as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value of each long term investment is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in nature.

h) Inventories

i. Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, raw materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the fnished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined at weighted average basis.

ii. Goods in transit and standing crops are valued at Cost

iii. Finished goods, Work in progress, Scrap, by-products, loose tools and other stock in trade are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.

iv. Cost includes direct materials, labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis and Cost of fnished goods includes excise duty.Cost of traded goods includes purchase and allied costs incurred to bring the inventory to its present condition and location, determined on weighted average basis.

v. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated selling costs.

i) Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will fow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Specifcally the following basis is adopted:

i. Sale of Goods:

Revenue is recognised when the signifcant risks and rewards of ownership of goods have passed to the buyer, which generally coincides with delivery. Sales are inclusive of excise duty and value added tax/sales tax and is net of sales returns and discounts. Revenue from export sales is recognised on the date of bill of lading.

ii. Interest:

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.

iii. Dividends:

Dividend is recognised when the right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

iv. Export benefits:

Export Entitlements in the form of Duty Drawback and Duty Entitlement Pass Book (DEPB) Schemes are recognised in the profit and Loss account on realisation.

v. Other Sundry incomes

a) Insurance claims, conversion escalations and income from sale of VERs (Variable Emission Reduction) are accounted for on realisation.

b) Appropriate Guarantee Commission is charged on a time proportion basis to subsidiaries on the guarantees given on their behalf unless the terms of sanction otherwise provided at the time of sanctioning of loan facilities to subsidiaries.

j) Foreign Currency Transactions

i. Initial Recognition

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion

Foreign currency liability/assets not covered by forward contracts are restated at the exchange rates prevailing at the year end.

iii. Exchange differences

Exchange differences arising, on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company’s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise except those arising from investments in non-integral operations.

iv. Forward Exchange Contracts (Derivative Instruments) not intended for trading or speculation purposes.

The Company uses derivative financial instruments including forward exchange contracts to hedge its risk associated with foreign currency fuctuations.The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognised as income or as expense for the year.

k) Government Grants and Subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

When the grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value of the assets concerned in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset. Government grants in the form of non-monetary assets given at a concessional rate are accounted for on the basis of their acquisition cost.

l) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of Fixed Assets, which take substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, are capitalised. Other Borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.

m) Segment Reporting Policies

i. Identifcation of Segments:

The Companys operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets.

The analysis of geographical segment is based on the geographical location of the customers. The geographical segments considered for disclosure are as follows:

* Sales within India include sales to customers located within India.

* Sales outside India include sales to customers located outside India.

ii. Allocation of Common Costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

iii. Unallocated Items:

Includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

n) Retirement and Other Employee benefits

i. Gratuity liability is a defned benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

ii. The Provident Fund is a defned contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the profit and loss account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective trusts.

iii. Short term compensated absences are provided on an estimated basis. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method carried by an actuary as at the end of the year.

iv. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to profit and loss account and are not deferred.

v. In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant, over the exercise price, is recognised as deferred compensation cost and amortised over the vesting period.

vi. Compensation paid under the company’s voluntary retirement scheme is charged to the profit and loss account in the year of payment.

o) Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased assets are classifed as operating leases.

Where the Company is the lessee

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the profit and loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the profit and loss account. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expense in the profit and loss account.

p) Taxes on Income

Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income taxes refects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that suffcient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. If the Company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only, if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that such deferred tax assets can be realised against future taxable profits.

q) Provisions

A provision is recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outfow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to refect the current best estimates.

r) Earnings per Share (Basic and Diluted)

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

s) Cash Flow Statement

Cash fows are reported using indirect method. Cash and cash equivalents in the cash fow statement comprise cash at bank, cash/cheques in hand and Fixed Deposits with Banks.

t) Others

i. The contingent liabilities are indicated by way of a note and will be provided/paid on crystallisation.

ii. Dividend as recommended by the board of directors is provided for in the accounts pending shareholders/lending institutions approval.

iii. Foreign currency convertible bonds issue expenses incurred and premium payable on redemption of such bonds are adjusted against securities premium account as permitted by section 78(2) of the companies act, 1956.


Mar 31, 2010

A) Basis of Accounting

The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the notified accounting standards by Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules,2006 (as amended) and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted Accounting Principles in India under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis, except in case of assets for which provision for impairment is made and revaluation is carried out. The accounting policies are consistent with those used in the previous year.

b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

c) Fixed Assets

Fixed assets are stated at cost (or revalued amounts, as the case may be), less accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and other attributable costs to bring the asset to its working condition for its intended use.

Direct overhead expenditure incurred on projects under implementation is treated as unallocated capital expenditure pending allocation to the assets and are included under Capital work-in-progress.

Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which take substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.

d) Depreciation

i. Depreciation on Fixed Assets is provided on Written Down Value/Straight Line method as per Schedule XIV of the Companies Act,1956.

ii. Fixed Assets costing rupees five thousand or less are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.

iii. The cost of leasehold Land is amortised over the lease period.

iv. Improvements to premises taken on lease are amortised over the Primary lease period of three years.

v. Expenditure on power lines, ownership of which belongs to a state owned power Distribution Company is amortised over the period as permitted in the erstwhile “The Electricity Supply Act, 1948".

e) Intangible Assets

i. Costs incurred towards purchase of computer software is amortised over the useful lives of such software as estimated by the managementwhich is of three years.

ii. Expenditure incurred to acquire water drawing rights from Government/Local authorities or other parties is amortised over the primary period of right to use the facilities which is ten years for the time being.

f) Impairment

i. The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset’s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.

ii. Reversal of impairment losses recognised in prior years is recorded when there is an indication that the impairment losses recognised for the asset are no longer exist or have decreased.

g) Investments

Investments that are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value of each long term investment is made to recognise a decline other than temporary in nature.

h) Inventories

i. Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, raw materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined at weighted average basis.

ii. Goods in transit and standing crops are valued at Cost.

iii. Finished goods, Work in progress, Scrap, by-products, loose tools and other stock in trade are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.

iv. Cost includes direct materials, labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis and Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost of traded goods includes purchase and allied costs incurred to bring the inventory to its present condition and location, determined on weighted average basis.

v. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated selling costs.

i) Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Specifically the following basis is adopted:

i. Sale of Goods:

Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of goods have passed to the buyer, which generally coincides with delivery. Sales are inclusive of excise duty and value added tax/sales tax and is net of sales returns and discounts. Revenue from export sales is recognised on the date of bill of lading.

ii. Interest:

Revenue is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable. iii. Dividends:

Dividend is recognised when the right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.

iv. Export Benefits:

Export Entitlements in the form of Duty Drawback and Duty Entitlement Pass Book (DEPB) Schemes are recognised in the Profit and Loss account on realisation.

v. Other Sundry incomes:

Insurance claims, conversion escalations and income from sale of VERs (Variable Emission Reduction) are accounted for on realisation.

j) Foreign Currency Transactions

i. Initial Recognition:

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

ii. Conversion:

Foreign currency liability/assets not covered by forward contracts are restated at the exchange rates prevailing at the year end.

iii. Exchange differences:

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company’s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year or reported in previous financial statements,are recognised as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise except those arising from investments in non-integral operations.

iv. Forward Exchange Contracts (Derivative Instruments) not intended for trading or speculation purposes.

The Company uses derivative financial instruments including forward exchange contracts to hedge its risk associated with foreign currency fluctuations. The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognised as income or as expense for the year.

k) Government Grants and Subsidies

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.

When the grant or subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognised as income over the periods necessary to match them on a systematic basis to the costs, which it is intended to compensate. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value of the assets concerned in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset. Government grants in the form of non-monetary assets given at a concessional rate are accounted for on the basis of their acquisition cost.

l) Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of Fixed Assets, which take substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, are capitalised. Other Borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the year in which they are incurred.

m) Segment Reporting Policies

i. Identification of Segments:

The Company’s operating businesses are organised and managed separately according to the nature of products, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serves different markets.

The analysis of geographical segment is based on the geographical location of the customers. The geographical segments considered for disclosure are as follows:

* Sales within India include sales to customers located within India.

* Sales outside India include sales to customers located outside India.

ii. Allocation of Common Costs:

Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.

iii. Unallocated Items:

Includes general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.

n) Retirement and Other Employee Benefits

i. Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.

ii. The Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the profit and loss account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective trusts.

iii. Short term compensated absences are provided on an estimated basis. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation on project unit credit method carried by an actuary as at the end of the year.

iv. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to profit and loss account and are not deferred.

v. In respect of employees stock options, the excess of fair price on the date of grant, over the exercise price, is recognised as deferred compensation cost and amortised over the vesting period.

vi. Compensation paid under the company’s voluntary retirement scheme is charged to the profit and loss account in the year of payment.

o) Leases

Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases.

Where the Company is the lessee:

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the profit and loss account on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Where the Company is the lessor:

Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the profit and loss account. Costs, including depreciation are recognised as an expense in the profit and loss account.

p) Taxes on Income

Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. Deferred income taxes reflects the impact of current year timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.

Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. If the Company has carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only, if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that such deferred tax assets can be realised against future taxable profits.

q) Provisions

A provision is recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

r) Earnings per Share (Basic and Diluted)

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

s) Cash Flow Statement

Cash flows are reported using indirect method. Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement comprise cash at bank, cash/cheques in hand and Fixed Deposits with Banks.

t) Others

i. The contingent liabilities are indicated by way of a note and will be provided/paid on crystalisation

ii. Dividend as recommended by the board of directors is provided for in the accounts pending shareholders/lending institutions approval.

iii. Foreign currency convertible bonds issue expenses incurred and premium payable on redemption of such bonds are adjusted against securities premium account as permitted by section 78(2) of the companies act, 1956.

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