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Accounting Policies of Tata Motors Ltd. Company

Mar 31, 2013

(a) Basis of preparation

The financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles, Accounting Standards notified under Section 211 (3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 and the relevant provisions thereof.

(b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions, that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income, expenses and disclosures of contingent liabilities at the date of these financial statements and Profit and Loss statement for the years presented. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised and future periods affected.

(c) Revenue recognition

The Company recognises revenues on the sale of products, net of discounts and sales incentives, when the products are delivered to the dealer/ customer or when delivered to the carrier for export sales, which is when risks and rewards of ownership pass to the dealer / customer.

Sales include income from services, and exchange fluctuations relating to export receivables. Sales include export and other recurring and non-recurring incentives from the Government at the national and state levels. Sale of products is presented gross of excise duty where applicable, and net of other indirect taxes.

Revenues are recognised when collectability of the resulting receivables is reasonably assured.

Dividend from investments is recognised when the right to receive the payment is established and when no significant uncertainty as to measurability or collectability exists.

Interest income is recognised on the time basis determined by the amount outstanding and the rate applicable and where no significant uncertainty as to measurability or collectability exists.

(d) Depreciation and amortisation

(i) Depreciation is provided on Straight Line Method (SLM), at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 except in the case of :

- Leasehold Land - amortised over the period of the lease

- Technical know-how - at 16.67% (SLM)

- Laptops - at 23.75% (SLM)

- Cars - at 23.75% (SLM)

- Assets acquired prior to April 1, 1975 - on Written Down Value basis at rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

- Software in excess of Rs. 25,000 is amortised over a period of 60 months or on the basis of estimated useful life whichever is lower.

- Assets taken on lease are amortised over the period of lease.

(ii) Product development costs are amortised over a period of 36 months to 120 months or on the basis of actual production to planned production volume over such period.

(iii) In respect of assets whose useful life has been revised, the unamortised depreciable amount has been charged over the revised remaining useful life.

(iv) Depreciation is not recorded on capital work-in-progress until construction and installation are complete and asset is ready for its intended use.

(e) Fixed assets

(i) Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation / amortization and accumulated impairment, if any.

(ii) Product development cost incurred on new vehicle platform, engines, transmission and new products are recognised as fixed assets, when feasibility has been established, the Company has committed technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and it is probable that asset will generate probable future benefits.

(iii) Cost includes purchase price, taxes and duties, labour cost and directly attributable overhead expenditure for self constructed assets incurred up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use. Borrowing cost incurred for qualifying assets is capitalised up to the date the asset is ready for intended use, based on borrowings incurred specifically for financing the asset or the weighted average rate of all other borrowings, if no specific borrowings have been incurred for the asset. The cost of acquisition is further adjusted for exchange differences relating to long term foreign currency borrowings attributable to the acquisition of depreciable asset w.e.f. April 1, 2007.

(iv) Software not exceeding Rs. 25,000 and product development costs relating to minor product enhancements, facelifts and upgrades are charged off to the Profit and Loss Statement as and when incurred.

(f) Impairment

At each Balance Sheet date, the Company assesses whether there is any indication that the fixed assets with finite lives may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment, if any. Where it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs.

As per the assessment conducted by the Company at March 31, 2013, there were no indications that the fixed assets have suffered an impairment loss.

(g) Leases

(i) Finance lease

Assets acquired under finance leases are recognised as an asset and a liability at the commencement of the lease, at the lower of the fair value of the assets and the present value of minimum lease payments. The finance expense is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Assets given under finance leases are recognised as receivables at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease and the finance income is based on a constant rate of return on the outstanding net investment.

(ii) Operating lease

Leases other than finance lease, are operating leases, and the leased assets are not recognised on the Companys Balance Sheet. Payments under operating leases are recognised in the Profit and Loss Statement on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

(h) Transactions in foreign currencies and accounting of derivatives

(i) Exchange differences

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities are translated at year end exchange rates.

(1) Exchange differences arising on settlement of transactions and translation of monetary items other than those covered by (2) below are recognised as income or expense in the year in which they arise. Exchange differences considered as borrowing cost are capitalised to the extent these relate to the acquisition / construction of qualifying assets and the balance amount is recognised in the Profit and Loss Statement.

(2) Exchange differences relating to long term foreign currency monetary assets / liabilities are accounted for with effect from April 1, 2007 in the following manner:

- Differences relating to borrowings attributable to the acquisition of the depreciable capital asset are added to / deducted from the cost of such capital assets.

- Other differences are accumulated in Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account, to be amortized over the period, beginning April 1, 2007 or date of inception of such item, as applicable, and ending on March 31, 2011 or the date of its maturity, whichever is earlier.

- Pursuant to notification issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs on December 29, 2011, the exchange differences on long term foreign currency monetary items (other than those relating to acquisition of depreciable assets) are amortised over the period till the date of maturity or March 31, 2020, whichever is earlier.

(ii) Hedge accounting

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. With effect from April 1, 2008, the Company designates such forward contracts in a cash flow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles set out in Accounting Standard 30- Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward and option contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognized directly in Hedging Reserve Account under Reserves and Surplus, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss Statement.

Amounts accumulated in Hedging Reserve Account are reclassified to Profit and Loss Statement in the periods during which the forecasted transaction occurs.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in Hedging Reserve Account is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs.

If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in Hedging Reserve Account is immediately transferred to the Profit and Loss Statement.

(iii) Premium or discount on forward contracts other than those covered in (ii) above is amortised over the life of such contracts and is recognised as income or expense. Foreign currency options and other derivatives are stated at fair value as at the year end with changes in fair value recognised in the Profit and Loss Statement.

(i) Product warranty expenses

The estimated liability for product warranties is recorded when products are sold. These estimates are established using historical information on the nature, frequency and average cost of warranty claims and management estimates regarding possible future incidence based on corrective actions on product failures. The timing of outflows will vary as and when warranty claim will arise - being typically up to 3 to 4 years.

(j) Income on vehicle loan

Interest income from loan contracts are accounted for by using the Internal Rate of Return method. Consequently, a constant rate of return on the net outstanding amount is accrued over the period of contract. The Company provides an allowance for hire purchase and loan receivables that are in arrears for more than 11 months, to the extent of an amount equivalent to the outstanding principal and amounts due but unpaid, considering probable inherent loss including estimated realisation based on past performance trends. In respect of loan contracts that are in arrears for more than 6 months but not more than 11 months, allowance is provided to the extent of 10% of the outstanding and amount due but unpaid.

(k) Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of raw materials and consumables are ascertained on a moving weighted average / monthly moving weighted average basis. Cost, including variable and fixed overheads, are allocated to work-in-progress, stock-in-trade and finished goods determined on full absorption cost basis. Net realisable value is estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated cost of completion and selling expenses.

(l) Employee benefits

(i) Gratuity

The Company has an obligation towards gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan covering eligible employees. The plan provides for a lump sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death while in employment or on termination of employment of an amount equivalent to 15 to 30 days salary payable for each completed year of service. Vesting occurs upon completion of five years of service. T he Company makes annual contributions to gratuity fund established as trust. The Company accounts for the liability for gratuity benefits payable in future based on an independent actuarial valuation as at Balance Sheet date.

(ii) Superannuation

The Company has two superannuation plans, a defined benefit plan and a defined contribution plan. An eligible employee on April 1, 1996 could elect to be a member of either plan.

Employees who are members of the defined benefit superannuation plan are entitled to benefits depending on the years of service and salary drawn. The monthly pension benefits after retirement range from 0.75% to 2% of the annual basic salary for each year of service. The Company accounts for the liability for superannuation benefits payable in future under the plan based on an independent actuarial valuation as at Balance Sheet date.

With effect from April 1, 2003, this plan was amended and benefits earned by covered employees have been protected as at March 31, 2003. Employees covered by this plan are prospectively entitled to benefits computed on a basis that ensures that the annual cost of providing the pension benefits would not exceed 15% of salary.

The Company maintains a separate irrevocable trust for employees covered and entitled to benefits. The Company contributes up to 15% of the eligible employees salary to the trust every year. The Company recognizes such contributions as an expense when incurred. The Company has no further obligation beyond this contribution.

(iii) Bhavishya Kalyan Yojana (BKY)

Bhavishya Kalyan Yojana is an unfunded defined benefit plan for employees of the Company. The benefits of the plan include pension in certain case, payable up to the date of normal superannuation had the employee been in service, to an eligible employee at the time of death or permanent disablement, while in service, either as a result of an injury or as certified by the appropriate authority. The monthly payment to dependents of the deceased / disabled employee under the plan equals 50% of the salary drawn at the time of death or accident or a specified amount, whichever is higher. The Company accounts for the liability for BKY benefits payable in future based on an independent actuarial valuation as at Balance Sheet date.

(iv) Post-retirement medicare scheme

Under this scheme, employees of the Company receive medical benefits subject to certain limits of amount, periods after retirement and types of benefits, depending on their grade and location at the time of retirement. Employees separated from the Company as part of Early Separation Scheme, on medical grounds or due to permanent disablement are also covered under the scheme. The liability for post-retirement medical scheme is based on an independent actuarial valuation as at Balance Sheet date.

(v) Provident fund

The eligible employees of the Company are entitled to receive benefits in respect of provident fund, a defined contribution plan, in which both employees and the Company make monthly contributions at a specified percentage of the covered employeessalary (currently 12% of employees salary). The contributions as specified under the law are made to the provident fund and pension fund set up as irrevocable trust by the Company . The Company is generally liable for annual contributions and any shortfall in the fund assets based on the government specified minimum rates of return or pension and recognises such contributions and shortfall, if any, as an expense in the year incurred.

(vi) Compensated absences

The Company provides for the encashment of leave or leave with pay subject to certain rules. The employees are entitled to accumulate leave subject to certain limits, for future encashment. The liability is provided based on the number of days of unutilised leave at each balance sheet date on the basis of an independent actuarial valuation.

(m) Investments

Long term investments are stated at cost less other than temporary diminution in value, if any. Current investments are stated at lower of cost and fair value. Fair value of investments in mutual funds are determined on a portfolio basis.

(n) Income taxes

Tax expense comprises of current and deferred taxes.

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Current tax is net of credit for entitlement for Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT).

Deferred tax is recognised, on timing differences, being the difference between taxable income and accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods.

Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses are recognised if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise such losses.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured based on the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the balance sheet date.

(o) Redemption premium on Foreign Currency Convertible Notes (FCCN) / Non Convertible Debentures (NCD)

Premium payable on redemption of FCCN / NCD as per the terms of issue, is provided fully in the year of issue by adjusting against the Securities Premium Account (SPA) (net of tax). Any change in the premium payable, consequent to conversion or exchange fluctuations is adjusted to the SPA. Discount on redemption of FCCN, if any, will be recognised on redemption.

(p) Borrowing costs

Fees towards structuring / arrangements and underwriting and other incidental costs incurred in connection with borrowings are amortised over the period of the loan.

(q) Liabilities and contingent liabilities

The Company records a liability for any claims where a potential loss is probable and capable of being estimated and discloses such matters in its financial statements, if material. For potential losses that are considered possible, but not probable, the Company provides disclosure in the financial statements but does not record a liability in its accounts unless the loss becomes probable.

(r) Business segments

The Company is engaged mainly in the business of automobile products consisting of all types of commercial and passenger vehicles including financing of the vehicles sold by the Company. These, in the context of Accounting Standard 17 on Segment Reporting, as specified in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, are considered to constitute one single primary segment. Further, there is no reportable secondary segment i.e. Geographical Segment.


Mar 31, 2011

(a) Basis of preparation

The fnancial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis of accounting in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles, Accounting Standards notifed under Section 211 (3C) of the Companies Act, 1956 and the relevant provisions thereof.

(b) Use of estimates

The preparation of fnancial statements requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions, that afect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent liabilities at the date of these fnancial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the years presented. Actual results may difer from these estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised and future periods afected.

(c) Sales

The Company recognises revenue on the sale of products, net of discounts, when the products are delivered to the dealer / customer or when delivered to the carrier for export sales, which is when risks and rewards of ownership pass to the dealer / customer.

Sales include income from services, transfer of technology relating to automotive products and exchange fuctuations relating to export receivables. Sales include export and other recurring and non-recurring incentives from the Government at the national and state levels. Sale of products is presented gross of excise duty where applicable, and net of other indirect taxes.

Revenues are recognised when collectibility of the resulting receivables is reasonably assured.

Dividend from investments is recognized when the right to receive the payment is established and when no signifcant uncertainty as to measurability or collectability exits.

Interest income is recognized on the time basis determined by the amount outstanding and the rate applicable and where no signifcant uncertainty as to measurability or collectability exists.

(d) Depreciation and Amortisation

(i) Depreciation is provided on straight line method (SLM), at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956 except in the case of :

Leasehold Land - amortised over the period of the lease

Technical Know-how- at 16.67% (SLM)

Laptops - at 23.75% (SLM)

Cars - at 23.75% (SLM)

Assets acquired prior to April 1,1975 - on Written Down Value basis at rates specified in Schedule XIV to the Companies Act, 1956.

Software in excess of Rs. 25,000 is amortised over a period of sixty months or on the basis of estimated useful life whichever is lower.

Assets taken on lease are amortised over the period of lease.

(ii) Product development cost are amortised over a period of 36 months to 120 months or on the basis of actual production to planned production volume over such period.

(iii) In respect of assets whose useful life has been revised, the unamortised depreciable amount has been charged over the revised remaining useful life

(iv) Depreciation is not recorded on capital work-in-progress until construction and installation are complete and asset is ready for its intended use. Capital- work-in-progress includes capital advances.

(e) Fixed Assets

(i) Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation / amortization.

(ii) The product development cost incurred on new vehicle platform, engines, transmission and new products are recognised as fxed assets, when feasibility has been established, the Company has committed technical, fnancial and other resources to complete the development and it is probable that asset will generate probable future benefts.

(iii) Cost includes purchase price, taxes and duties, labour cost and directly attributable costs for self constructed assets and other direct costs incurred upto the date the asset is ready for its intended use. Borrowing cost incurred for qualifying assets is capitalised up to the date the asset is ready for intended use, based on borrowings incurred specifcally for fnancing the asset or the weighted average rate of all other borrowings, if no specifc borrowings have been incurred for the asset. The cost of acquisition is further adjusted for exchange diferences relating to long term foreign currency borrowings attributable to the acquisition of depreciable asset w.e.f. April 1, 2007.

(iv) Software not exceeding Rs. 25,000 and product development costs relating to minor product enhancements, facelifts and upgrades are charged of to the Proft and Loss Account as and when incurred.

(f) Impairment

At each balance sheet date, the Company assesses whether there is any indication that the fxed assets have sufered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment, if any. Where it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs.

As per the assessment conducted by the Company at March 31, 2011, there were no indications that the fixed assets have suffered an impairment loss.

(g) Leases

(i) Finance Lease

Assets acquired under fnance leases are recognised at the lower of the fair value of the leased assets at inception and the present value of minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between the fnance charge and the outstanding liability. The fnance charge is allocated to periods during the lease term at a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Assets given under fnance leases are recognised as receivables at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease and the fnance income is based on a constant rate of return on the outstanding net investment.

(ii) Operating Lease

Leases other than fnance lease, are operating leases, and the leased assets are not recognised on the Companys balance sheet. Payments under operating leases are recognised in statement of operations on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

(h) Transactions in Foreign Currencies and Accounting of Derivatives

(i) Exchange diferences

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities are translated at year end exchange rates.

(1) Exchange diferences arising on settlement of transactions and translation of monetary items other than those covered by (2) below are recognized as income or expense in the year in which they arise. Exchange diferences considered as borrowing cost are capitalized to the extent these relate to the acquisition / construction of qualifying assets and the balance amount is recognized in the Proft and Loss account.

(2) Exchange diferences relating to long term foreign currency monetary assets / liabilities are accounted for with efect from April 1, 2007 in the following manner:

- Diferences relating to borrowings attributable to the acquisition of the depreciable capital asset are added to / deducted from the cost of such capital assets.

- Other diferences are accumulated in Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Diference Account, to be amortized over the period, beginning April 1, 2007 or date of inception of such item, as applicable, and ending on March 31, 2011 or the date of its maturity, whichever is earlier.

(ii) Hedge Accounting

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fuctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. With efect from April 1, 2008, the Company designates such forward contracts in a cash fow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles set out in Accounting Standard 30- Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts that are designated and efective as hedges of future cash fows are recognized directly in Hedging Reserve Account under Reserves and Surplus, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the inefective portion is recognised immediately in the Proft and Loss Account.

Amounts accumulated in Hedging Reserve Account are reclassifed to proft and loss in the same periods during which the forecasted transaction afects proft and loss.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifes for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in Hedging Reserve Account is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs.

If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in Hedging Reserve Account is immediately transferred to the Proft and Loss Account.

(iii) Premium or discount on forward contracts other than those covered in (ii) above is amortised over the life of such contracts and is recognised as income or expense. Foreign currency options and other derivatives are stated at fair value as at the year end with changes in fair value recognized in the Proft and Loss Account.

(i) Product Warranty Expenses

The estimated liability for product warranties is recorded when products are sold. These estimates are established using historical information on the nature, frequency and average cost of warranty claims and management estimates regarding possible future incidence based on corrective actions on product failures. The timing of outfows will vary as and when warranty claim will arise - being typically upto three years.

(j) Income on Vehicle Loan / Hire-Purchase Income / Finance Income from Lease

Interest income from hire purchase and loan contracts and fnance income in respect of vehicles are accounted for by using the Internal Rate of Return method. Consequently, a constant rate of return on the net outstanding amount is accrued over the period of contract. The Company provides an allowance for hire purchase and loan receivables that are in arrears for more than 11 months, to the extent of an amount equivalent to the outstanding principal and amounts due but unpaid, considering probable inherent loss including estimated realisation based on past performance trends. In respect of loan contracts that are in arrears for more than 6 months but not more than 11 months, allowance is provided to the extent of 10% of the outstanding and amount due but unpaid.

(k) Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of raw materials and consumables are ascertained on a moving weighted average / monthly moving weighted average basis. Cost, including variable and fxed overheads, are allocated to work-in-progress and stock-in-trade determined on full absorption cost basis. Net realisable value is estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated cost of completion and selling expenses.

(l) Employee Benefts

(i) Gratuity

The Company has an obligation towards gratuity, a defned beneft retirement plan covering eligible employees. The plan provides for a lump sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death while in employment or on termination of employment of an amount equivalent to 15 to 30 days salary payable for each completed year of service. Vesting occurs upon completion of fve years of service. The Company makes annual contributions to gratuity fund established as trust. The Company accounts for the liability for gratuity benefts payable in future based on an independent actuarial valuation.

(ii) Superannuation

The Company has two superannuation plans, a defned beneft plan and a defned contribution plan. An eligible employee on April 1, 1996 could elect to be a member of either plan.

Employees who are members of the defned beneft superannuation plan are entitled to benefts depending on the years of service and salary drawn. The monthly pension benefts after retirement range from 0.75% to 2% of the annual basic salary for each year of service. The Company accounts for the liability for superannuation benefts payable in future under the plan based on an independent actuarial valuation.

With efect from April 1, 2003, this plan was amended and benefts earned by covered employees have been protected as at March 31, 2003. Employees covered by this plan are prospectively entitled to benefts computed on a basis that ensures that the annual cost of providing the pension benefts would not exceed 15% of salary.

The Company maintains a separate irrevocable trust for employees covered and entitled to benefts. The Company contributes up to 15% of the eligible employees salary to the trust every year. The Company recognizes such contributions as an expense when incurred. The Company has no further obligation beyond this contribution.

(iii) Bhavishya Kalyan Yojana (BKY)

Bhavishya Kalyan Yojana is an unfunded defned beneft plan. The benefts of the plan include pension in certain case, payable upto the date of normal superannuation had the employee been in service, to an eligible employee at the time of death or permanent disablement, while in service, either as a result of an injury or as certifed by the Companys Medical Board. The monthly payment to dependents of the deceased / disabled employee under the plan equals 50% of the salary drawn at the time of death or accident or a specifed amount, whichever is higher. The Company accounts for the liability for BKY benefts payable in future based on an independent actuarial valuation.

(iv) Post-retirement Medicare Scheme

Under this scheme, employees get medical benefts subject to certain limits of amount, periods after retirement and types of benefts, depending on their grade and location at the time of retirement. Employees separated from the Company as part of Early Separation Scheme, on medical grounds or due to permanent disablement are also covered under the scheme. The liability for post-retirement medical scheme is based on an independent actuarial valuation.

(v) Provident fund

The eligible employees of the Company are entitled to receive benefts under the provident fund, a defned contribution plan, in which both employees and the Company make monthly contributions at a specifed percentage of the covered employees salary (currently 12% of employees salary). The contributions as specifed under the law are paid to the provident fund and pension fund set up as irrevocable trust by the Company or to respective Regional Provident Fund Commissioner and the Central Provident Fund under the State Pension scheme. The Company is generally liable for annual contributions and any shortfall in the fund assets based on the government specifed minimum rates of return or pension and recognises such contributions and shortfall, if any, as an expense in the year incurred.

(vi) Compensated absences

The Company provides for the encashment of leave or leave with pay subject to certain rules. The employees are entitled to accumulate leave subject to certain limits, for future encashment. The liability is provided based on the number of days of unutilised leave at each balance sheet date on the basis of an independent actuarial valuation.

(m) Investments

Long term investments are stated at cost less other than temporary diminution in value, if any. Current investments are stated at lower of cost and fair value. Fair value of investments in mutual funds are determined on a portfolio basis.

(n) Income Tax Expenses

Income tax expenses comprises current and deferred taxes.

Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Current tax is net of credit for entitlement for Minimum Alternative tax.

Deferred tax is recognised, on timing diferences, being the diference between taxable income and accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods.

Deferred tax assets in respect of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses are recognised if there is virtual certainty that there will be sufcient future taxable income available to realise such losses.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured based on the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the balance sheet date.

(o) Redemption premium / discount on Foreign Currency Convertible Notes (FCCN) / Convertible Alternative Reference Securities (CARS) / Non Convertible Debentures (NCD)

Premium payable on redemption of FCCN / CARS / NCD as per the terms of issue, is provided fully in the year of issue by adjusting against the Securities Premium Account (SPA). Any change in the premium payable, consequent to conversion or exchange fuctuations is adjusted to the SPA. Discount on redemption of FCCN, if any, will be recognised on redemption.

(p) Business Segments

The Company is engaged mainly in the business of automobile products consisting of all types of commercial and passenger vehicles including fnancing of the vehicles sold by the Company. These, in the context of Accounting Standard 17 on Segment Reporting, as specifed in the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, are considered to constitute one single primary segment. Further, there is no reportable secondary segment i.e. Geographical Segment.

 
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